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    Dr. Kay Tye: The Biology of Social Interactions and Emotions

    Social media interactions lack the depth and connection of in-person interactions, and can lead to feelings of exclusion. It is important to prioritize meaningful in-person connections to satisfy our social needs.

    enFebruary 05, 2024

    About this Episode

    In this episode, my guest is Dr. Kay Tye, PhD, Professor of Systems Neurobiology at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) Investigator. We discuss the neural circuit basis of social interactions and loneliness. We also discuss how animals and people establish themselves in a group hierarchy by rank and how the brain responds to dominance and subordination. Much of our discussion relates to how social media impacts our sense of social connectedness or lack thereof. The topics covered in this episode are directly relevant to anyone interested in the neuroscience of mental health, work-life balance, abundance versus scarcity mindset, and interpersonal dynamics. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/huberman Levels: https://levels.link/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Kay Tye (00:02:39) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, Levels & LMNT (00:06:40) Amygdala; “Valence” (00:12:43) Novelty; Reward & Punishment Response (00:20:06) Amygdala & Hunger; Social Interaction (00:26:21) Social Media & Social Connection; Tool: Email & Time Management (00:35:03) Sponsor: AG1 (00:36:30) Social Media; Friction & Feedback, Leadership (00:43:44) Social Isolation, Harlow Experiments, “Loneliness Neurons” (00:51:47) Social Homeostasis, COVID-19 Pandemic & Loneliness (01:01:29) Quality of Social Contact, Social Homeostasis, Social Media (01:08:40) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:09:42) Social Media, Relationships; Social Isolation & Exclusion (01:18:26) Empathy: Friend vs. Foe (01:28:40) Background & Empathy, Diversity, Emotional Regulation (01:34:34) Abundance vs. Scarcity Mindset (01:37:22) Social Rank & Hierarchy, Sibling Order, Development (01:45:54) Dynamic Hierarchy; Dominants vs. Subordinates; Mentors (01:55:32) Psychedelics: Research & Mechanisms; Psilocybin (02:06:28) Work-Life Balance, Fitness & Extracurriculars (02:11:56) Personal Life, Diversity, Happiness; Typical Day (02:15:42) Science & Academia; Future Directions (02:23:48) Research & Science Outreach (02:28:48) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    🔑 Key Takeaways

    • The Amygdala plays a crucial role in reinforcing positive behaviors and experiences, emphasizing the importance of exploring all aspects of a topic for a comprehensive understanding. Dr. Tai's research contributes to our understanding of the Amygdala's involvement in emotional processing and social interactions, ultimately enhancing our knowledge of mental health and building healthy social connections.
    • The amygdala is responsible for determining the importance of stimuli and selecting appropriate responses, prioritizing survival by assessing safety and assigning valence to potential threats.
    • The amygdala is not just associated with fear; it also predicts both positive and negative outcomes, influencing our bodily state and expanding our understanding of its role.
    • The amygdala plays a crucial role in determining the importance of stimuli, influencing physiological responses, prioritizing food reward over fear, and interpreting social interactions.
    • Managing social media intake through time limits and filter settings can help maintain productivity and focus in a crowded and fast-paced online environment.
    • Being selective in engaging with stimuli, such as emails and social media, allows for a focused mind, optimal productivity, and the cultivation of creative ideas.
    • Feedback, even when delivered unpleasantly, can still be valuable for growth. Negative feedback provides an opportunity to improve and learn from others' perspectives and experiences.
    • Social isolation and loneliness can have detrimental effects on our health, leading to shortened lifespan, increased mood disorders, and higher risks of diseases like cancer and heart disease. Further research is needed in this area.
    • Understanding the existence of loneliness neurons has emphasized the importance of maintaining a balance between alone time and socializing, ultimately impacting our well-being and mental health.
    • Social isolation can lead to territorial and antisocial behavior, while acute social isolation can cause a rebound of pro-social interaction. Understanding these effects can help develop interventions to address loneliness and adapt to social change.
    • Maintaining a balance between social interaction and alone time is crucial for overall social well-being, as the quality of social contact can impact our levels of loneliness and isolation.
    • Social media interactions lack the depth and connection of in-person interactions, and can lead to feelings of exclusion. It is important to prioritize meaningful in-person connections to satisfy our social needs.
    • Recognize the balance of positive and negative social contact on social media, as too little or too much can have negative consequences. Quality of interactions and the investment in them also play a significant role.
    • Understanding social isolation and empathy in animals and humans is important for comprehending social interactions and emotions. Quantifying social behaviors and establishing guidelines can aid in this research.
    • Viewing others as competitors can lead to a decrease in empathy, while being integrated into society and understanding the consequences of actions promotes empathy. Understanding these factors is crucial in studying human behavior and empathy.
    • Prioritizing diversity and empathy in decision-making is crucial for creating a benevolent and egalitarian society.
    • Developing an abundance mindset through empathy, gratitude, and collaboration is more important than material possessions for a fulfilling life.
    • Social rank in the brain is not always linear, but studying the establishment of hierarchies in animals reveals that it can be influenced by individual identity and genetic factors during development. Further research is necessary to fully comprehend its encoding in the brain.
    • Birth order and sibling dynamics shape behavior and leadership potential, with oldest or only children showing more leadership traits and youngest siblings challenging cultural norms and taking risks. Dynamic hierarchies based on competence may be healthier than static hierarchies.
    • The brain's firing patterns before a competition can predict the winner, showing that an animal's state plays a role. Dominants focus on themselves, while subordinates make calculated decisions based on cues. This alpha mentality applies beyond research, emphasizing the importance of independent thinking and decision-making for success.
    • Understanding social hierarchies and exploring altered states of consciousness through research provide valuable knowledge to navigate power dynamics and gain new perspectives.
    • By studying animal behavior and the influence of psychedelics on the brain, researchers hope to gain insights into mental health treatments and personalized therapy options.
    • Fully experiencing and processing uncomfortable emotions through psychedelics can be therapeutic, while maintaining work-life balance is crucial for a fulfilling and successful life.
    • By observing successful individuals who balance their personal and professional lives, one can gain valuable insights on flexibility, creativity, and engagement, leading to overall happiness and productivity.
    • Creating a more inclusive and supportive academic culture is crucial to ensure a thriving future for research science. This involves better compensation and treatment for trainees and addressing issues like misogyny and sexual misconduct.
    • Embracing flexibility, removing barriers, and involving more individuals in research can lead to greater innovation and advancements in academia, particularly in understanding complex topics like neuroscience.
    • Science has the ability to inspire and benefit many people, as seen through the enthusiasm and success of scientists like Dr. Kay Tye. It also emphasizes the importance of acknowledging and appreciating scientists, while highlighting the accessibility of scientific knowledge for personal growth.

    📝 Podcast Summary

    Unveiling the Complexity of the Amygdala: More than Just Fear

    The Amygdala, often associated with fear, is actually involved in reinforcing positive behaviors and experiences. Dr. Kay Tai's research has contributed to our understanding of the complexity of the Amygdala and its role in emotional processing. While fear studies have dominated the discussion around the Amygdala, there is much more to explore. This highlights the importance of filling in the gaps and considering all aspects of a topic to ensure a comprehensive understanding. Dr. Tai's work also delves into social interactions, including the discovery of loneliness neurons and the concept of social homeostasis. This conversation sheds light on the neurological, circuitry, and hormonal aspects of social interactions, contributing to our understanding of mental health and building healthy social connections.

    The Amygdala's Role in Assigning Meaning and Evaluating Threats

    The amygdala plays a crucial role in assigning meaning to stimuli that could have motivational significance. It prioritizes survival by focusing on immediate threats, such as escaping a predator. This natural asymmetry in processing emotions at baseline is important for prey animals. The amygdala represents a fork in the road for processing emotional valence, determining whether something is good or bad. Valence refers to the goodness or badness of a stimulus. The amygdala helps in filtering out what's important and what needs to be ignored. It also helps in selecting the appropriate response to a stimulus. The amygdala's role in assessing safety and assigning valence operates both consciously and unconsciously, constantly evaluating new environments and potentially threatening situations.

    The amygdala: Beyond Fear - Predicting Both Reward and Punishment

    The amygdala, a part of the brain often associated with fear, is also involved in predicting both reward and punishment. This means that it responds to cues that suggest positive outcomes as well as negative ones. The amygdala is not solely focused on fear, but rather on anything that is important and significant. It sends different signals to different downstream targets depending on whether the stimulus predicts reward or punishment. Additionally, the amygdala may have a direct connection to organs in the body, such as the heart and muscles, which can influence our bodily state during experiences of fear or reward. This research challenges previous assumptions and expands our understanding of the amygdala's role in processing and responding to various stimuli.

    The amygdala's role in assigning importance to stimuli and its impact on panic, fear, hunger signals, and social interactions.

    The amygdala, a complex of sub nuclei in the temporal lobe, plays a crucial role in assigning importance to stimuli but not in producing the physiological response associated with panic or fear. This conclusion is supported by a case study of a patient with bilateral amygdala damage who exhibited no responses to emotional faces or fearful stimuli but still experienced panic and arousal due to suffocation. Additionally, the amygdala receives information from the body, such as hunger signals through ghrelin receptors. It has been observed that when individuals are hungry, the amygdala detects this and shifts the balance between positive and negative valence encoding projection neurons in favor of seeking food as a survival necessity. This ability of the brain to prioritize food reward over fear is truly remarkable and happens within a day. The research also highlights the amygdala's role in detecting and interpreting subtle social interactions, which greatly influence our emotional evaluation and wellbeing. Understanding how the brain assembles and interprets social information remains a fascinating area of study.

    The Impact of Social Media on Interactions and Feedback

    Social media has transformed the way we interact and receive feedback. Unlike in-person interactions, where we can choose our social circles and environments, social media has placed us in a crowded arena of constant incoming input. The amygdala, which plays a role in processing emotions, seeks positive feedback and avoids negative feedback. However, there is a cohort of individuals who thrive on high friction interactions, enjoying arguments and debates. Social media, though asynchronous, can provide engaging dialogue in near-real time. However, it lacks the interbrain synchrony present in physical interactions, which heavily contributes to meaningful social contact. Personal strategies for managing social media intake, such as limiting time spent and filtering inputs, can help maintain focus and productivity.

    Prioritize meaningful work and limit distractions to enhance mental clarity and creativity.

    Controlling the influx of stimuli and limiting distractions is crucial for mental clarity and creativity. Kay Tye emphasizes the importance of setting limits on the input we allow into our brains, particularly through emails and social media. By being selective about what we engage with, we can create space for our prefrontal cortex to function and for creative ideas to flourish. Tye's approach of spending only one hour a week on emails and delegating the task to her assistant has allowed her to focus on her core responsibilities and maintain mental wellbeing. This approach can be applied by anyone looking to optimize their productivity and promote clear-mindedness. By reducing unnecessary inputs and prioritizing meaningful work, we can nurture our mental health and unleash our creative potential.

    The Value of Feedback: Embracing both Positive and Negative Criticism

    Feedback, even if it's given in a not very nice way, can still be valuable and provide an opportunity for growth. Both Kay Tye and Andrew Huberman emphasize the importance of receiving feedback, whether it's through social media comments or anonymous surveys. They acknowledge that while positive feedback is great, it's the negative feedback that helps them improve and become better at what they do. They appreciate the honesty and authenticity behind these criticisms, as it gives them a sense of reality and ground truth. Despite the potential sting that comes with negative feedback, they value it because it allows them to learn from the perspectives and experiences of others.

    The Impact of Social Interaction on Well-being: A Call for Further Research

    Social interaction plays a crucial role in our overall well-being. Research has shown that social isolation and perceived loneliness can have detrimental effects on our health, leading to shortened lifespan, increased mood disorders, and even higher risks of diseases like cancer and heart disease. The importance of social support and connection cannot be overlooked. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms behind these effects is still limited. The field of neuroscience has been slow to study social isolation, largely due to the unethical experiments conducted by Harry Harlow on baby monkeys. Nevertheless, recent accidental discoveries in the lab have shed light on the impact of social isolation, emphasizing the need for further research in this area.

    Loneliness Neurons: Insights into the Need for Social Contact

    Studying social isolation has led to the discovery of loneliness neurons in the brain. These neurons have provided insight into the unpleasant need state of wanting social contact and its pro-social effects. The discovery has made researchers more aware of their own social interactions and the importance of balancing time spent alone versus with others. While it may not have dictated strict protocols, it has influenced personal choices in terms of socializing with colleagues outside of work or spending time alone after a period of intense social interaction. This information has highlighted the significance of social contact and how it impacts overall well-being and mental health.

    The Impact of Social Isolation and Loneliness on Behavior and Well-being

    Social isolation and loneliness have significant effects on our behavior and well-being. Kay Tye's research on loneliness before and during the pandemic highlights how sudden changes in social contact can impact our mental health. She found that acute social isolation leads to a rebound of pro-social interaction when reintroduced to the social group, while chronic social isolation results in territorial and antisocial behaviors. This concept of social homeostasis suggests that our social set point is flexible and dynamic, and adapting to different levels of social interaction can be challenging. Understanding the factors that lead to harmful consequences like mood disorders can help us develop appropriate interventions, whether it's addressing the initial detection of loneliness or managing the adaptation to a new social baseline.

    Finding the Balance: Social Interaction and Solitude in Well-being

    Social homeostasis, the balance between social interaction and solitude, is crucial for our well-being. It is not just about the quantity of social contact, but also the quality of it. Just like how our calorie intake affects our energy levels, the type of social interaction we have can either nourish us or leave us feeling isolated. Acute or chronic isolation can shift our social setpoint, impacting our overall social well-being. It is important to consciously create dynamic social experiences, while also protecting alone time. This balance allows our social homeostatic system to feel elastic, flexible, and resilient, reducing the likelihood of feeling lonely. Nurturing our relationship with ourselves is equally important, as it influences our brain states and the unique ensemble of people being present or alone.

    The difference between social media interactions and real-life interactions

    The quality and nature of social media interactions are significantly different from real-life interactions. Real-life interactions involve inter brain synchrony, where people are physically present and can connect on a deeper level. Social media interactions, on the other hand, lack this synchrony and often lead to feelings of exclusion and withdrawal. While social media can be a convenient way to catch up with others, it does not provide the same level of social connection and nourishment as in-person interactions. Moreover, the constant exposure to social media can trigger our brain's reward circuits, leading to a continuous desire for more social validation and interaction. It is important to be mindful of the impact of social media on our social well-being and prioritize meaningful, in-person connections to satisfy our social needs.

    Understanding Social Media's Impact on Social Homeostasis

    Social Media can create a hunger for more rather than providing satiation. It's important to recognize that the educational material on Social Media is only a fraction of what exists, and the term "Social Homeostasis" should be stamped into our minds. Social Homeostasis refers to the balance of positive and negative social contact, both in terms of quantity and quality. The right amount of contact is crucial, as too little or too much can lead to negative consequences. Quality of social contact also matters, as the same gesture or interaction can have different impacts depending on the context and relationship. Additionally, the investment and anonymity of interactions on Social Media can affect their significance and interpretation. Ultimately, Social Media is designed to make us want to use it rather than making us feel better, exposing us to things we didn't know we were missing. It's vital to understand the effects of social isolation and the importance of both time and effort in correcting social deficits.

    Quantifying Social Behaviors and Understanding Empathy in Animals and Humans

    Studying social isolation and loneliness in animals is a challenging field with no set guidelines or trial structure. Neuroscientists are trained to be statistically rigorous, but it becomes difficult when animals are free-floating and showing various behaviors. However, it is important to establish pipelines and techniques to quantify social behaviors and understand the effects of social isolation. Furthermore, there seems to be an asymmetry in empathic responses, with more empathy towards negative emotions than positive ones. This may be due to the alignment of goals or agendas with the social agent. It is crucial to further explore and understand empathy in both humans and animals to enhance our understanding of social interactions and emotions.

    The Impact of Competition on Empathy

    Viewing someone as a competitor or adversary can decrease empathy towards them. When individuals perceive others as standing in the way of their goals, empathy tends to decrease. This can happen in situations like reality competition shows or being isolated for a long period of time. On the other hand, when individuals are integrated into a society and recognize the consequences of their actions, empathy is more likely to be present. This connection to society and understanding of altruism and recognition of actions in a social environment is similar to the extracellular matrix in the brain, facilitating connections and patterns. It is important to study and quantify these factors in order to better understand human behavior and empathy.

    Understanding our primitive circuits and their influence on behavior and decision-making.

    In short, one big takeaway from this conversation is the importance of understanding the primitive circuits in our brains that govern resource allocation and protection. We see this play out even in our pets, like Andrew's bulldog Costello, who fiercely guarded his toys. It appears that our brains simplify our responses into positive (yum), negative (yuck), and neutral (meh) categories. However, our behaviors and decision-making are deeply influenced by our feelings of safety and relatedness. Our individual experiential statistics shape our perspectives and biases, affecting our social structures and hierarchies. To foster a more egalitarian society, it is crucial to prioritize diversity and different experiences in decision-making bodies. Empathy and understanding others' mindsets are essential for creating a benevolent environment for all.

    Prioritizing holistic health and emotional regulation in education.

    Education should prioritize holistic health and emotional regulation. While academic subjects like math are important, they can be learned when needed. What truly matters in life are the skills needed to regulate our own emotions and engage with others in healthy and sustainable ways. This includes fostering an abundance mindset, seeing the world as a place of opportunities rather than scarcity. While some individuals may experience true scarcity, for many of us, basic survival needs are met. Yet, comparison and social rank still influence our mindset and sense of fulfillment. Having material possessions does not automatically lead to an abundance mindset. It is crucial to focus on developing a mindset informed by empathy, gratitude, and collaboration.

    Unraveling the Complexity of Social Rank in the Brain

    Studying social rank in the brain is challenging because it's not always organized in a linear hierarchy. Different types of hierarchies can be flatter or more amorphous, making it difficult to determine who holds the alpha position. Additionally, controlling for individual identity versus actual rank is another challenge researchers face. However, recent experiments have shown that when animals are rehoused and placed in new hierarchies, it takes different amounts of time for alphas, intermediates, and subordinates to establish their positions. Interestingly, even genetically inbred animals exhibit variations in social rank dynamics, suggesting that rank during certain developmental periods can shape long-lasting development. Further research is needed to uncover key features and better understand how social rank is encoded in the brain.

    The Influence of Birth Order and Sibling Dynamics on Leadership Potential and Risk-taking Behavior

    Birth order and sibling dynamics can have an impact on leadership potential and risk-taking behavior. Oldest or only children tend to exhibit more leadership traits, while youngest siblings often challenge cultural norms and take more risks. These observations suggest that plasticity plays a role in shaping behavior and that the role assumed during childhood becomes the most familiar state. Additionally, dynamic hierarchies based on competence, where different individuals become leaders in different tasks, may be healthier than static hierarchies based on a single skill. Understanding these dynamics can inform our understanding of social rank and leadership in various contexts.

    Brain firing patterns predict competition outcomes and reveal the influence of animal state. Dominance impacts decision-making strategies, with subordinates being more attentive and dominants focusing on themselves.

    The pattern of firing in the brain prior to a competition can be used to predict the winner. This suggests that there is something about the state of the animal that influences the outcome, rather than just the previous trial's winner. Looking at the decoding accuracy for Dominants versus Subordinates in predicting the next trial for dominance, it remains relatively consistent. However, Subordinates seem to be more attentive to the dominant's behavior, making calculated decisions on when to compete based on cues like their attention or engagement. On the other hand, Dominants focus on their own actions and desires, paying little attention to subordination. This concept of an alpha mentality applies not only in research but in various fields as well, where becoming an independent thinker and decision-maker is crucial for success. Such mentorship models that encourage trainees to take ownership early on can prove beneficial for future advancements.

    Animal behavior and the study of psychedelics unveil insights into human behavior and the complexities of consciousness.

    The study of animal behavior, such as chimpanzee hierarchies, can provide valuable insights into human behavior. Understanding the dynamics of social rank and hierarchy is crucial in various environments, whether it's a research laboratory, kindergarten, or even a television show like Mad Men. This knowledge can help us identify and navigate the power dynamics and behaviors that exist within our own society. Additionally, the examination of psychedelics and their potential therapeutic effects offers a unique opportunity to explore the intricacies of our brain states and consciousness. By delving into the cellular mechanisms of hallucinations and other psychedelic experiences, we can gain a deeper understanding of how our brain interprets reality and opens doors to new perspectives and personal growth.

    Understanding animal behavior and the effects of psychedelics on the brain using computer vision and hidden Markov models.

    Kay Tye and her team are using computer vision and hidden Markov models to predict animal behavior based on prefrontal cortical activity. They have found that there are hidden states, or moods, that affect the probability of certain behaviors. They are also studying the representation of self vs. others in the brain and how it changes under the influence of psychedelics. By recording from animals given Psilocybin, they hope to understand how drugs like psychedelics affect brain states and decision-making in conflict situations. Their research could provide insights into the mechanisms underlying psychedelic therapies and help identify biomarkers for personalized treatment. This work addresses high-level questions and could contribute to the understanding of mental health treatments and the role of psychedelics.

    Embracing psychedelics for emotional healing and the importance of work-life balance

    The use of psychedelics can lead to intense emotional states, which can be therapeutically beneficial when supported adequately. Many individuals try to avoid uncomfortable emotions in their daily lives, but psychedelics offer the opportunity to fully experience and process these emotions. Additionally, this conversation highlights the importance of work-life balance and pursuing diverse interests. The guest, Kay Tye, shares her journey from being a rebel in high school to a yoga instructor, break dancer, and now a professor. She emphasizes the value of having a fulfilling and balanced life, where one doesn't have to sacrifice personal life or relationships for professional success. Prioritizing and managing time effectively are key in achieving this balance.

    The Benefits of Diversifying Your Life and Pursuing Hobbies in Scientific Pursuits

    Diversifying one's life and pursuing hobbies and non-work activities can make people better scientists. Kay Tye emphasizes the importance of having role models who bring their whole selves to their jobs in academic science. By observing how successful people balance their lives and approach various activities, individuals can gain valuable insights and inspiration. Tye believes that having a wide range of interests and experiences makes individuals more flexible, creative, and engaged. It also helps protect against setbacks in one area, as fulfillment does not solely rely on work accomplishments. Taking agency over lifestyle design is crucial for overall happiness and productivity. Tye's own example, including her passion for surfing and prioritizing family time, demonstrates the positive effects of diversification.

    Transforming Academic Culture: Addressing Challenges for a Bright Future

    The academic culture in science is evolving, and it's time to address the challenges and make positive changes. While there are many beautiful aspects of academia, such as the joy of studying and discussing interesting ideas, there are also serious issues that need to be addressed. The drop in postdocs and the exodus to industry reflect a changing environment that needs attention. It's important to challenge the traditional stereotypes of success in science and create a more inclusive and supportive culture. This includes providing better compensation and treatment for trainees, as well as addressing issues like misogyny and sexual misconduct. By making academia a healthier place, we can ensure the future of research science is bright and thriving.

    Rethinking Hierarchy in Academia: Creating Sustainable Ecosystems for Leadership and Management

    The hierarchical power structure present in academia may not be necessary and can lead to devastating consequences. While a strict hierarchy may be justified in the military, academia is a space for studying and exploring subjects we find interesting. It is time to question whether such a rigid hierarchy is essential and consider ways to develop sustainable ecosystems within leadership and management. Maintaining stability is important, but being flexible and dynamic is what gives systems resilience to survive. The cracks in the academic system are becoming evident, and it's crucial to determine if we can adapt and thrive or risk crumbling. Expanding opportunities for people to engage in research can lead to more fundamental discoveries, as passion and love for the craft drive innovation. By removing barriers and making science accessible to all, we unlock the potential for greater contributions and advancements. Crowdsourcing projects in neuroscience, like the connectome project, provide opportunities for individuals to contribute to understanding the brain's structure. While AI and machine learning have their place, involving humans in these tasks offers unique benefits.

    The Power of Science: Inspiring Individuals and Making a Significant Impact

    Science has the power to inspire and benefit countless individuals. The infectious enthusiasm for science exhibited by Andrew Huberman and his guest, Dr. Kay Tye, serves as a testament to this. Dr. Tye's journey and success in her laboratory work exemplify how science can make a significant impact. Their heartfelt exchange of gratitude highlights the importance of acknowledging and appreciating the efforts and contributions of scientists. Moreover, the podcast emphasizes the accessibility of scientific knowledge through various mediums like social media platforms, podcasts, and newsletters. This not only fosters a greater understanding and appreciation for science but also offers practical tools and strategies for personal growth and improvement. Ultimately, the takeaway underscores the transformative power of science and the value of curiosity and lifelong learning.

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    Dr. David Yeager: How to Master Growth Mindset to Improve Performance

    Dr. David Yeager: How to Master Growth Mindset to Improve Performance
    In this episode, my guest is Dr. David Yeager, Ph.D., professor of psychology at the University of Texas, Austin, and the author of the forthcoming book "10 to 25." We discuss how people of any age can use growth mindset and stress-is-enhancing mindsets to improve motivation and performance. We explain the best mindset for mentors and being mentored and how great leaders motivate others with high standards and support. We also discuss why a sense of purpose is essential to goal pursuit and achievement. Whether you are a parent, teacher, boss, coach, student or someone wanting to improve a skill or overcome a particular challenge, this episode provides an essential framework for adopting performance-enhancing mindsets leading to success. For show notes, including referenced articles, additional resources and people mentioned, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. David Yeager (00:01:49) Sponsors: AeroPress & ROKA (00:04:20) Growth Mindset; Performance, Self-Esteem (00:10:31) “Wise” Intervention, Teaching Growth Mindset (00:15:12) Stories & Writing Exercises (00:19:42) Effort Beliefs, Physiologic Stress Response (00:24:44) Stress-Is-Enhancing vs Stress-Is-Debilitating Mindsets (00:29:28) Sponsor: AG1 (00:30:58) Language & Importance, Stressor vs. Stress Response (00:37:54) Physiologic Cues, Threat vs Challenge Response (00:44:35) Mentor Mindset & Leadership; Protector vs Enforcer Mindset (00:53:58) Sponsor: Waking Up (00:55:14) Strivings, Social Hierarchy & Adolescence, Testosterone (01:06:28) Growth Mindset & Transferability, Defensiveness (01:11:36) Challenge, Environment & Growth Mindset (01:19:08) Goal Pursuit, Brain Development & Adaptation (01:24:54) Emotions; Loss vs. Gain & Motivation (01:32:28) Skill Building & Challenge, Purpose Motivation (01:39:59) Contribution Value, Scientific Work & Scrutiny (01:50:01) Self-Interest, Contribution Mindset (01:58:05) Criticism, Negative Workplaces vs. Growth Culture (02:06:51) Critique & Support; Motivation; Standardized Tests (02:16:40) Mindset Research (02:23:53) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
    Huberman Lab
    enApril 15, 2024

    Guest Series | Dr. Matthew Walker: Protocols to Improve Your Sleep

    Guest Series | Dr. Matthew Walker: Protocols to Improve Your Sleep
    This is episode 2 of a 6-part special series on sleep with Dr. Matthew Walker, Ph.D., a professor of neuroscience and psychology and founder of the Center for Human Sleep Science at the University of California, Berkeley. We discuss basic and advanced tools for improving sleep and explain how sleep quality is affected by temperature, light and dark, caffeine, alcohol, cannabis, nutrition, meal timing, and different medications.  Dr. Walker also provides strategies for coping with a poor night of sleep, wind-down routines, technology in the bedroom, insomnia, visualizations, and building sleep “confidence.”  We also discuss the current status of sleep research for developing advanced techniques to optimize sleep.  This episode provides numerous zero-cost behavioral protocols for improving sleep quality and restorative power, which can benefit daytime mood, energy, performance, and overall health.  The next episode in this special series explores napping, caffeine, and additional protocols to improve sleep. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman WHOOP: https://join.whoop.com/huberman Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Improving Sleep (00:01:16) Sponsors: Helix Sleep, WHOOP & Waking Up (00:05:30) Basics of Sleep Hygiene, Regularity, Dark & Light (00:12:05) Light, Day & Night; Cortisol, Insomnia (00:18:45) Temperature; “Walk It Out”; Alcohol & Caffeine (00:26:05) Sleep Association, Bed vs. Sofa (00:29:43) Tool: Falling Asleep; Meditation, Breathing (00:35:23) Sponsor: AG1 (00:36:37) Alcohol & Sleep Disruption (00:40:01) Food & Sleep, Carbs, Melatonin (00:49:25) Caffeine; Afternoon Coffee, Nighttime Waking (00:55:52) Caffeine Metabolism & Sleep, Individual Variation (01:01:19) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:02:04) Cannabis: THC vs. CBD, REM Sleep, Withdrawal (01:12:03) Sleep Hygiene Basics (01:16:08) Tool: Poor Sleep Compensation, “Do Nothing” (01:20:23) Tool: Sleep Deprivation & Exercise (01:24:11) Insomnia Intervention & Bedtime Rescheduling, Sleep Confidence (01:32:58) Wind-Down Routine; Mental Walk; Clocks & Phones (01:41:29) Advanced Sleep Optimization, Electric Manipulation (01:50:07) Temperature Manipulation, Elderly, Insomnia (01:58:57) Tool: Warm Bath Effect & Sleep, Sauna (02:04:36) Acoustic Stimulation, White Noise, Pink Noise (02:13:30) Rocking & Sleep, Body Position (02:24:17) Enhance REM Sleep & Temperature; Sleep Medications (02:28:35) Pharmacology, DORAs & REM Sleep; Narcolepsy & Insomnia (02:34:12) Acetylcholine, Serotonin, Peptides; Balance (02:40:45) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
    Huberman Lab
    enApril 10, 2024

    Coleman Ruiz: Overcoming Physical & Emotional Challenges

    Coleman Ruiz: Overcoming Physical & Emotional Challenges
    In this episode, my guest is Coleman Ruiz, a former Tier One U.S. Navy SEAL joint task force commander. He served in Afghanistan and Iraq and as a BUD/S training officer. He shares his journey from childhood through the Naval Academy to elite Navy SEAL special operations. He shares the physical and emotional challenges he has overcome and discusses his struggle with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). He also talks about the key role of mentors, family and friends in building resilience. Coleman gives us a raw, humble account of hitting rock bottom. He tells of the intense pain, fear, depression and suicidality in his journey of redemption. Coleman’s story is a real-life hero’s journey. He tells it with extraordinary vulnerability and humility. He explains the challenges and sudden tragedies that helped to ground, shape and renew him. His story will inspire listeners of all ages and backgrounds. Note: This conversation includes profanity and topics that are not suitable for all audiences and ages. For show notes, including additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman Maui Nui Venison: https://mauinuivension.com/huberman  Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman  Plunge: https://plunge.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Coleman Ruiz (00:01:55) Sponsors: BetterHelp, Maui Nui Venison & Eight Sleep (00:06:06) Childhood, “Wildness” (00:13:24) Wrestling, Combat Sports & Respect (00:22:26) Divorce, College Applications & Naval Academy (00:29:51) Sponsor: AG1 (00:31:22) Prep School, Patriotism, Fear (00:40:08) Growth Mindset, 24-Hour Horizon (00:43:02) Naval Academy, Mentor, Focus (00:52:45) Wife, Work Ethic (00:59:23) Sponsor: Plunge (01:00:51) Navy SEALs, BUD/S, Hell Week (01:04:51) BUD/S Success Predictors; Divorce & Aloneness; Rebellion (01:16:30) Patriotism, Navy SEALs, Green Team (01:22:15) Advanced Training, Tier One, Free-Fall (01:26:13) Special Operations, Deaths & Grief (01:36:08) Mentor Death & Facing Mortality (01:47:49) Warriors & Compassion; Trauma, Family (01:52:37) Civilian Life Adjustment (01:57:39) Hero With a Thousand Faces, Civilian Return & PTSD (02:07:03) Massage, Perspective, Space-Time Bridging (02:14:10) Psychedelics, Connection, Warrior Culture (02:19:15) Rock Bottom: Talk Therapy, Depression, Alcohol (02:25:50) Emotional & Physical Pain, Vulnerability, Fighter Mentality (02:30:42) Suicide, Asking For Help & Support (02:38:32) Therapy, PTSD Recovery, Dread; Pharmacology (02:44:54) Healing Process: Unsatisfaction & Asking For Help (02:54:03) Daily Routine, Movement, Nutrition (03:02:22) Manhood, Range, Parenthood, Surrender (03:10:08) Current Pursuits (03:16:01) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
    Huberman Lab
    enApril 08, 2024

    Guest Series | Dr. Matthew Walker: The Biology of Sleep & Your Unique Sleep Needs

    Guest Series | Dr. Matthew Walker: The Biology of Sleep & Your Unique Sleep Needs
    In this episode 1 of a 6-part special series on sleep with Dr. Matthew Walker, Ph.D., professor of neuroscience and psychology and founder of the Center for Human Sleep Science at the University of California, Berkeley, and the author of the book “Why We Sleep” discusses the essential role that sleep plays in our health. We cover how sleep affects our hormones, immune system, learning and memory, mood, appetite, and weight regulation. We also discuss what causes the urge to sleep, how sleep is structured throughout the night, and the biology of the different phases of sleep. We also teach you how to determine your individualized sleep needs, including your chronotype (best waking and to-bed time), tips for combat snoring and insomnia, and your QQRT (Quality, Quantity, Regularity, and Timing)—a key framework for optimizing your sleep and therefore daytime energy and focus, and overall health. The next episode in this special series explores how to improve one’s sleep. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman  BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman  LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman  InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Importance of Sleep (00:02:24) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, BetterHelp & LMNT (00:06:00) Sleep; Non-REM & REM Sleep (00:11:40) Sleep Cycles, Individuality, Women vs. Men (00:14:49) Tool: Wakefulness in Bed, Insomnia (00:19:08) Non-REM Stages of Sleep (00:27:05) Role of Deep Sleep (00:34:02) Sponsor: AG1 (00:35:15) Light Sleep Stages, Hypnogogic Jerks (00:42:00) REM Sleep, Paralysis & Bizarre Dreams; “Falling” Asleep (00:49:09) Tools: Body Position & Sleep; Snoring & Sleep Apnea (00:57:43) Yawning & Theories, Contagion (01:04:03) Nodding Off, Afternoon & Postprandial Dip (01:08:46) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:09:51) Sleep, Animals & Evolution (01:14:09) Poor Sleep & Health Consequences, Sleep Deprivation (01:27:13) Positive Effects of Good Sleep, Health Improvements (01:31:56) Sleep & Mood; Appetite & Weight Management (01:42:55) Sleep Deprivation & Looking Tired, “Beauty Sleep” (01:47:57) Tool: Getting Good Sleep, QQRT Macros, Quantity & Quality (01:56:45) Tool: Sleep Regularity, Mortality Risk (02:03:15) Tool: Sleep Timing, Chronotypes (02:14:21) Chronotypes & Insomnia, Circadian Rhythm, Shift Work (02:20:31) Tool: Sleep Tests, Alarm Clock, Micro-Sleeps (02:27:27) Sleep Inertia & Waking; Afternoon Dip, Optimum Performance (02:34:19) Causes of Sleep: Circadian Rhythm, Sleep Pressure (02:43:02) Adenosine & Sleepiness (02:46:13) Tool: Growth Hormone & Deep Sleep (02:50:47) Cortisol & Circadian Rhythm, “Tired But Wired” (02:57:24) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
    Huberman Lab
    enApril 03, 2024

    Benefits & Risks of Peptide Therapeutics for Physical & Mental Health

    Benefits & Risks of Peptide Therapeutics for Physical & Mental Health
    In this episode, I explain the major categories and types of peptides currently in use for therapeutic purposes. I discuss peptides for improving tissue rejuvenation and repair, promoting longevity, improving muscle growth and fat loss, and boosting mood, vitality, and libido. I explain the biology of how these peptides work and both their potential benefits and risks. I also discuss peptide sourcing, dosages, cycling, routes of administration, and how peptides work in combination.  This episode will help you better understand the rapidly expanding landscape of peptide therapeutics and how to evaluate if specific peptides might be advantageous towards achieving your physical or mental health goals. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Use Ask Huberman Lab, our new AI-powered platform, for a summary, clips, and insights from this episode. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Mateína: https://drinkmateina.com/huberman Levels: https://levels.link/huberman Joovv: https://joovv.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Peptides (00:03:20) Sponsors: Mateina, Levels & Joovv (00:07:44) What is a Peptide? (00:12:06) Peptide Sourcing, Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (00:14:48) Rejuvenation & Tissue Repair: BPC-157, Angiogenesis (00:21:50) BPC-157 & Tissue Injury; Mode of Delivery (00:27:53) BPC-157: Safety, Doses, Cycling, Tumor Risk (00:35:16) Sponsor: AG1 (00:36:43) Tissue Repair: Thymosin Beta-4, TB-500 (00:40:49) Growth & Metabolism: Growth Hormone, IGF-1, Risks (00:45:25) Secretagogues, Sermorelin, Tesamorelin, CJC-1295 (00:52:21) Sponsor: LMNT (00:53:44) Ipamorelin, Hexarelin, GHRP-3, MK-677; Risks & Timing (00:58:69) Peptides for Growth Hormone & IGF-1, Risk; Combinations & Dosing (01:06:12) Longevity: Thymosin Beta-4, Epitalon (Epithalon) (01:12:09) Vitality: Melanotan, PT-141 (Vyleesi), Risks (01:17:21) Vitality: Kisspeptin (01:21:46) Peptides, Potential Benefits, Side-Effects & Risks (01:24:19) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
    Huberman Lab
    enApril 01, 2024

    Asi Wind: What Magic & Mind Reading Reveal About the Brain

    Asi Wind: What Magic & Mind Reading Reveal About the Brain
    In this episode, my guest is Asi Wind. He's one of the world’s top magicians and mentalists.  We discuss what magic and mentalism reveal about the human mind, including how memories are made, how to erase them, and how and why we perceive things the way we do, all in the context of how he performs his astonishing tricks.  Asi explains that magic works because it involves storytelling, which is key to how we organize memories. He also explains how emotional connection allows people to co-create and believe a common narrative, even one that did not actually occur.  We also discuss how Asi's love of painting and photography and his specific daily routine allow him to access creativity. We also discuss fear, perfectionism, and how feeling emotions deeply serves his craft.  Whether you are interested in magic or not, this conversation with Asi will give you an incredible window into how you perceive, learn, and remember the world around you and how what you believe may or may not be based in reality.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Use Ask Huberman Lab, our new AI-powered platform, for a summary, clips, and insights from this episode. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman  BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman  AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman  InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Asi Wind (00:02:48) Sponsors: LMNT, BetterHelp & AeroPress (00:07:07) “Jazzy Magic”, Tricks & Improvisation, Memory (00:14:57) Magic & Imagination (00:24:06) Memory “Experiments” (00:29:18) Sponsor: AG1 (00:30:46) Reality Augmentation, Free Will (00:35:31) Audience Interactions & Connection, Empathy, Tool: Breathing (00:41:20) Audience, Empathetic Attunement & Connection; Skeptics (00:49:10) Trick Explanation, Props (00:57:21) Exposing Magic, Misdirection, Storytelling (01:07:29) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:08:36) Delight, Hypnosis, Behavior Patterns (01:17:35) Hypnotists & Guiding Attention; Social Media (01:23:01) “Power of Pauses” & Memory; Tool: Gap Effects & Learning (01:30:14) Tension, Understanding Magic (01:36:16) Storytelling (01:43:00) Painting & Composition (01:51:08) Truths, Clean Slate, Art & Storytelling (01:59:03) Art & Motivation, Honesty (02:05:17) Inspiration & Creativity, “Sponge” (02:12:38) Morning Routine & Creativity (02:19:28) Memory & Fear, Power of Story; Tool: Walking & Creativity (02:29:53) Body Language (02:33:01) Perfectionism; Negative Emotions, Photography (02:40:19) Sensitivity, Empathy, Family (02:45:16) Incredibly Human Show (02:49:22) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
    Huberman Lab
    enMarch 25, 2024

    LIVE EVENT Q&A: Dr. Andrew Huberman Question & Answer in Melbourne, AU

    LIVE EVENT Q&A: Dr. Andrew Huberman Question & Answer in Melbourne, AU
    Recently I had the pleasure of hosting a live event in Melbourne, AU. This event was part of a lecture series called The Brain Body Contract. My favorite part of the evening was the question and answer period, where I had the opportunity to answer questions from the attendees of each event. Included here is the Q&A from our event in Melbourne, AU at Plenary. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman Resources Ask Huberman Lab (AI platform) 10 Minute Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:02:50) Strategies for Preventing Dementia (00:15:07) Enhancing Willpower: Is It Comparable to Muscle Training? (00:22:40) Minimizing Circadian Disruption for Shift Workers (00:29:24) Difference Between NSDR & Meditation (00:37:32) Combatting Mindless Phone Scrolling (00:42:18) Dream Clinical Trials (00:55:55) Conclusion Disclaimer
    Huberman Lab
    enMarch 22, 2024

    Dr. E.J. Chichilnisky: How the Brain Works, Curing Blindness & How to Navigate a Career Path

    Dr. E.J. Chichilnisky: How the Brain Works, Curing Blindness & How to Navigate a Career Path
    In this episode, my guest is Dr. E.J. Chichilnisky, Ph.D., a professor of neurosurgery and ophthalmology at Stanford University. He studies how we see and uses that information to build artificial eyes that restore vision to the blind.  We discuss how understanding the retina (the light-sensing brain tissue that lines the back of our eyes) is critical to knowing how our brain works more generally.  We discuss brain augmentation with biologically informed prostheses, robotics, and AI and what this means for medicine and humanity.  We also discuss E.J.’s unique journey into neuroscience and how changing fields multiple times, combined with some wandering, taught him how to guide his decision-making in all realms of life.  This episode ought to be of interest to anyone interested in learning how the brain works from a world-class neuroscientist, those interested in the future of brain therapeutics and people seeking inspiration and tools for navigating their own professional and life journey. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman  ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman  BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman  InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. E.J. Chichilnisky (00:02:31) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, ROKA & BetterHelp (00:06:06) Vision & Brain; Retina (00:11:23) Retina & Visual Processing (00:18:37) Vision in Humans & Other Animals, Color (00:23:01) Studying the Human Retina (00:29:48) Sponsor: AG1 (00:31:16) Cell Types (00:36:00) Determining Cell Function in Retina (00:43:39) Retinal Cell Types & Stimuli (00:49:27) Retinal Prostheses, Implants (01:00:25) Artificial Retina, Augmenting Vision (01:06:05) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:07:12) Neuroengineering, Neuroaugmentation & Specificity (01:17:01) Building a Smart Device, AI (01:20:02) Neural Prosthesis, Paralysis; Specificity (01:25:21) Neurodegeneration; Adult Neuroplasticity; Implant Specificity (01:34:00) Career Journey, Music & Dance, Neuroscience  (01:42:55) Self-Understanding, Coffee; Self-Love, Meditation & Yoga (01:47:50) Body Signals & Decisions; Beauty (01:57:49) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
    Huberman Lab
    enMarch 18, 2024