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    #202 – Rick Doblin: Psychedelics

    Psychedelic drugs like MDMA can be beneficial in a controlled therapeutic setting, promoting feelings of love and connection and empowering individuals to heal themselves. It is important to think for oneself and question authority.

    enJuly 21, 2021

    About this Episode

    Rick Doblin is a psychedelics researcher and the founder and executive director of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS). Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Theragun: https://therabody.com/lex to get 30 day trial - ExpressVPN: https://expressvpn.com/lexpod and use code LexPod to get 3 months free - Blinkist: https://blinkist.com/lex and use code LEX to get 25% off premium - Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/lex and use code LEX to get special savings EPISODE LINKS: Rick's Twitter: https://twitter.com/RickDoblin MAPS: https://maps.org PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:54) - Introduction to psychedelics (11:09) - Psychedelics reveals the inner depths of humans (23:43) - Differences between psychedelics (31:08) - The future of psychedelics (39:52) - Epigenetics (45:49) - DMT (53:16) - Ego dissolution (56:33) - One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest (59:32) - Psychedelics and Creativity (1:03:25) - MKUltra and the Grateful Dead (1:08:04) - Ted Kaczynski (1:13:46) - Timothy Leary (1:21:10) - Good Friday Experiment (1:25:46) - Forming of MAPS (1:37:01) - Gaining access to psychedelics (1:45:30) - MDMA Medical Trials (2:17:00) - Clinical Trials for other substances (2:21:43) - Future of society with psychedelics (2:26:13) - Big Pharma (2:32:32) - Advice for the younger generations (2:38:17) - Meaning of life

    🔑 Key Takeaways

    • Psychedelics can help individuals access suppressed emotions and thoughts. Classic psychedelics dissolve ego and merge individuals into unitive states, while empathogens create empathy and bring suppressed material to the surface.
    • Psychedelics can unlock self-healing mechanisms and reveal things within us, but their effects are not uniform and are influenced by cultural beliefs. They offer the potential to uncover new perspectives and truths, similar to progress in science.
    • Psychedelics can offer a glimpse into a deeper understanding of consciousness, but our limited cognitive abilities mean we may never fully comprehend them. Regardless of their source, these substances could potentially provide valuable insights into the nature of life and intelligence.
    • Psychedelics have different effects and potential uses, but it's important to acknowledge the importance of the inner healing intelligence in their therapeutic benefits. For-profit companies are researching and patenting new molecules for developing new psychedelic drugs.
    • Different psychedelics affect different parts of the brain, flooding the default mode system and allowing people to think symbolically. The way a molecule is shaped plays a role in shaping the human experience, and personalized psychedelics may lead to a new category of drugs.
    • Trauma can be passed down through generations and influences our genes and cultural understanding. Psychedelic therapy may aid in trauma healing, but recognition of our capabilities and human complexity is necessary for prevention.
    • Psychedelic experiences can lead to personal growth and a shift in worldview, but creating a safe and supportive context is crucial for facilitating this transformation. Always prioritize context and safety in the psychedelic experience.
    • Psychedelics can provide a unique perspective on one's place in the world and their interconnectedness with others. Surrendering to the experience is often key to achieving breakthroughs and emotional healing. Ken Kesey's experience taking LSD likely influenced his writing.
    • Microdosing psychedelics has shown potential to boost innovation and creativity. However, caution is advised due to the psychological risks associated with its use. MK Ultra stands as a reminder of the dangers of unchecked psychedelic use.
    • While the CIA's MK Ultra program had harmful effects on individuals, LSD's potential for positive cultural impact depends on the person and context. Creating safe and supportive spaces for psychedelics is crucial.
    • Psychedelic drugs like MDMA can be beneficial in a controlled therapeutic setting, promoting feelings of love and connection and empowering individuals to heal themselves. It is important to think for oneself and question authority.
    • Psychedelics were controversial in the 1960s due to their positive effects, such as a sense of connection, a changed attitude towards death, and motivation for social change. Despite persecution, researchers continue to study the validity of mystical experiences.
    • Psychedelic drugs have potential as tools to ease suffering and change attitudes, but their use should be guided by science and medicine to ensure safety and effectiveness. MAPS aims to promote their responsible use for mass mental health and spiritual growth.
    • Mass mental health strategy involves using psychedelics for personal growth and therapy, funded by MAPS, a nonprofit organization that aims to promote drug policy reform and maximize public benefit while showing a different way to market drugs.
    • MAPS is a nonprofit with a pharmaceutical arm that focuses on using psychedelics to treat depression, PTSD, and other ailments. The Benefit Corporation generates profit to end drug war and promote mass mental health. MAPS supports drug policy reform and anticipates FDA approval for the prescription use of MDMA in 2023 for PTSD.
    • MDMA may soon be approved by the FDA to treat PTSD, and researchers hope to establish widespread psychedelic clinics for treatment by 2035. Current options are limited and costly.
    • Psychedelics can play a crucial role in treating mental health conditions like PTSD, but the process of turning a drug into medicine involves rigorous testing and approval by regulatory bodies. Despite challenges, promising results have been seen in MDMA-assisted therapy for combat-related PTSD.
    • While the CAPS scale is vital to measuring PTSD symptoms, our understanding of the relationship between psychedelic experiences and therapeutic outcomes needs more research, as MTMA doses did not correlate with therapeutic effects. Random assignment may be a practical alternative to double-blind studies to reduce bias.
    • Fair and accurate clinical trials rely on random assignment, calibrated raters, and inclusion of severe cases. Interim analysis is used to ensure accurate results, while smaller numbers can be sufficient for proving efficacy.
    • MTMA therapy shows a significant improvement in those who received it. The FDA may approve the drug for use as it has met the robust measure of statistical significance. This is great news for people with conditions that could benefit from the treatment.
    • MDMA-assisted psychotherapy is a promising treatment for PTSD, helping patients to process and express their emotions. While concerns about safety exist, side effects are minor and further research is needed to determine long-term effectiveness.
    • MTMA-assisted psychotherapy can significantly reduce PTSD symptoms, with patients continuing to improve even at one-year follow-up. The therapy may be expensive, but its effectiveness makes it highly promising in revolutionizing the field of psychotherapy.
    • Psychedelics could have significant benefits for mental health treatment if used responsibly. While research shows promise, it's important to navigate the concerns around for-profit companies and ensure responsible use that benefits humanity, not just profits.
    • Ketamine has potential therapeutic benefits, but it is important to seek treatment from a therapist-run clinic using off-patent versions of the drug, rather than relying on profit-maximizing pharmaceutical companies or ketamine mills with questionable ethical practices.
    • Prioritize finding your passions and making a difference in the world over accumulating wealth. Focus on building meaningful relationships and embrace the mystery of life's big questions for lasting happiness and fulfillment.
    • Understanding the transient nature of life and embracing the sense of urgency it creates can lead us to live purposefully by making commitments and facing challenges with courage, ultimately allowing us to achieve the seemingly impossible.

    📝 Podcast Summary

    The Power of Psychedelics in Unlocking Mental States

    Psychedelics are substances that can bring emotions, feelings, ideas, and concepts to the surface, similar to how dreams do. There are two general categories of psychedelics: classic psychedelics that dissolve ego and merge individuals into unitive states, and empathogens like MTMA that create empathy and bring material to the surface. These substances reveal what is already present but may have been too complicated or too painful to focus on, rather than conjuring up something new. By dissolving ego control through classic psychedelic use or strengthening self-acceptance with MTMA, individuals can access information that was previously suppressed or ignored.

    The Revealing Nature of Psychedelics and their Connection to Human Experience

    Psychedelics do not contain the experience; they reveal things that are already within us, including things we may have consciously or subconsciously experienced as children. These human experiences are not the same for everyone and cannot be controlled like a pill. The use of psychedelics can unlock self-healing mechanisms below our level of conscious awareness, creating a sense of mystical connection. However, culture and preconceptions play a role in the experience, as seen in the construct of "machine elves" by Terrence McKenna. Psychedelics offer the possibility of revealing new perspectives and truths, much like progress in math and physics.

    Exploring the Mysteries of Psychedelics and Consciousness

    Psychedelics may reveal new perspectives on life and consciousness, but our cognitive capabilities are limited in fully understanding them. With the concept of a collective unconscious, it's possible to access information beyond our temporal existence through depth investigations of our own consciousness. The distinction between psychedelics from nature versus the lab isn't as important as some believe, and both can have spiritual benefits. The difference between classic psychedelics and drugs like MDMA lies in their ability to dissolve the ego and cause visions through activation of serotonin receptors. Overall, studying the effects of psychedelics may guide us towards a physics of life, intelligence, and consciousness.

    The Varying Effects and Potential Future of Psychedelics

    Different psychedelics have varying effects on the mind and body, including how long their effects last and whether they have religious or historical significance. For-profit companies are increasingly researching and patenting new molecules to engineer and develop new psychedelic drugs. The potential future of psychedelics includes accessing areas of the collective unconscious and developing fine-tuned experiences for individuals while maintaining a sense of safety and grounding. However, it's important to remember that there is an inner healing intelligence that plays a crucial role in the therapeutic benefits of these substances.

    Personalized Psychedelic Therapy: The Future of Mental Health?

    Rick Doblin, founder of MAPS, believes that personalized psychedelic therapy may be the future. Different psychedelics have an impact on different neurotransmitters, energies in the brain, and the default mode network, which is considered our sense of self. Psychedelics flood the default mode system, providing people with loads of information they wouldn't usually pay attention to, and they start thinking symbolically. The way that the molecule is shaped plays a significant role in how it interacts with receptor sites and thereby shaping the human experience. Psychedelics can be specifically tailored to individuals, sequencing different drugs over time, and may lead to a new category of drugs.

    Transmission of Trauma and the Role of Psychedelic Therapy

    Research has shown that trauma can be transmitted from generation to generation through epigenetic mechanisms. While these mechanisms do not involve changes to DNA, they do impact what genes are turned on or off and can be influenced by experiences. The transmission of memories and cultural stories is also important in shaping our understanding and response to traumatic events. Psychedelic therapy, such as MTMA research for PTSD, may be able to bring certain memories to the surface and help individuals deal with trauma. However, it is important to recognize our capacity for evil and understand the complexity of human nature in order to prevent future tragedies.

    Rick Doblin's Insights on Psychedelic Experiences

    In this section, Rick Doblin discusses his experience with DMT and how it made him feel part of a larger system of billions of years of evolution. This realization led him to acknowledge the potential for both good and evil in all of us. The importance of context and safety in the psychedelic experience is emphasized, and Doblin highlights the potential for these experiences to bring about greater empathy, understanding, and personal growth. Finally, he draws a comparison between the Copernican revolution and the potential for a shift in our worldview through psychedelic experiences. Overall, the key takeaway is that psychedelic experiences have the potential to be transformative, but creating a safe and supportive context is crucial for facilitating this transformation.

    The Transformative Power of Psychedelics: Dissolving the Ego and Connecting to a Bigger Reality

    Psychedelics like DMT and LSD can help to dissolve the ego and connect individuals to a bigger reality beyond themselves. Through this experience, people may gain a different perspective on their place in the world and their interconnectedness with others. While these substances can be challenging to navigate, surrendering to the experience is often key to achieving breakthroughs and emotional healing. This runs counter to modern psychiatry's emphasis on suppressing symptoms. Ken Keasy's experience taking LSD likely helped him to tap into deeper emotional connections and metaphors for his book, "One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest."

    The Poetic and Creative Side of Psychedelics: Enhancing Self-Discovery

    Psychedelic experiences often evoke poetic and metaphorical imagery in individuals, leading to enhanced creativity and a greater sense of self-discovery. Recent studies have shown that microdosing psychedelics can improve innovation and invention, leading to a wave of interest in its potential for creativity. However, it is important to approach psychedelic use with caution as there are psychological risks associated with their use. MK Ultra, a program by the CIA that aimed to weaponize psychedelic drugs for interrogation and true serums, serves as a reminder of the potential dangers of unchecked use of psychedelics.

    The Dark Side of MK Ultra and LSD's Cultural Impact

    The Central Intelligence Agency's MK Ultra program violated human rights by secretly dosing people with LSD and observing their behavior. The program aimed to see if they could break people down to get them to reveal secrets, but it had unintended consequences. Ken Keasy, one of the main early people to take LSD, helped inspire the hippies and oppose the Vietnam War. The Grateful Dead, which emerged from Keasy's acid tests, became a testament to the power of the LSD experience. However, the program also produced the Unabomber, Ted Kaczynski, who allegedly took part in the program and was negatively impacted. The LSD experience is not solely dependent on the drug but on the person and context. It is more important to create new cultural contexts that can create legality, safety, and support for existing psychedelics.

    The therapeutic benefits and importance of psychedelic drug use

    The context of drug use is extremely important, as evidenced by the potential therapeutic benefits of psychedelics like MDMA in a controlled setting. MDMA can stimulate the production of oxytocin, which promotes feelings of love and connection, making it useful for individuals who may feel isolated or disconnected from society. Additionally, MDMA can help individuals integrate difficult psychedelic experiences and empower them to heal themselves. The importance of empowering individuals to heal themselves is a key aspect of the therapeutic approach used by organizations like MAPS. Timothy Leary, a famous American psychologist and advocate for psychedelics, emphasized the importance of thinking for oneself and questioning authority.

    The Backlash Against Psychedelics in the 1960s

    In the 1960s, psychedelics like LSD were increasingly controversial, leading to the shutdown of psychedelic research and the persecution of cultural icons like Richard Alpert (aka Ram Dass) and Timothy Leary. However, according to Rick Doblin, the true reason for the backlash was due to psychedelics going "right," as people experienced a sense of connection, a changed attitude towards death, and a motivation to challenge the status quo and work towards social change. Despite this, researchers like Doblin continued to conduct follow-up studies on past psychedelic experiments, including the Good Friday Experiment, which found that participants affirmed the validity of their mystical experiences years later.

    The Revival of Psychedelic Drugs for Mass Mental Health

    In the 1960s, a controversial experiment was conducted at Andover Newton in which participants were given psilocybin, a psychedelic drug. While the experiment was not entirely successful, it sparked the interest of Rick Doblin, who later founded the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS). MAPS is a non-profit pharmaceutical company with a mission of bringing these drugs back to the surface to promote mass mental health and spiritualize humanity. While there are risks associated with these drugs, Doblin believes that through science and medicine, they can be used as tools to ease suffering and change attitudes.

    How Mass Mental Health and Psychedelics can Improve the World

    The key takeaway from this section is that the strategy for improving the world is mass mental health, which involves changing the way humanity thinks using psychedelics as a tool for personal growth and therapy. The nonprofit organization, Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS), was founded to fund drug development and drug policy reform through philanthropy, as big pharma and government were not investing in these areas. MAPS has raised about $110 million in donations and has also created a public benefit corporation to sell the MTMA drug for profit while maximizing public benefit, rather than solely profit. This approach aims to show a different way to market drugs and promote a more equitable healthcare system.

    MAPS: A Nonprofit's Move to Heal with Psychedelics

    MAPS, a nonprofit organization, has a pharmaceutical arm called the Benefit Corporation that focuses on creating clinical indications for psychedelics to be used as medicine to overcome depression, PTSD and other ailments. MAPS aims to end the drug war and promote mass mental health, and the profits generated by the Benefit Corporation are used towards this mission. People cannot access psychedelics for personal growth and creativity from the Benefit Corporation since it is designed as a pharmaceutical company. However, MAPS supports drug policy reform, aiming to license the legal use of psychedelics for personal growth and creativity. They anticipate FDA approval for the prescription use of MDMA in 2023 for PTSD.

    The Road to Legalizing Psychedelic Drugs for Medical Use

    Researchers are working towards the legalization of psychedelic drugs for medical use, with MDMA expected to be approved by the FDA by the end of 2023. For those suffering from PTSD who have been treatment-resistant to other forms of therapy, there is currently a program called expanded access that allows them to use MDMA while phase three studies on the drug are being conducted. However, this program is limited and patients must pay for it themselves. The eventual goal is to build thousands of psychedelic clinics across America where patients can receive treatment. The process is slow, but researchers hope that by 2035, psychedelic drugs will be legal for personal growth outside of medicine.

    The Role of Psychedelics in Treating Mental Health Conditions

    Rick Doblin, who has devoted his life to psychedelics, believes that psychedelics have an important role to play in treating mental health conditions such as PTSD. The path to turning a drug into medicine involves various phases, from preclinical studies to large-scale placebo-controlled studies to prove safety and efficacy before permission to market the drug is granted. Doblin's organization MAPS faced rejection by the FDA for five different protocols, and it took them 30 years to complete phase two for a PTSD treatment involving MDMA-assisted therapy. However, the results of the therapy have shown promising efficacy and safety, even for combat-related PTSD.

    Evaluating the link between psychedelic experiences and PTSD treatment using the CAPS scale and MTMA drug study.

    The clinician administered PTSD scale, also known as CAPS, is the gold standard worldwide for measuring PTSD symptoms and is required by both the FDA and EMA. Research with classic psychedelics has shown a link between the depth of the mystical experience and therapeutic outcomes, but with MTMA, a drug studied for PTSD treatment, this correlation did not hold up. Lower doses of MTMA made participants uncomfortable without reducing fear, and inactive placebos actually showed a better therapeutic effect. Despite efforts to reduce bias through double-blind studies, it is difficult to achieve in practice, and random assignment may be a better approach.

    Ensuring Accurate Clinical Trials for Potential Treatments

    In order to ensure fair and accurate clinical trials for potential treatments, random assignment and independent raters are utilized. The use of a calibrated pool of raters helps to reduce bias and ensure that all patients are rated properly, without knowing where they stand in the study. The FDA also acknowledges that smaller numbers can be used for proving efficacy with larger effect sizes. The importance of working with the hardest cases is emphasized, as those suffering from severe PTSD and those who have attempted suicide are included in the study. Interim analysis is also utilized to re-estimate sample size and ensure accurate results.

    Promising Results from MTMA Therapy Study

    The results of a recent study on MTMA therapy have exceeded expectations, with a statistically significant effect size of 0.91 compared to the placebo group. This means that the MTMA group experienced a large amount of benefit from the therapy. Additionally, the study had minimal variability, meaning that most people who received the therapy experienced significant improvement. The FDA may approve the drug based on these results alone, as it meets the 'robust' measure of statistical significance of one in 10000.0, 0, 0 1. This is an exciting development for those suffering from conditions that may benefit from MTMA therapy.

    MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy for PTSD: Promising Results and Safety Concerns

    MDMA-assisted psychotherapy shows promise in treating even the most difficult cases of PTSD, such as those with dissociative subtype. The drug helps to decrease fear and increase memory for trauma, allowing patients to process and express their emotions. Despite concerns about safety, the side effects are minor and transitory, and there is no evidence of neurotoxicity at the doses used. In fact, the therapy alone without MDMA was able to help 32% of patients no longer have PTSD two months after the last experimental session. Further research is needed to determine the durability of the therapeutic effect and address safety concerns.

    MTMA-Assisted Psychotherapy and its Potential Benefits

    MTMA-assisted psychotherapy has been shown to have significant benefits in treating PTSD, with a 67% success rate in reducing symptoms. The therapy is durable, with patients continuing to improve even at the one-year follow-up. The safety record is also great. While this therapy may be expensive due to the amount of therapy time required, its effectiveness makes it highly promising. MTMA-assisted psychotherapy may not be unique to PTSD, and other psychedelics such as psilocybin may also have positive impacts on treating conditions such as addiction and cancer-related anxiety. Psychedelic-assisted therapy may revolutionize the field of psychiatry and psychotherapy, returning it to its origins of treating individuals and not just prescribing drugs.

    The Responsible Use of Psychedelics in Mental Health Treatment

    Psychedelics may have a significant role to play in the future of mental health treatment, but it's important to use them responsibly. Research has shown that psychedelics, when used in the right context, could help people clean their filters and see others as similar to themselves. This could be hugely beneficial in a world faced with challenges such as climate change, nuclear proliferation, and religious hatreds. However, the rise of for-profit pharma companies is a concern. While they may do good, they're optimizing for profit, not necessarily for the benefit of humanity. It's essential to navigate this landscape carefully and ensure that the context around psychedelic use is responsible and not focused solely on profit maximization.

    The Controversy Surrounding Ketamine Use in Pharmaceutical Companies and Clinics

    Psychedelic drugs such as ketamine are being used by profit-maximizing pharmaceutical companies, which prioritize money over patient outcomes. However, alternative clinics run by therapists are successfully utilizing ketamine with therapy to improve patient outcomes. Ketamine itself is an off-patent essential medicine, meaning that clinics are not purchasing the more expensive patented version. The main concern is the existence of ketamine mills that prescribe the drug without therapy. However, creating alternative access points through drug policy reform may increase demand for professional clinics and keep for-profit companies in check. Young people are advised to consider what the world needs and how they can make it better.

    Discovering Your Passions and Making a Difference in the World

    The key takeaway from this section is to find what makes you come alive and passionate, and try to balance that with what the world needs. While it's important to have enough money to be comfortable, it's not necessary to have vast resources to make a difference in the world. Life is short, and it's important to prioritize effort over accomplishments for happiness. It's also important to see the humanity in everyone and build long-term relationships, even with those on the other side. Finally, while it's natural to wonder about the big questions of life, we don't necessarily need those answers to find happiness and meaning in our lives.

    The Significance of Death in Making Life Precious

    The idea of death making life precious is shared by Rick Doblin. He believes that if humans had an infinite amount of time, life would not be as meaningful or purposeful. Death adds value and urgency to our lives, making us appreciate the time we have and encouraging us to live with intensity. By making commitments and embracing courage, nature will respond by removing impossible obstacles, lifting us up and allowing us to achieve the impossible. Death is not tragic, but rather a reminder to live with purpose and a sense of urgency.

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    #427 – Neil Adams: Judo, Olympics, Winning, Losing, and the Champion Mindset

    #427 – Neil Adams: Judo, Olympics, Winning, Losing, and the Champion Mindset
    Neil Adams is a judo world champion, 2-time Olympic silver medalist, 5-time European champion, and often referred to as the Voice of Judo. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ZipRecruiter: https://ziprecruiter.com/lex - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/neil-adams-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Neil's Instagram: https://instagram.com/naefighting Neil's YouTube: https://youtube.com/NAEffectiveFighting Neil's TikTok: https://tiktok.com/@neiladamsmbe Neil's Facebook: https://facebook.com/NeilAdamsJudo Neil's X: https://x.com/NeilAdamsJudo Neil's Website: https://naeffectivefighting.com Neil's Podcast: https://naeffectivefighting.com/podcasts/the-dojo-collective-podcast A Life in Judo (book): https://amzn.to/4d3DtfB A Game of Throws (audiobook): https://amzn.to/4aA2WeJ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (09:13) - 1980 Olympics (26:35) - Judo explained (34:40) - Winning (52:54) - 1984 Olympics (1:01:55) - Lessons from losing (1:17:37) - Teddy Riner (1:37:12) - Training in Japan (1:52:51) - Jiu jitsu (2:03:59) - Training (2:27:18) - Advice for beginners

    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs

    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs
    Edward Gibson is a psycholinguistics professor at MIT and heads the MIT Language Lab. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Yahoo Finance: https://yahoofinance.com - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/edward-gibson-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Edward's X: https://x.com/LanguageMIT TedLab: https://tedlab.mit.edu/ Edward's Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=4FsWE64AAAAJ TedLab's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@Tedlab-MIT PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (10:53) - Human language (14:59) - Generalizations in language (20:46) - Dependency grammar (30:45) - Morphology (39:20) - Evolution of languages (42:40) - Noam Chomsky (1:26:46) - Thinking and language (1:40:16) - LLMs (1:53:14) - Center embedding (2:19:42) - Learning a new language (2:23:34) - Nature vs nurture (2:30:10) - Culture and language (2:44:38) - Universal language (2:49:01) - Language translation (2:52:16) - Animal communication

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones
    Andrew Callaghan is the host of Channel 5 on YouTube, where he does street interviews with fascinating humans at the edges of society, the so-called vagrants, vagabonds, runaways, outlaws, from QAnon adherents to Phish heads to O Block residents and much more. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ShipStation: https://shipstation.com/lex and use code LEX to get 60-day free trial - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/andrew-callaghan-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Channel 5 with Andrew Callaghan: https://www.youtube.com/channel5YouTube Andrew's Instagram: https://instagram.com/andreww.me Andrew's Website: https://andrew-callaghan.com/ Andrew's Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/channel5 This Place Rules: https://www.hbo.com/movies/this-place-rules Books Mentioned: On the Road: https://amzn.to/4aLPLHi Siddhartha: https://amzn.to/49rthKz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (08:53) - Walmart (10:24) - Early life (29:14) - Hitchhiking (40:49) - Couch surfing (49:50) - Quarter Confessions (1:07:33) - Burning Man (1:22:44) - Protests (1:28:17) - Jon Stewart (1:31:13) - Fame (1:44:31) - Jan 6 (1:48:15) - QAnon (1:54:00) - Alex Jones (2:10:52) - Politics (2:20:29) - Response to allegations (2:37:28) - Channel 5 (2:43:04) - Rap (2:44:51) - O Block (2:48:47) - Crip Mac (2:51:59) - Aliens

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame
    Bassem Youssef is an Egyptian-American comedian & satirist, referred to as the Jon Stewart of the Arab World. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/bassem-youssef-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Bassem's X: https://x.com/Byoussef Bassem's Instagram: https://instagram.com/bassem Bassem's Facebook: https://facebook.com/bassemyousseftv Bassem's Website: https://bassemyoussef.xyz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:30) - Oct 7 (36:59) - Two-state solution (52:37) - Holocaust (1:00:24) - 1948 (1:09:17) - Egypt (1:23:39) - Jon Stewart (1:25:51) - Going viral during the Arab Spring (1:49:55) - Arabic vs English (2:02:18) - Sam Harris and Jihad (2:07:25) - Religion (2:26:37) - TikTok (2:31:10) - Joe Rogan (2:33:07) - Joe Biden (2:37:33) - Putin (2:39:21) - War (2:44:17) - Hope

    #423 – Tulsi Gabbard: War, Politics, and the Military Industrial Complex

    #423 – Tulsi Gabbard: War, Politics, and the Military Industrial Complex
    Tulsi Gabbard is a politician, veteran, and author of For Love of Country. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Riverside: https://creators.riverside.fm/LEX and use code LEX to get 30% off - ExpressVPN: https://expressvpn.com/lexpod to get 3 months free - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour - Notion: https://notion.com/lex Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/tulsi-gabbard-transcript EPISODE LINKS: For Love of Country (book): https://amzn.to/3VLlofM Tulsi's X: https://x.com/tulsigabbard Tulsi's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@TulsiGabbard Tulsi's Podcast: https://youtube.com/@TheTulsiGabbardShow Tulsi's Instagram: https://instagram.com/tulsigabbard Tulsi's Facebook: https://facebook.com/TulsiGabbard Tulsi's Website: https://tulsigabbard.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:14) - War in Iraq (15:00) - Battle injuries and PTSD (22:10) - War on terrorism (30:51) - War in Gaza (34:52) - War in Ukraine (38:38) - Syria (46:20) - Warmongers (55:40) - Nuclear war (1:11:08) - TikTok ban (1:23:13) - Bernie Sanders (1:28:08) - Politics (1:46:59) - Personal attacks (1:49:07) - God

    #422 – Mark Cuban: Shark Tank, DEI & Wokeism Debate, Elon Musk, Politics & Drugs

    #422 – Mark Cuban: Shark Tank, DEI & Wokeism Debate, Elon Musk, Politics & Drugs
    Mark Cuban is a businessman, investor, star of TV series Shark Tank, long-time principal owner of Dallas Mavericks, and founder of Cost Plus Drugs. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Cloaked: https://cloaked.com/lex and use code LexPod to get 25% off - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/mark-cuban-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Mark's X: https://twitter.com/mcuban Mark's Instagram: https://instagram.com/mcuban Cost Plus Drugs: https://costplusdrugs.com Shark Tank: https://abc.com/shows/shark-tank Dallas Mavericks: https://www.mavs.com PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (11:10) - Entrepreneurship (26:03) - Shark Tank (36:29) - How Mark made first billion (1:02:39) - Dallas Mavericks (1:08:05) - DEI debate (1:43:58) - Trump vs Biden (1:46:20) - Immigration (1:55:53) - Drugs and Big Pharma (2:11:53) - AI (2:16:05) - Advice for young people

    #421 – Dana White: UFC, Fighting, Khabib, Conor, Tyson, Ali, Rogan, Elon & Zuck

    #421 – Dana White: UFC, Fighting, Khabib, Conor, Tyson, Ali, Rogan, Elon & Zuck
    Dana White is the CEO and president of the UFC. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/lex to get 20% off Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/dana-white-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Dana's X: https://x.com/danawhite Dana's Instagram: https://instagram.com/danawhite Dana's Facebook: https://facebook.com/danawhite UFC's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@UFC UFC's Website: https://ufc.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:31) - Mike Tyson and early days of fighting (17:10) - Jiu jitsu (23:14) - Origin of UFC (37:25) - Joe Rogan (43:31) - Lorenzo Fertitta (45:58) - Great fighters (49:55) - Khabib vs Conor (53:01) - Jon Jones (56:03) - Conor McGregor (1:01:05) - Trump (1:06:44) - Elon vs Zuck (1:08:04) - Mike Tyson vs Jake Paul (1:10:52) - Forrest Griffin vs Stephan Bonnar (1:18:06) - Gambling (1:33:08) - Mortality

    #420 – Annie Jacobsen: Nuclear War, CIA, KGB, Aliens, Area 51, Roswell & Secrecy

    #420 – Annie Jacobsen: Nuclear War, CIA, KGB, Aliens, Area 51, Roswell & Secrecy
    Annie Jacobsen is an investigative journalist and author of "Nuclear War: A Scenario" and many other books on war, weapons, government secrecy, and national security. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - HiddenLayer: https://hiddenlayer.com/lex - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/annie-jacobsen-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Nuclear War: A Scenario (book): https://amzn.to/3THZHfr Annie's Twitter: https://twitter.com/anniejacobsen Annie's Website: https://anniejacobsen.com/ Annie's Books: https://amzn.to/3TGWyMJ Annie's Books (audio): https://adbl.co/49ZnI7c PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:37) - Nuclear war (12:21) - Launch procedure (18:00) - Deterrence (21:34) - Tactical nukes (30:59) - Nuclear submarines (33:59) - Nuclear missiles (41:10) - Nuclear football (50:17) - Missile interceptor system (54:34) - North Korea (1:01:10) - Nuclear war scenarios (1:10:02) - Warmongers (1:14:31) - President's cognitive ability (1:20:43) - Refusing orders (1:28:41) - Russia and Putin (1:33:48) - Cyberattack (1:35:09) - Ground zero of nuclear war (1:39:48) - Surviving nuclear war (1:44:06) - Nuclear winter (1:54:29) - Alien civilizations (2:00:04) - Extrasensory perception (2:13:50) - Area 51 (2:17:48) - UFOs and aliens (2:28:15) - Roswell incident (2:34:55) - CIA assassinations (2:53:47) - Navalny (2:56:12) - KGB (3:02:48) - Hitler and the atomic bomb (3:06:52) - War and human nature (3:10:17) - Hope