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    How to Increase Your Willpower & Tenacity

    The Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex is responsible for willpower and motivation, and disruptions in this brain area can lead to apathy and reduced tenacity. Understanding its functions is crucial for understanding psychological and physiological phenomena.

    enOctober 09, 2023

    About this Episode

    In this episode, I discuss neuroscience and psychology studies that address the basis of willpower and tenacity, how they differ from motivation and how we can all increase our levels of willpower and tenacity. I discuss whether willpower is a limited resource, the controversial “ego depletion” theory of willpower and the role that beliefs play in determining our tenacity and willpower. Then, I discuss the neural basis of willpower in the brain and body and how tenacity and willpower relate to sleep, stress, focus, and possibly lifespan. Then, I provide a series of science-supported tools and protocols to increase your level of tenacity and willpower. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Maui Nui Venison: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman  Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman  LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Tenacity & Willpower (00:01:19) Sponsors: Maui Nui & Helix Sleep (00:03:49) Tenacity & Willpower vs. Habit Execution; Apathy, Depression & Motivation  (00:10:40) Ego Depletion & Willpower as a Limited Resource; Controversy  (00:19:14) Tool: Autonomic Function, Tenacity & Willpower; Sleep & Stress  (00:28:02) Sponsor: AG1 (00:28:58) Willpower as a Limited Resource (Theory) (00:35:36) Willpower & Glucose, Brain Energetics (00:42:44) Beliefs about Willpower & Glucose; Multiple Challenges (00:52:43) Sponsor: LMNT (00:54:01) Willpower Brain ‘Hub’; Anorexia Nervosa, Super-Agers (01:07:15) Anterior Midcingulate Cortex & Brain/Body Communication  (01:14:54) Allostasis, Anterior Midcingulate Cortex Function (01:25:19) Anterior Mid-Cingulate Cortex (aMCC), Difficult Tasks & Neuroplasticity (01:29:30) Tool: Novel Physical Exercise & Brain; Cognitive Exercise (01:43:43) Tool: “Micro-sucks”, Increase Tenacity/Willpower (01:50:58) Impossible Tasks, Super-Agers & Learning, Will to Live (01:57:23) Tool: Rewards & Improving Tenacity/Willpower (02:01:07) Tenacity & Willpower Recap (02:05:55) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer

    🔑 Key Takeaways

    • Understanding and harnessing the brain's central hub can enhance our levels of tenacity and willpower, enabling us to persist under pressure and resistance and overcome obstacles.
    • Our level of motivation determines our ability to engage in or resist behaviors. Understanding the continuum from tenacity to apathy helps us recognize the importance of motivation in positive change.
    • Regardless of whether willpower is truly limited or not, believing in our tenacity and employing strategies to increase willpower can help us overcome challenges without feeling depleted.
    • Balancing our Autonomic nervous system through rest and calmness is essential for increasing Tenacity and Willpower.
    • Prioritizing sleep and stress management is essential for enhancing Autonomic Function, which is crucial for cultivating Tenacity and Willpower. With adequate rest and effective stress modulation, our ability to engage these foundational modulators is significantly improved.
    • Resisting difficult temptations depletes our willpower, making it harder to tackle subsequent challenging tasks. Understanding this limitation can help us better manage and conserve our neural energy.
    • Maintaining stable glucose levels in the brain can improve willpower and mental capabilities, leading to enhanced performance in challenging tasks.
    • The idea of willpower as a limited resource may not be accurate, as research shows that glucose availability does not necessarily lead to increased willpower. Further studies are needed for a more comprehensive understanding.
    • Our beliefs about willpower and glucose can influence our performance. Whether we believe willpower is limited and dependent on glucose or not, there are tools available to enhance our willpower and tenacity.
    • The AMCC is a vital brain area that influences our tenacity and willpower, and it can be strengthened through specific actions and mindsets, allowing us to access these qualities in any situation.
    • The Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex is responsible for willpower and motivation, and disruptions in this brain area can lead to apathy and reduced tenacity. Understanding its functions is crucial for understanding psychological and physiological phenomena.
    • The Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex plays a significant role in our ability to exert willpower and maintain tenacity, functioning as a slider rather than a simple on-off switch. Understanding this brain area can help us navigate complex tasks and behaviors.
    • The Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex is connected to various bodily functions and brain areas, making it important in understanding conditions like depression, anxiety, and high performance.
    • Stimulating the Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex generates a sense of urgency and resistance, emphasizing its role in generating feelings of tenacity and willpower, supporting the concept of willpower as a limited resource.
    • Our tenacity and willpower are regulated by the Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex, which determines how much resources to allocate based on our goals and challenges, and activates when facing resistance.
    • Engaging in challenging tasks and consistent aerobic exercise can strengthen our tenacity and willpower, leading to improved performance in various aspects of life.
    • Regular moderate-intensity cardiovascular exercise can increase brain volume in the Anterior Mid-Cingulate Cortex and improve communication between different brain areas, enhancing tenacity and willpower.
    • To enhance tenacity and willpower, engage in physical exercises that challenge and push you out of your comfort zone, aiming for 150 to 200 minutes of low-intensity cardiovascular exercise per week.
    • Engaging in challenging tasks outside of our comfort zones activates the Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex, enhancing cognitive function, increasing muscle strength, and cultivating tenacity and willpower.
    • Cultivating tenacity and willpower through small challenges and continuous growth can enhance cognitive function and lead to a fulfilling life.
    • Engaging in challenging activities and trying new things can improve cognitive function and longevity by activating the brain's Anterior, Mid, Cingulate Cortex and boosting tenacity and willpower.
    • Rewarding ourselves for successfully navigating stressful situations can strengthen our resilience and prepare us to better handle future challenges. However, it's important to choose healthy challenges and occasional rewards, while also taking care of our basic needs.
    • Engaging in challenging activities and resisting temptations can improve brain function and potentially prolong life. Prioritizing safety, individuals can enhance their tenacity and willpower for a better quality of life.

    📝 Podcast Summary

    Building Tenacity and Willpower for Success

    Tenacity and willpower play a crucial role in our ability to persist under pressure and resistance. Building these qualities can greatly benefit our overall well-being. One key aspect is understanding the brain's central hub that integrates information and generates tenacity and willpower. By tapping into this hub, we can enhance our levels of tenacity and willpower in various circumstances. However, it's important to strike a balance because too much tenacity and willpower can be detrimental to our mental and physical health. Additionally, tenacity and willpower should be differentiated from habit execution, as they require conscious effort and energy to intervene in our default neural processes. Ultimately, building and harnessing tenacity and willpower can empower us to overcome obstacles and achieve success.

    The Role of Energy and Motivation in Behavior

    Our ability to engage in or resist behaviors requires energy. This energy can come from various fuel sources in the body, but ultimately it is the energy needed to overcome internal and external resistance that determines our level of motivation. We can experience resistance from others who doubt our abilities, but more often, we struggle with internal resistance where we lack the motivation to do something we should or find it difficult to resist things that pull us in the wrong direction. Understanding the continuum from tenacity and willpower to apathy and depression helps us recognize the importance of motivation in moving towards positive change. Willpower and tenacity rely on motivation as the driving force, separate from a limited resource perspective. Psychology has long studied the conditions that drain or generate willpower, and while some believe it is a limited resource, the concept of ego depletion is more about effort required to bridge one's concept of self and challenges. So, it is vital to not only distinguish and understand tenacity and willpower from habit execution but also recognize the role of motivation in moving up and down the continuum.

    Exploring the Limitations of Willpower: A Controversial Debate

    There is a debate about whether willpower is a limited resource. The concept of ego depletion, or the idea that our willpower can be depleted with each successive attempt to engage it, is at the center of this debate. While there is conflicting evidence, it is important to understand the theory of willpower as a limited resource and the controversy surrounding it. Understanding the neural mechanisms and tools for increasing tenacity and willpower can help us make the most out of our abilities. Whether willpower is truly limited or not, having a clear belief about tenacity and willpower can help us draw upon them repeatedly without them being depleted, especially when faced with multiple challenges.

    The connection between our Autonomic nervous system and Tenacity and Willpower explained.

    Our ability to engage Tenacity and Willpower depends on the balance of our Autonomic nervous system. The Autonomic nervous system has two components: the sympathetic and parasympathetic. The sympathetic aspect generates states of alertness and action, while the parasympathetic aspect is responsible for relaxation and inaction. These two components are in competition with each other, and their balance affects our level of Tenacity and Willpower. Factors like sleep deprivation, physical and emotional pain, and distractions can diminish our Tenacity and Willpower. On the other hand, when we are well-rested and in a state of calm, our ability to engage in challenging behaviors and resist default patterns is heightened. Therefore, taking care of our Autonomic Function is crucial for strengthening our Tenacity and Willpower.

    Nurturing Autonomic Function for Resilience and Determination

    Taking care of our foundational modulators of Tenacity and Willpower is crucial for consistent engagement. Our Autonomic Function, which includes the balance of our sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, plays a significant role in generating Tenacity and Willpower. However, quantifying Autonomic Function is not as simple as measuring heart rate or blood pressure. Despite the lack of a straightforward metric, it is essential to prioritize sleep and stress management to enhance Autonomic Function. By getting enough quality sleep and implementing stress modulation tools, we can significantly improve our ability to engage Tenacity and Willpower. These foundational modulators are key to achieving success, regardless of the tools and protocols we use.

    The Limited Nature of Willpower

    Willpower is a limited resource, as suggested by the study conducted by Bowmeister and colleagues. The experiment involved individuals resisting either radishes (relatively easy) or freshly baked cookies (more difficult) before attempting to solve an impossible puzzle. The results showed that those who had to resist the harder temptation of cookies persisted for a shorter duration in the challenging task compared to those who resisted radishes. This led to the conclusion that engaging willpower in one task diminishes the available resources for subsequent difficult tasks. While there may be individuals with seemingly unlimited willpower, most of us understand the constant effort required to push ourselves and resist temptations, which can deplete our neural energy.

    The Power of Glucose: Enhancing Willpower and Mental Performance

    Maintaining stable levels of glucose in the brain can help improve willpower and tenacity. Research has shown that when individuals are given a glucose beverage between challenging tasks that require willpower, their levels of willpower are consistently maintained or even increased. This suggests that glucose availability in the brain is a key factor in determining our ability to resist certain behaviors or engage in mentally demanding tasks. These findings have sparked excitement in the field of psychology and have led to the development of products and courses aimed at optimizing brain glucose levels for improved performance in various aspects of life. So, next time you're facing a difficult task, consider fueling your brain with glucose to enhance your willpower and mental capabilities.

    Reevaluating the Notion of Willpower as a Limited Resource

    The interpretation of willpower as a limited resource is still up for debate. While Balmeister and colleagues found that glucose availability to the brain played a role in willpower, Dr. Carol Dweck and her colleagues conducted a study that challenged this notion. They replicated the experiment but provided some subjects with a glucose-rich drink and others with an artificially sweetened drink. The results showed that glucose availability did not necessarily lead to increased willpower. This suggests that the idea of willpower as a limited resource may not be as clear-cut as previously thought. Further research is needed to fully understand the intricacies of willpower and its relationship with glucose availability.

    The Impact of Beliefs on Willpower and Glucose

    Our beliefs about willpower and glucose can determine their impact on our performance. If we believe that willpower is a limited resource and that glucose is the source of our willpower, ingesting glucose can improve our performance on challenging tasks requiring willpower. However, if we believe that willpower and tenacity are unlimited and not dependent on glucose, we can engage in multiple challenging tasks without any decrease in performance. This leaves us with the difficult task of deciding what to believe about willpower. The study by Dweck and colleagues suggests that our beliefs about willpower determine the impact of glucose on self-control. However, it is important to note that there are different perspectives and ongoing research in the field of willpower and self-control. Regardless of our beliefs, there are tools and protocols available to enhance our willpower and tenacity.

    The Power of the Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex (AMCC)

    The Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex (AMCC) is a crucial brain area that underlies Tenacity and Willpower. It is part of the Cingulate Cortex and resides in the frontal lobes of the brain. The AMCC is responsible for engaging the feeling of Tenacity and Willpower, regardless of the circumstances we face. What's reassuring is that everyone has this brain area, and it is highly subject to plasticity, meaning it can be enhanced and strengthened. Specific actions and mindsets can increase the activity and even the size of the AMCC, allowing us to tap into Tenacity and Willpower in any situation. The evidence supporting the role of the AMCC stems from numerous studies on humans, which have provided valuable insights into the importance of this brain region.

    The Role of the Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex in Tenacity and Motivation

    The Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex plays a crucial role in various aspects of our lives, such as tenacity, willpower, and motivation. Studies have shown that this brain area exhibits increased activity in challenging tasks compared to easier ones. Additionally, individuals with higher academic performance and successful dieters demonstrate elevated levels of activity in this region. On the other hand, those with disruptions or lesions in the Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex experience increased apathy, depression, and reduced levels of tenacity and motivation. Moreover, people with eating disorders like anorexia nervosa show pathological changes in the activity of this brain area. Understanding the functions and dysfunctions of the Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex can provide insights into various psychological and physiological phenomena.

    The role of the Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex in Tenacity and Willpower

    The Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex plays a crucial role in our ability to generate Tenacity and Willpower. This brain area is active in individuals with Anorexia Nervosa when they avoid food, and it is significantly larger in so-called "super Agers" who maintain youthful levels of cognition. Willpower can be expressed as either "I will" or "I absolutely won't," and this brain area governs both expressions. It functions more like a slider on a light switch, with different levels of intensity, rather than a simple on-off switch. Additionally, the Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex needs information about the context in order to understand what is rewarding or non-rewarding in relation to our goals. Understanding the role of this brain area can help us better navigate complex tasks and behaviors that require Tenacity and Willpower.

    The Significance of the Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex in Tenacity and Willpower

    The Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex (AMCC) plays a crucial role in Tenacity and Willpower. Through various studies, it has been discovered that the AMCC is connected to different brain areas and bodily functions. It receives input and sends output to autonomic centers controlling cardiovascular function and respiration, as well as the immune and endocrine systems. Moreover, it is linked to premotor centers, reward pathways, and dopamine release. This communication between the AMCC and other brain areas provides a logical basis for understanding conditions like depression, anxiety, and high performance. Dr. Lisa Feldman Barrett's work emphasizes the significance of the AMCC in Tenacity and motivation. Overall, the AMCC serves as a major seat for Tenacity and Willpower.

    The Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex: A Key Hub for Tenacity and Willpower.

    The Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex plays a crucial role in generating feelings of tenacity and willpower. Stimulating this brain area in human subjects resulted in a sensation that something was about to happen, creating a sense of pressure and urgency to resist and push back. Control experiments confirmed that it was specifically the stimulation of the Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex that caused these sensations. This highlights the importance of this brain region as a hub that receives information from various areas and generates a sense of forward momentum and resistance. The findings align with previous research on neural activity patterns and brain volume changes in the Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex. The activation of this area requires the marshaling of resources, which supports the idea of willpower as a limited resource.

    The Controlling Power of the Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex

    The Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex plays a crucial role in controlling our tenacity and willpower. This brain structure has the ability to allocate resources to different functions based on our motivational goals and the challenges we face. It acts as a dial, deciding how much energy specific brain and body parts should consume. Even individuals with seemingly endless tenacity and willpower need to strategize and switch between different behaviors. The Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex also receives input from both the brain and body, and interestingly, it is activated more strongly when we experience resistance that we have to overcome. Understanding the role of this brain structure can help us better comprehend our own motivation and perseverance.

    Building Tenacity and Willpower through Challenging Tasks and Exercise

    Engaging in challenging tasks can elevate activity in the Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex (AMCC), which is associated with tenacity and willpower. The AMCC is not just a passive hub but can be activated through behaviors we would rather avoid or resist. By building up the AMCC through specific actions, we can enhance our capacity for tenacity and willpower, which carries over into other areas of life. This is exciting because it suggests a generic mechanism for generating tenacity and willpower that can be applied in various circumstances. Furthermore, research shows that aerobic exercise can increase brain volume and improve AMCC functioning. So, incorporating consistent cardiovascular training into our routine can be an effective way to enhance our tenacity and willpower.

    The impact of cardiovascular exercise on brain volume and communication pathways.

    Engaging in moderate-intensity cardiovascular training for three hours per week can maintain and even increase the volume of the Anterior Mid-Cingulate Cortex in the brain. This study found that individuals who participated in cardiovascular exercise at about 75% of their maximum heart rate experienced these positive effects. Additionally, they also observed maintenance or growth in the size of the Anterior white matter tracks, which facilitate communication between different brain areas. The researchers believe that the resources required to engage in regular exercise, such as allocating time and prioritizing physical activity, contribute to these brain changes. This finding is significant because the Anterior Mid-Cingulate Cortex plays a role in generating Tenacity and Willpower, making this exercise protocol a valuable tool for enhancing these abilities.

    The Power of Physical Exercise in Building Tenacity and Willpower

    Engaging in some form of physical exercise, especially if it is something you are not already doing, can greatly contribute to building tenacity and willpower. The study discussed by Andrew Huberman suggests that everyone should aim to get around 150 to 200 minutes of low-intensity cardiovascular exercise per week. However, it is crucial to note that simply continuing to do what you are already doing may not further enhance your tenacity and willpower. For significant improvements, you need to add something that challenges you and pushes you out of your comfort zone. This principle can also be applied to other endeavors, such as learning a new instrument or language. The key is to engage in activities that require resistance and effort.

    Embracing Challenges for Growth and Resilience

    Engaging in challenging and hard tasks activates the Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex, which is associated with tenacity and willpower. Easy tasks and reflexive habits do not have the same effect. Whether it's physical or cognitive challenges, pushing ourselves outside of our comfort zones is crucial. This could include activities like learning new skills, resistance training, or even delaying gratification in our daily routines. These "micro sucks" can be small yet significant tasks that require effort and resistance. However, it's important to choose activities that are safe and not psychologically or physically damaging. By incorporating these challenges regularly, we can enhance our cognitive function, increase muscle strength, and cultivate tenacity and willpower in various aspects of our lives.

    Building Tenacity and Willpower: A Balanced Approach to Personal Growth.

    Building up tenacity and willpower can have a positive impact on our lives. It doesn't require a deep understanding of the underlying neuroscience to see the logic behind this concept. By challenging ourselves to resist certain behaviors or engage in activities we may not initially want to do, we can strengthen our ability to persevere and stay focused. However, it's important to be mindful of the potential hazards and not let this pursuit of tenacity and willpower become unhealthy. We should seek a balanced relationship with life and goals, harnessing our inner fight when needed, but also knowing when to turn it off. Engaging in small "micro sucks" like cold exposure or physical exercises can be helpful in this journey. Moreover, endeavors that have no end point, where there's no winning or finish line, can provide valuable opportunities for continuously building our tenacity and willpower. Ultimately, by cultivating these qualities, we can strive to maintain cognitive function and lead fulfilling lives.

    Building tenacity and willpower for a stronger mindset

    Engaging in challenging activities and continuously seeking new environments can improve longevity and cognitive function. The concept of "super Agers" who live longer and maintain cognitive abilities similar to younger individuals is linked to their drive to learn and try new things. This is associated with the Anterior, Mid, Cingulate Cortex in the brain, which helps allocate resources to meet motivational goals and is possibly connected to the "Will to Live." Beliefs and mindset also impact our physiology, and there are brain circuits related to tenacity and willpower. By triggering the activation of the Anterior, Mid, Cingulate Cortex, we can increase our capacity for tenacity and willpower. This can be achieved by resisting certain behaviors and engaging in others that require effort. Overall, we have the ability to build up our tenacity and willpower for a stronger and more resilient mindset.

    The Power of Rewarding Ourselves to Handle Stress

    When we are able to withstand stress and overcome challenges, the relief and sense of reward we feel afterwards serves to reinforce our tenacity and willpower. This study suggests that rewarding ourselves for successfully getting through stressful situations can actually increase our capacity to handle future stress. It is important to choose challenges that are healthy and safe, and occasional rewards should be subjective and something that we enjoy. However, it is not recommended to reward ourselves for wins or acts of tenacity and willpower on a regular basis. Taking care of our autonomic functions, such as getting enough sleep, nutrition, and social connections, is crucial for maintaining and enhancing our tenacity and willpower. Overall, building up our anterior mid cingulate cortex through overcoming challenges and rewarding ourselves can improve our ability to handle stress and obstacles in the future.

    The Benefits of Developing Tenacity and Willpower for the Brain

    Engaging in activities that require tenacity and willpower can have a positive impact on our brains, keeping them younger or even making them younger. This effect is not observed in individuals who don't challenge themselves in this way. These findings can be applied to various areas like cognitive learning, language learning, math learning, art learning, and even physical exercise. By pushing ourselves to do things we don't want to do or resisting things we want to do, we activate our anterior mid cingulate cortex and strengthen our tenacity and willpower. However, it's important to prioritize psychological and physical safety while practicing this. Ultimately, it's up to each individual to decide where and how often to build up their tenacity and willpower, benefiting their overall quality of life and potentially extending their lifespan through the will to live.

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    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: The Science of Dreams, Nightmares & Lucid Dreaming

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: The Science of Dreams, Nightmares & Lucid Dreaming
    This is episode 6 of a 6-part special series on sleep with Dr. Matthew Walker, Ph.D., a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley and a leading public educator on sleep for mental and physical health, learning and human performance. In this episode, we discuss dreaming, including the biological mechanism of dreams, what dreams mean and their role in daytime life.  We explore how dreams can enhance our creativity and emotional well-being and help us resolve various challenges and dilemmas. We discuss how to remember and interpret your dreams and the abstractions/symbols frequently present in dreams. We also discuss nightmares and therapies to treat reoccurring nightmares. We explain what lucid dreaming is and if there are benefits or drawbacks to this type of dreaming. Dr. Walker also answers frequently asked audience questions and discusses snoring, body position, sleep supplements, sleep challenges due to aging, menopause, stopping racing thoughts, and how to fall back asleep if you wake in the middle of the night.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman WHOOP: https://www.join.whoop.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps 00:00:00 Dreaming 00:01:13 Sponsors: BetterHelp, LMNT & Helix Sleep 00:05:06 Dreams & REM Sleep 00:12:20 Evolution of REM Sleep, Humans 00:17:13 REM Sleep & PGO Waves; Dreams & Brain Activity 00:24:26 Dreams, Images & Brain Activity; Sleepwalking & Sleep Talking 00:30:51 Sponsor: AG1 00:32:04 Dream Benefits, Creativity & Emotional Regulation; Challenge Resolution 00:41:27 Daily Experience vs. Dreaming, Emotions 00:45:08 Dream Interpretation & Freud, Dream Relevance 00:52:59 Abstractions, Symbols, Experience & Dreams; “Fuzzy Logic” 01:00:28 Sponsor: Whoop 01:01:36 Nightmares; Recurring Nightmares & Therapy 01:11:08 Targeted Memory Reactivation, Sounds & Nightmares 01:15:38 Odor, Paired Associations, Learning & Sleep 01:18:53 Fear Extinction, Memory & Sleep; Tool: Remembering Dreams 01:25:38 Lucid Dreaming, REM Sleep, Paralysis 01:32:33 Lucid Dreaming: Benefits? Unrestorative Sleep? 01:44:07 Improve Lucid Dreaming 01:49:30 Tool: Negative Rumination & Falling Asleep 01:53:41 Tools: Body Position, Snoring & Sleep Apnea; Mid-Night Waking & Alarm Clock 01:58:43 Sleep Banking?; Tool: Falling Back Asleep, Rest 02:05:53 Tool: Older Adults & Early Waking; Sleep Medications 02:11:25 Tool: Menopause & Sleep Disruption, Hot Flashes 02:15:06 Remembering Dreams & Impacts Sleep Quality? 02:18:32 Tool: Sleep Supplements 02:26:48 Tool: Most Important Tip for Sleep 02:30:56 Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    Dr. Casey Means: Transform Your Health by Improving Metabolism, Hormone & Blood Sugar Regulation

    Dr. Casey Means: Transform Your Health by Improving Metabolism, Hormone & Blood Sugar Regulation
    In this episode, my guest is Dr. Casey Means, M.D., a physician trained at Stanford University School of Medicine, an expert on metabolic health and the author of the book, "Good Energy." We discuss how to leverage nutrition, exercise and environmental factors to enhance your metabolic health by improving mitochondrial function, hormone and blood sugar regulation.  We also explore how fasting, deliberate cold exposure and spending time in nature can impact metabolic health, how to control food cravings and how to assess your metabolic health using blood testing, continuous glucose monitors and other tools.  Metabolic dysfunction is a leading cause of chronic disease, obesity and reduced lifespan around the world. Conversely, improving your mitochondrial and metabolic health can positively affect your health span and longevity. Listeners of this episode will learn low- and zero-cost tools to improve their metabolic health, physical and mental well-being, body composition and target the root cause of various common diseases. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Maui Nui Venison: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman  Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman  AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman  InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps 00:00:00 Dr. Casey Means 00:02:18 Sponsors: Maui Nui, Eight Sleep & AeroPress 00:06:32 Metabolism, Metabolic Dysfunction, Medicinal Blindspot 00:14:17 Trifecta of Bad Energy 00:24:02 Western Living, United States, Specialization & Medicine 00:27:57 Insulin Resistance, Tool: Mitochondrial Capacity & Exercise 00:33:33 Sponsor: AG1 00:35:03 Tools: Walking & Glucose; Frequent Movement 00:44:25 Tools: Exercises to Improve Mitochondrial Capacity; Desk Treadmill 00:51:18 Soleus Push-Ups & Fidgeting, Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT) 00:57:14 Sponsor: InsideTracker 00:58:21 Tool: Blood Test Biomarkers, Vital Signs & Mitochondrial Function 01:11:16 Navigate Medical System & Blood Tests, Consumer Lab Testing 01:16:46 Tool: Environmental Factors; Food, Life as a Process 01:21:58 Tool: Ultra-Processed vs. Real Food, Obesity, Soil & Micronutrients 01:32:03 Ultra-Processed Foods: Brain & Cellular Confusion 01:39:10 Tools: Control Cravings, GLP-1 Production, Microbiome Support 01:51:42 Ozempic, GLP-1 Analogs; Root Cause & Medicine 02:00:54 Tool: Deliberate Cold & Heat Exposure, Brown Fat 02:07:27 Tool: Intermittent Fasting & Metabolic Flexibility; Insulin Sensitivity 02:17:03 Tool: Continuous Glucose Monitors (CGMs) & Awareness, Glucose Spikes 02:24:34 Tool: CGMs, Glycemic Variability, Dawn Effect, Individuality 02:33:10 Sleep; Continuous Monitoring & Biomarkers 02:37:39 Mindset & Safety, Stress & Cell Danger Response 02:44:04 Tool: Being in Nature, Sunlight, Fear 02:54:44 Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Improve Sleep to Boost Mood & Emotional Regulation

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Improve Sleep to Boost Mood & Emotional Regulation
    This is episode 5 of our 6-part special series on sleep with Dr. Matthew Walker, Ph.D., a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley and the host of The Matt Walker Podcast. In this episode, we explain the connection between sleep and mood, emotional regulation and mental well-being.  We explain the role of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in processing emotions and emotional memories and why sleep deprivation causes agitation, impulsivity and emotional reactivity.  We also discuss why sleep disruption is a hallmark feature of PTSD, anxiety, depression, suicidality, and other psychiatric conditions.  We explain protocols for improving REM sleep and other sleep phases in order to harness the therapeutic power of quality sleep to feel calmer and emotionally restored. This episode describes various actionable tools to improve sleep for those struggling with mental health or mood and those wanting to bolster their overall state and well-being.  The next episode in this special series explores dreams, including lucid dreaming, nightmares and dream interpretation. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Sleep & Mental Health (00:01:09) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, LMNT & BetterHelp (00:05:14) Emotions & Sleep, Amygdala (00:17:27) Emotional Memory & Sleep (00:25:48) “Overnight Therapy” & REM Sleep, Noradrenaline (00:29:13) Sponsor: AG1 (00:30:27) Sleep to “Remember & Forget”, Trauma; REM Sleep (00:38:27) Hinge Analogy; Motivation, Impulsivity & Addiction (00:47:08) Tool: Improve REM Sleep, Social Jet Lag, Alcohol & THC, Addiction (00:56:18) Sponsor: InsideTracker (00:57:23) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) & REM Sleep (01:06:53) Noradrenaline & REM Sleep, PTSD & Prazosin (01:09:40) Addiction, Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR); Liminal States (01:16:46) Anxiety & Sleep, Mood vs. Emotions (01:23:50) Deep Non-REM Sleep & Anxiety, Sleep Quality (01:28:51) Tool: Improve Deep Non-REM Sleep, Temperature; Alcohol (01:34:56) Suicidality & Sleep, Pattern Recognition; Nightmares (01:46:21) Depression, Anxiety & Time Context (01:51:24) Depression, Too Much Sleep?; REM Changes & Antidepressants (01:57:37) Sleep Deprivation & Depression (02:01:34) Tool: Circadian Misalignment & Mental Health, Chronotype (02:04:05) Tools: Daytime Light & Nighttime Darkness; “Junk Light” (02:13:04) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    AMA #17: Making Time for Fitness, Top Sleep Tools & Best Learning Strategies

    AMA #17: Making Time for Fitness, Top Sleep Tools & Best Learning Strategies
    Welcome to a preview of the 17th Ask Me Anything (AMA) episode, part of Huberman Lab Premium. Huberman Lab Premium was launched for two main reasons. First, it was launched in order to raise support for the main Huberman Lab podcast — which will continue to come out every Monday at zero-cost. Second, it was launched as a means to raise funds for important scientific research. A significant portion of proceeds from the Huberman Lab Premium subscription will fund human research (not animal models) selected by Dr. Huberman, with a dollar-for-dollar match from the Tiny Foundation. Read our Annual Letter 2023. If you're an existing Premium member, you can login to access the full episode. If you're not a member, you can join Huberman Lab Premium to enjoy exclusive content, including monthly Ask Me Anything (AMA) episodes, AMA transcripts, podcast episode transcripts, early access to live events and help advance human scientific research. Resources Foundational Fitness Protocol Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction to AMA #17 (00:00:14) Exciting Announcement (00:02:16) Diving Into the Foundational Fitness Protocol (00:09:37) Flexibility in Your Fitness Routine (00:17:12) Optimizing Workout Times & Prioritizing Health (00:23:31) Closing Thoughts & Huberman Lab Premium Benefits In the full AMA episode, we discuss: Periodization & the Philosophy of Fitness Unlocking the Secrets of Sleep: Insights & Tools Chronotypes and Personalized Sleep Strategies The QQRT Formula: Quantity, Quality, Regularity & Timing of Sleep Exploring Naps & Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) Effective Learning & Note-Taking Strategies The Power of Teaching & Self-Testing in Learning Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer

    Protocols to Strengthen & Pain Proof Your Back

    Protocols to Strengthen & Pain Proof Your Back
    In this episode, I explain how to strengthen and build a stable, pain-free back and how to reduce or eliminate existing back pain. I explain the anatomy and physiology of the spinal cord and vertebrae, intervertebral disks and nerve pathways, and the abdominal and back muscles that together can be leveraged to stabilize the back.  Then, I describe protocols: “McGill’s Big 3” exercises, a highly effective psoas stretch, abdominal stabilization, breathing techniques, and protocols to reinforce essential supports for the back, including the neck, pelvis, feet, and toes.  I also explain how you can reduce and potentially eliminate back pain and sciatica using a specific type of bar hang, “cobra push-ups,” medial-glute strengthening exercises, and more.  Back pain greatly impedes one’s ability to enjoy daily activities; this episode provides zero-cost, minimal time-investment protocols to improve your back strength and stability and allow you to move through life pain-free and with ease and mobility.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman Joovv: https://joovv.com/huberman Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman Plunge: https://plunge.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Back Health (00:03:47) Sponsors: AeroPress, Joovv & Waking Up (00:07:57) Back Anatomy: Spine, Vertebrae, Spinal Cord (00:12:07) Spinal Cord & Nerves; Herniated Discs (00:19:50) Build Strong Pain-Free Back; Bulging Discs (00:24:26) Back Pain & Professional Evaluation; Tool: Spine Self-Assessment  (00:34:58) Sponsor: AG1 (00:36:29) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Curl-Up (00:44:40) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Side Plank (00:53:13) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Bird Dog; Back Pain (01:04:10) Sponsor: Plunge (01:05:37) Tool: Back Pain & Oreo Analogy, Bar Hang (01:10:34) Time & Back Pain; Tool: Reversing Disc Herniation, Cobra Push-Ups  (01:21:28) Sciatica, Referred Pain, Herniated Disc (01:24:21) Tool: Improve Spine Stability, Strengthen Neck (01:29:23) Tools: Strengthen Feet, Toe Spreading (01:34:35) Tools: Belly Breathing; Stagger Stance (01:42:03) Tools: Relieve Low Back Pain, Medial Glute Activation; Rolled Towel (01:50:59) Tool: Psoas Stretching (01:57:00) Tool: Back Awareness; Strengthen & Pain-Proof Back (02:05:49) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Using Sleep to Improve Learning, Creativity & Memory

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Using Sleep to Improve Learning, Creativity & Memory
    This is episode 4 of a 6-part special series on sleep with Dr. Matthew Walker, Ph.D., a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, and author of the best-selling book "Why We Sleep." In this episode, we discuss the relationship between sleep, learning and creativity.  We explain why and how sleep before and after a learning bout can improve memory and performance for both cognitive tasks and physical skills. We also discuss how to use time learning and sleep, how to use naps, non-sleep deep rest states, and caffeine to optimize learning, and the mechanisms for sleep and memory consolidation.  We also explain the critical role that sleep plays in creativity and one's ability to discover novel solutions to challenges and problems.  This episode is filled with actionable information on using sleep to enhance skill learning and improve memory and creativity.  The next episode in this guest series explains how sleep benefits emotional regulation and mental health.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman  WHOOP: https://join.whoop.com/huberman  Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman  InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Sleep & Learning (00:00:59) Sponsors: Helix Sleep, Whoop & Waking Up (00:05:48) Learning, Memory & Sleep (00:09:32) Memory & Sleep, “All-Nighters”, Hippocampus (00:13:46) Naps & Learning Capacity (00:16:59) Early School Start Times, Performance & Accidents (00:26:38) Medical Residency & Sleep Deprivation (00:29:35) Sponsor: AG1 (00:30:49) Tool: Sleep Before Learning; Cramming Effect (00:35:09) Tools: Caffeine; Timing Peak Learning; “Second Wind” (00:44:25) Memory Consolidation in Sleep (00:55:07) Sleepwalking & Talking; REM-Sleep Behavioral Disorder (01:00:16) REM Sleep Paralysis, Alcohol, Stress (01:07:41) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:08:46) Skills, Motor Learning & Sleep (01:17:03) Tool: Timing Sleep & Learning, Skill Enhancement (01:20:00) Naps; Specificity & Memory Consolidation, Sleep Spindles (01:27:21) Sleep, Motor Learning & Athletes; Automaticity (01:34:10) Can Learning Improve Sleep? (01:39:13) Tool: Exercise to Improve Sleep; Performance, Injury & Motivation (01:44:38) Pillars of Health; Dieting & Sleep Deprivation (01:49:35) Performance & Poor Sleep, Belief Effects, “Orthosomnia” (01:57:03) “Overnight Alchemy”, Sleep & Novel Memory Linking (02:05:58) Sleep & Creativity (02:11:09) Tools: Waking & Technology; Naps; “Sleep on a Problem” (02:20:51) Creative Insight & Sleep (02:26:18) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher: Vaping, Alcohol Use & Other Risky Youth Behaviors

    Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher: Vaping, Alcohol Use & Other Risky Youth Behaviors
    In this episode, my guest is Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher, PhD, FSAHM. She is a professor of pediatrics and adolescent medicine and a developmental psychologist at Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Halpern-Felsher is a world expert in adolescent decision-making and risk-taking behaviors. She explains the huge increase in vaping (e-cigarettes) by young people. She explains why vaping nicotine and cannabis is particularly dangerous to the developing brain. We discuss the rise in vaping addiction, the unique social pressures and social media influences faced by youth that make quitting challenging, and interventions to aid them in quitting or reducing use. We also discuss the role of technology and social media. And, the use of alcohol, nicotine pouches, fentanyl, and other risky behaviors that adolescents face now. This episode should interest parents, teachers, coaches, teens, and families. It covers the current youth substance use landscape and also covers resources and ways to quit these addictive behaviors.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Use Ask Huberman Lab, our new AI-powered platform, for a summary, clips, and insights from this episode. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman  Mateina: https://drinkmateina.com/huberman  LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman  Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher (00:01:40) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, Mateina & LMNT  (00:05:38) Adolescence (00:09:19) Household Conflict, Parents; Smart Phones (00:12:35) Smart Phones & Social Media (00:18:25) Vaping, E-Cigarettes, Nicotine & Cannabis (00:23:46) Adolescent Nicotine Use: Marketing, Flavors (00:30:41) Sponsor: AG1 (00:32:13) Nicotine Initiation, Freebase vs. Salt-Based Nicotine, Concentration (00:41:35) Addiction & Withdrawal; E-Cigarette Access (00:48:48) Vaping Health Hazards, Aldehydes, Flavors (00:56:32) Sponsor: Waking Up (00:57:48) “Just Say No”, Adolescent Defiance (01:04:21) Cannabis & Potency, Blunts, E-Cigarette Combinations (01:10:30) Psychosis, THC & Adolescence (01:14:11) Quitting Nicotine & Cannabis; Physical & Social Withdrawal Symptoms (01:23:05) Social Pressures, Quitting Vaping, Environment Concerns (01:30:08) Teen Activities, Social Media, Autonomy (01:36:28) Risky Behaviors, Alcohol, Driving, Sexual Behavior (01:43:27) International E-Cigarette Use, Regulation (01:46:10) Nicotine Pouches, Health Risks; Tolerance (01:53:25) Tools: Vaping Interventions, Decision Making, Harm Reduction (02:02:37) Fentanyl, Drug Testing, Recreational Drug Use (02:13:45) Tool: Organic Conversations & Risky Behavior (02:17:20) Long-Term Goals & Teens; Vaping, Pornography & Teens (02:24:08) Mental Health Crisis & Substance Use (02:29:11) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer