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    Dr. Emily Balcetis: Tools for Setting & Achieving Goals

    Our energy levels and physical state can significantly impact how we perceive distances and hills. Altering our physical state can help change our perception and may offer remedies for lack of motivation and poor physical and psychological health.

    enAugust 01, 2022

    About this Episode

    My guest this episode is Dr. Emily Balcetis, PhD, Professor of Psychology at New York University (NYU). Dr. Balcetis’ research focuses on how our perception of the world, particularly our visual perceptions, influences our level and persistence of motivation, how we conceptualize goals, actual goal achievement, and our emotional state as we pursue goals. Dr. Balcetis explains how to best visualize and overcome challenges in pursuit of larger, complex goals. We also discuss the science of how to define goals and intermediate milestones, overcome obstacles, and effectively track progress. This episode highlights science-based, immediately actionable tools that anyone can use to set and achieve physical and/or cognitive goals more effectively. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Emily Balcetis, Visualization of Goals & Motivation (00:03:41) Sponsors: LMNT (00:08:08) Vision & Motivation (00:11:37) Tool: Narrowing Visual Focus & Improving Exercise (00:21:39) Adjusting Visual Attention & Perceived Fatigue (00:25:14) Tool: Visual Focus “Spotlight” (00:27:57) Tool: Goal Gradient Hypothesis, Visual Spotlight to Increase Effort (00:32:23) Sponsor: AG1 (00:35:00) Defining Goals vs. Accomplishing Goals, Dream Boards & Goal Lists  (00:41:28) Tool: How to Setting Better Goals & Identify Obstacles (00:46:38) Vision is Unique, Challenging the Visual System, Realistic Goals & Micro-Goals (00:57:12) Do Fit People View the World Differently?, States of Body & Visual Experiences (01:05:54) Caffeine, Stimulants, Visual Windows & Motivation (01:10:13) Tools: Goal Setting & Cognitive (Non-Physical) Goals, Data Collection (01:21:54) Year in Review & Memory (01:26:32) Visual Tools & Mental Health, Depression & Visual Priming (01:31:33) Focusing Attention & Increasing Visual Detail/Resolution (01:36:12) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Neural Network Newsletter, Instagram, Twitter, Momentous Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer

    🔑 Key Takeaways

    • The way we visualize our goals in our mind determines our energy levels, belief in success, and motivation. Learning practical visualization tools can make goal-setting automated, enjoyable, and prevent burnout.
    • By incorporating new visual strategies into your goal-setting process, you can overcome obstacles, improve motivation, and achieve success with less effort.
    • Adopting a narrowed focus of attention, like elite athletes, can improve performance and achieve fitness goals. Focus solely on sub-goals and block out distractions.
    • Focus on a specific target during exercise can boost performance, increase calorie burn and reduce pain. It's not just for professional athletes- anyone can learn it. Visual attention is a key component of physical fitness.
    • Visualize a specific goal with a circular point of light to stay focused and avoid distractions. Proximity to a goal increases motivation and investment in resources, leading to harder work and better results.
    • By focusing on specific goals and using visual aids such as visual boards and dream boards, we can induce a sense of proximity that motivates us to work harder and achieve our goals.
    • Simply dreaming and visualizing goals is not enough to achieve them. Breaking down goals into practical steps and identifying potential obstacles leads to better achievement and motivation. Plan big picture goals abstractly and then break them down.
    • Anticipating potential obstacles and creating a backup plan can increase motivation, prevent anxiety, and improve performance. This approach can be applied to any goal, big or small, for greater success.
    • Our brain prioritizes our visual sense due to its accuracy and vast neural real estate. However, visual illusions can expose its limitations and there's much to learn about how it processes sensory information.
    • Setting realistic, challenging goals and celebrating micro accomplishments boosts pleasure, excitement, and self-congratulations. Visualize progress with windows to measure time, and carve up time differently using visual landscapes to achieve goals efficiently.
    • Our energy levels and physical state can significantly impact how we perceive distances and hills. Altering our physical state can help change our perception and may offer remedies for lack of motivation and poor physical and psychological health.
    • When faced with challenging tasks due to physical state, adopting a strategy of narrowing focus and using caffeine as a tool can help improve motivation and overall experience. Simple strategies and tricks can induce positive changes in the body and mind.
    • Our mind and attention play a crucial role in achieving cognitive goals. By using psychological tricks like highlighting, we can learn more effectively. Using caffeine or its substitutes can trick our mind psychologically and increase productivity.
    • Keep a narrow focus, commit to a deadline and invite others to watch your progress. Achieving even small goals provide valuable experience in overcoming obstacles. Remember to prioritize responsibilities.
    • Track your progress using apps like Reporter or One Second Everyday to stay motivated for achieving your goals and make accurate assessments. Visualize your progress to ensure you are on the right track and make necessary changes.
    • Capturing even seemingly insignificant moments can be emotionally significant, while healthy habits like morning sunlight, cognitive strategies, and glucose or caffeine intake improve mental health and well-being.
    • Focusing on negative elements reinforces depression, but visual tools like narrowed focus and positive stimuli can improve energy, self-efficacy, and temporarily alleviate symptoms of depression. These tools are a cost-effective option that can complement other treatments and improve overall mental health.
    • By intentionally directing our attention and engaging our brain in a specific way, we can produce real change in our physical and mental experiences. Through deliberate focus and effort, we have the power to shape how we interact with the world.

    📝 Podcast Summary

    How Visualizing Goals Impacts Success and Motivation.

    How we visualize a problem or a goal in our mind has everything to do with how we lean into that goal, whether we think of it as overwhelming or tractable. Dr. Emily Beche's work has discovered that how we visualize a goal or a problem visually in our mind dictates whether we will arrive at the challenge of meeting a goal with more or less energy. It also dictates whether we think we can overcome that goal and whether it will lead to yet more possible rewards and goals. By learning practical visualizing tools, we can set and achieve our goals with less effort and in a more automated way, making the process enjoyable and avoiding burnout.

    How Visual Illusions Can Help You Achieve Your Goals

    By understanding the link between vision and motivation, and using visual illusions, people can overcome obstacles and make progress on their goals. Vision is the dominant sense by which we navigate the world and survive. People's number one goal is something related to their health, but it's really hard to accomplish it. To exercise better, more often and stick to it longer, it requires a major commitment and effort to a lifestyle change. However, by finding new tactics that people can add to their tool belt, they can make a big payoff with less effort. By encouraging people to take a new way of looking, they can see things that they haven't seen before, and achieve their goals more quickly and more efficiently.

    Narrowed Focus of Attention Strategy for Better Performance

    Elite athletes use a narrowed focus of attention strategy to achieve better performance. The strategy is like a spotlight shining on a target, and athletes focus solely on that target or sub-goals to achieve their running goals. This focus strategy can be taught to anyone, even to non-athletes like your mom and yourself. The ability to imagine this experience is enough to adopt this strategy. In contrast, an expansive or open scope of attention, where athletes pay attention to their surroundings, does not work well. The study found that Olympians and competitive runners who adopted this strategy had better pace and faster time. Therefore, maintaining a narrowed focus of attention may help achieve fitness goals and maintain commitment to exercise.

    Narrowing Visual Attention in Exercise and Its Impacts

    Narrowing visual attention during an exercise can improve performance, burn calories at a higher rate, and reduce pain. Even normal people can adopt this strategy easily through a quick training session. Seasoned runners tend to use narrowed focus of attention more often and intentionally as the race progresses, especially during the last push to the finish line. However, it can be tiring and distracting when used excessively in long-distance runs. This strategy is particularly effective for short distance sprinters who need to finish as fast as possible. The brain stem circuitry for alertness gets engaged to a greater degree when we bring our eyes to a visual target. Therefore, visual attention plays a significant role in physical performance.

    Focusing on Goal with a Circular Point of Light.

    When trying to focus on a specific goal, it's more effective to imagine a circular point of light shining on that target rather than looking broadly across the goal. This helps people maintain focus and avoid being pulled by peripheral vision. Proximity to a goal increases the investment in resources used to meet it, even when resources are running low. This goal gradient hypothesis applies to both animals and humans, making them work harder when they can see or feel that their goal is close. This can be applied when exercising, as people tend to work harder when they get closer to the finish line.

    Creating an illusion of proximity through visual motivation

    Creating an illusion of proximity by inducing a narrowed focus of attention leads to people trying harder, walking faster, feeling that it defied their expectations and that it wasn't as bad as they thought it would be. This strategy can be used to improve performance when exercising and achieving goals. Visual boards, dream boards, or making a list are all strategies that work and involve our visual experience to motivate ourselves by identifying what we want in life to be a major accomplishment and help us in defining goals which can be really challenging for people. Visual aperture effects and goal lines can motivate people and create an illusion of proximity that can have a really positive consequence.

    The Importance of Practical and Manageable Steps in Goal Achievement

    Simply dreaming and visualizing about one's goals does not necessarily help achieve them. While such goal-setting methods may decrease systolic blood pressure and create positive feelings, they may not create the physical or mental activation required to take the initial action towards those goals. Instead, breaking down goals into more practical and manageable steps, and identifying potential obstacles along the way, leads to better goal achievement and increased motivation. Therefore, it is important to plan big picture goals abstractly and then break them down into more manageable and concrete steps while simultaneously identifying potential obstacles.

    Preparing for Obstacles Leads to Success: Lessons from Michael Phelps

    Thinking about potential obstacles and creating a plan to overcome them in advance can increase motivation and improve performance. This is because it allows us to have a plan B or a plan C in place, saving time and resources, and preventing anxiety from hijacking our decision-making. Michael Phelps is an example of how planning for obstacles can be incorporated into practice and help to achieve success. Incremental measurement, such as counting strokes, can also be effective in overcoming obstacles. This approach can be applied to any goal, whether it is achieving Olympic-level performance or completing a three-mile run. In summary, anticipating potential obstacles and creating a plan to overcome them is an effective way to increase motivation and achieve success.

    The Fascinating World of Our Visual Sense and Its Limitations.

    Our visual sense is prioritized over other senses by our brain, with more neural real estate devoted to it than any other sense, allowing us to see great distances and betraying us less often than other senses. Vision is unique and fascinating because it rarely gets updated, and we trust it as reflecting the world accurately. Visual illusions, like the dress or the horse-seal drawing, expose the limitations of our visual processing, causing divisions and disagreement. However, there's still much to learn about how the brain processes visual information in contexts such as counting, performing exercises or listening to music, and how it prioritizes and processes other senses.

    Using Visual Experience to Achieve Goals.

    Our visual experience plays an important role in achieving our goals. It can be used as a strategic tool alongside other tactics to sustain effort and accomplish tasks. We need to set goals that challenge us, but are also realistically attainable and celebrate our micro accomplishments. An example is setting micro goals in groups of 10 for jumping jacks, as it gives us a boost of pleasure, excitement, and self-congratulations with little hedonic hits of dopamine, before moving to the next challenging physical obstacles. Vision helps us understand our sense of space and time, and we can use visual windows to measure time bins. Carving up time differently through visual landscapes helps us achieve our goals more efficiently.

    How our physical state affects our visual perception of space.

    Our visual perception of space can be influenced by our physical state and energy levels. People who are chronically tired or physically weighed down perceive distances as farther and hills as steeper, while those who are given a sugar drink and experience an increase in energy perceive distances as closer. This suggests that narrowing our visual aperture by changing our physical state can change the way we perceive time. Using double-blind experiments, researchers can study the relation between states of the body and visual experiences. This understanding can lead to potential remedies for those who are unmotivated or unfit, and help create a path towards better physical and psychological health.

    The Impact of Physical State on Visual Experience and Motivation

    Physical state of the body impacts an individual's visual experience, making tasks appear more challenging. This has downstream effects on motivation and psychological state, making it less likely for individuals with challenging physical states to attempt tasks. However, adopting a strategy of narrowing focus of attention and allocating attentional resources to an intermediate goal can help overcome this challenge. Caffeine is a stimulant that can induce the same visual and motivational effects as a narrowed focus of attention, making it a useful tool to aid in motivation. Overall, individuals can change the state of their body and induce positive experiences and motivation through simple strategies and tricks.

    Leveraging the Power of Placebo Effect and Psychological Tricks for Goal Achievement.

    The placebo effect and psychological tricks can help us achieve our goals, even if they are not physically related. We can use our mind and attention to anchor our focus and achieve cognitive goals like reading, learning a language or playing music. Vision can also be tied to the process of learning language effectively through highlighting different parts of words in paragraphs. Even though caffeine doesn't work for some people, having a cup of decaf coffee in the morning can trick our mind psychologically and help us feel ready to take on the day. We can leverage our non-zero power over our mind and allocate our attention to achieve our goals.

    Overcoming Personal Obstacles to Achieve Goals with a Deadline.

    Setting a goal with a deadline can be challenging, especially if it involves overcoming personal obstacles. It's easy to get discouraged and feel like progress is slow. Our memory isn't reliable when it comes to assessing our own progress, so narrowing focus and using tactics like committing to a date and inviting others to watch can help. Even though the goal may seem small, like becoming a one-hit wonder drummer, the act of setting and achieving it can be empowering and provide valuable experience in goal-setting and overcoming obstacles. Plus, it's important to remember that personal goals may need to take a backseat at times to attend to other pressing responsibilities.

    The Benefits of Data Collection for Goal Tracking.

    Collecting data on yourself can give you insight into your progress towards a goal, especially when relying on memory can be unreliable. Using apps like the reporter app or the one second every day app can help you track your progress and make a more accurate assessment of how you're doing. This can be helpful for setting or resetting goals and making sure you're making the progress you want to make. Visualizing your progress can also be helpful in staying motivated and seeing the progress you're making, even if it may not be immediately clear from memory.

    Tools for Meaningful Life Reflection and Improved Health.

    The One Second Every Day app is a great tool to visually capture and reflect on your life experiences. Even a seemingly mundane moment like a brick wall can hold deep emotional significance and serve as a reminder of life's preciousness and the importance of family. The brain thinks in symbols, making it efficient at attaching meaning to even brief visual experiences. Another practical tool for improving health is getting morning sunlight in your eyes to set your circadian rhythms, which has been shown to have numerous health benefits. In addition, increasing energy levels through cognitive strategies or healthy behaviors like glucose or caffeine intake can improve perception of the world and combat symptoms of depression.

    Visual Tools to Combat Depression and Improve Mental Health

    Depression creates a negative worldview that reinforces itself in a vicious loop. Visual tools, like narrowed focus, can increase energy and motivation to tackle challenges. Studies show that depressed individuals tend to focus on negative elements in their environment, further worsening their situation. However, interventions that direct attention to positive stimuli, like smiling faces, can improve self-efficacy and produce a temporary change. While these tools do not cure depression, they can help individuals veering towards suicidal depression or anxiety episodes. The implementation of visual tools in mental health space is a zero-cost opportunity that needs exploration. Visual goal setting, like spotlighting, also improves performance in physical activities.

    How Focusing Our Attention Can Change Our Bodies and Experience

    By focusing our attention and intention, we can engage with the world in a way that produces real change in our bodies and experience. Neuroscientists have discovered that when we will ourselves to pay attention to a specific element of the world and not pay attention to something else, our brain responds to our psychology and produces real change. By making our phone as bright as possible or attaching more detail and effort to the specific thing we're focused on, our brain and body respond differently. Our brains are also specialized for making sense of faces, and we have the power to decide how we want to engage with the world.

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    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Improve Sleep to Boost Mood & Emotional Regulation

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Improve Sleep to Boost Mood & Emotional Regulation
    This is episode 5 of our 6-part special series on sleep with Dr. Matthew Walker, Ph.D., a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley and the host of The Matt Walker Podcast. In this episode, we explain the connection between sleep and mood, emotional regulation and mental well-being.  We explain the role of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in processing emotions and emotional memories and why sleep deprivation causes agitation, impulsivity and emotional reactivity.  We also discuss why sleep disruption is a hallmark feature of PTSD, anxiety, depression, suicidality, and other psychiatric conditions.  We explain protocols for improving REM sleep and other sleep phases in order to harness the therapeutic power of quality sleep to feel calmer and emotionally restored. This episode describes various actionable tools to improve sleep for those struggling with mental health or mood and those wanting to bolster their overall state and well-being.  The next episode in this special series explores dreams, including lucid dreaming, nightmares and dream interpretation. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Sleep & Mental Health (00:01:09) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, LMNT & BetterHelp (00:05:14) Emotions & Sleep, Amygdala (00:17:27) Emotional Memory & Sleep (00:25:48) “Overnight Therapy” & REM Sleep, Noradrenaline (00:29:13) Sponsor: AG1 (00:30:27) Sleep to “Remember & Forget”, Trauma; REM Sleep (00:38:27) Hinge Analogy; Motivation, Impulsivity & Addiction (00:47:08) Tool: Improve REM Sleep, Social Jet Lag, Alcohol & THC, Addiction (00:56:18) Sponsor: InsideTracker (00:57:23) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) & REM Sleep (01:06:53) Noradrenaline & REM Sleep, PTSD & Prazosin (01:09:40) Addiction, Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR); Liminal States (01:16:46) Anxiety & Sleep, Mood vs. Emotions (01:23:50) Deep Non-REM Sleep & Anxiety, Sleep Quality (01:28:51) Tool: Improve Deep Non-REM Sleep, Temperature; Alcohol (01:34:56) Suicidality & Sleep, Pattern Recognition; Nightmares (01:46:21) Depression, Anxiety & Time Context (01:51:24) Depression, Too Much Sleep?; REM Changes & Antidepressants (01:57:37) Sleep Deprivation & Depression (02:01:34) Tool: Circadian Misalignment & Mental Health, Chronotype (02:04:05) Tools: Daytime Light & Nighttime Darkness; “Junk Light” (02:13:04) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    AMA #17: Making Time for Fitness, Top Sleep Tools & Best Learning Strategies

    AMA #17: Making Time for Fitness, Top Sleep Tools & Best Learning Strategies
    Welcome to a preview of the 17th Ask Me Anything (AMA) episode, part of Huberman Lab Premium. Huberman Lab Premium was launched for two main reasons. First, it was launched in order to raise support for the main Huberman Lab podcast — which will continue to come out every Monday at zero-cost. Second, it was launched as a means to raise funds for important scientific research. A significant portion of proceeds from the Huberman Lab Premium subscription will fund human research (not animal models) selected by Dr. Huberman, with a dollar-for-dollar match from the Tiny Foundation. Read our Annual Letter 2023. If you're an existing Premium member, you can login to access the full episode. If you're not a member, you can join Huberman Lab Premium to enjoy exclusive content, including monthly Ask Me Anything (AMA) episodes, AMA transcripts, podcast episode transcripts, early access to live events and help advance human scientific research. Resources Foundational Fitness Protocol Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction to AMA #17 (00:00:14) Exciting Announcement (00:02:16) Diving Into the Foundational Fitness Protocol (00:09:37) Flexibility in Your Fitness Routine (00:17:12) Optimizing Workout Times & Prioritizing Health (00:23:31) Closing Thoughts & Huberman Lab Premium Benefits In the full AMA episode, we discuss: Periodization & the Philosophy of Fitness Unlocking the Secrets of Sleep: Insights & Tools Chronotypes and Personalized Sleep Strategies The QQRT Formula: Quantity, Quality, Regularity & Timing of Sleep Exploring Naps & Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) Effective Learning & Note-Taking Strategies The Power of Teaching & Self-Testing in Learning Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer

    Protocols to Strengthen & Pain Proof Your Back

    Protocols to Strengthen & Pain Proof Your Back
    In this episode, I explain how to strengthen and build a stable, pain-free back and how to reduce or eliminate existing back pain. I explain the anatomy and physiology of the spinal cord and vertebrae, intervertebral disks and nerve pathways, and the abdominal and back muscles that together can be leveraged to stabilize the back.  Then, I describe protocols: “McGill’s Big 3” exercises, a highly effective psoas stretch, abdominal stabilization, breathing techniques, and protocols to reinforce essential supports for the back, including the neck, pelvis, feet, and toes.  I also explain how you can reduce and potentially eliminate back pain and sciatica using a specific type of bar hang, “cobra push-ups,” medial-glute strengthening exercises, and more.  Back pain greatly impedes one’s ability to enjoy daily activities; this episode provides zero-cost, minimal time-investment protocols to improve your back strength and stability and allow you to move through life pain-free and with ease and mobility.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman Joovv: https://joovv.com/huberman Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman Plunge: https://plunge.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Back Health (00:03:47) Sponsors: AeroPress, Joovv & Waking Up (00:07:57) Back Anatomy: Spine, Vertebrae, Spinal Cord (00:12:07) Spinal Cord & Nerves; Herniated Discs (00:19:50) Build Strong Pain-Free Back; Bulging Discs (00:24:26) Back Pain & Professional Evaluation; Tool: Spine Self-Assessment  (00:34:58) Sponsor: AG1 (00:36:29) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Curl-Up (00:44:40) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Side Plank (00:53:13) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Bird Dog; Back Pain (01:04:10) Sponsor: Plunge (01:05:37) Tool: Back Pain & Oreo Analogy, Bar Hang (01:10:34) Time & Back Pain; Tool: Reversing Disc Herniation, Cobra Push-Ups  (01:21:28) Sciatica, Referred Pain, Herniated Disc (01:24:21) Tool: Improve Spine Stability, Strengthen Neck (01:29:23) Tools: Strengthen Feet, Toe Spreading (01:34:35) Tools: Belly Breathing; Stagger Stance (01:42:03) Tools: Relieve Low Back Pain, Medial Glute Activation; Rolled Towel (01:50:59) Tool: Psoas Stretching (01:57:00) Tool: Back Awareness; Strengthen & Pain-Proof Back (02:05:49) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Using Sleep to Improve Learning, Creativity & Memory

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Using Sleep to Improve Learning, Creativity & Memory
    This is episode 4 of a 6-part special series on sleep with Dr. Matthew Walker, Ph.D., a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, and author of the best-selling book "Why We Sleep." In this episode, we discuss the relationship between sleep, learning and creativity.  We explain why and how sleep before and after a learning bout can improve memory and performance for both cognitive tasks and physical skills. We also discuss how to use time learning and sleep, how to use naps, non-sleep deep rest states, and caffeine to optimize learning, and the mechanisms for sleep and memory consolidation.  We also explain the critical role that sleep plays in creativity and one's ability to discover novel solutions to challenges and problems.  This episode is filled with actionable information on using sleep to enhance skill learning and improve memory and creativity.  The next episode in this guest series explains how sleep benefits emotional regulation and mental health.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman  WHOOP: https://join.whoop.com/huberman  Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman  InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Sleep & Learning (00:00:59) Sponsors: Helix Sleep, Whoop & Waking Up (00:05:48) Learning, Memory & Sleep (00:09:32) Memory & Sleep, “All-Nighters”, Hippocampus (00:13:46) Naps & Learning Capacity (00:16:59) Early School Start Times, Performance & Accidents (00:26:38) Medical Residency & Sleep Deprivation (00:29:35) Sponsor: AG1 (00:30:49) Tool: Sleep Before Learning; Cramming Effect (00:35:09) Tools: Caffeine; Timing Peak Learning; “Second Wind” (00:44:25) Memory Consolidation in Sleep (00:55:07) Sleepwalking & Talking; REM-Sleep Behavioral Disorder (01:00:16) REM Sleep Paralysis, Alcohol, Stress (01:07:41) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:08:46) Skills, Motor Learning & Sleep (01:17:03) Tool: Timing Sleep & Learning, Skill Enhancement (01:20:00) Naps; Specificity & Memory Consolidation, Sleep Spindles (01:27:21) Sleep, Motor Learning & Athletes; Automaticity (01:34:10) Can Learning Improve Sleep? (01:39:13) Tool: Exercise to Improve Sleep; Performance, Injury & Motivation (01:44:38) Pillars of Health; Dieting & Sleep Deprivation (01:49:35) Performance & Poor Sleep, Belief Effects, “Orthosomnia” (01:57:03) “Overnight Alchemy”, Sleep & Novel Memory Linking (02:05:58) Sleep & Creativity (02:11:09) Tools: Waking & Technology; Naps; “Sleep on a Problem” (02:20:51) Creative Insight & Sleep (02:26:18) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher: Vaping, Alcohol Use & Other Risky Youth Behaviors

    Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher: Vaping, Alcohol Use & Other Risky Youth Behaviors
    In this episode, my guest is Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher, PhD, FSAHM. She is a professor of pediatrics and adolescent medicine and a developmental psychologist at Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Halpern-Felsher is a world expert in adolescent decision-making and risk-taking behaviors. She explains the huge increase in vaping (e-cigarettes) by young people. She explains why vaping nicotine and cannabis is particularly dangerous to the developing brain. We discuss the rise in vaping addiction, the unique social pressures and social media influences faced by youth that make quitting challenging, and interventions to aid them in quitting or reducing use. We also discuss the role of technology and social media. And, the use of alcohol, nicotine pouches, fentanyl, and other risky behaviors that adolescents face now. This episode should interest parents, teachers, coaches, teens, and families. It covers the current youth substance use landscape and also covers resources and ways to quit these addictive behaviors.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Use Ask Huberman Lab, our new AI-powered platform, for a summary, clips, and insights from this episode. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman  Mateina: https://drinkmateina.com/huberman  LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman  Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher (00:01:40) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, Mateina & LMNT  (00:05:38) Adolescence (00:09:19) Household Conflict, Parents; Smart Phones (00:12:35) Smart Phones & Social Media (00:18:25) Vaping, E-Cigarettes, Nicotine & Cannabis (00:23:46) Adolescent Nicotine Use: Marketing, Flavors (00:30:41) Sponsor: AG1 (00:32:13) Nicotine Initiation, Freebase vs. Salt-Based Nicotine, Concentration (00:41:35) Addiction & Withdrawal; E-Cigarette Access (00:48:48) Vaping Health Hazards, Aldehydes, Flavors (00:56:32) Sponsor: Waking Up (00:57:48) “Just Say No”, Adolescent Defiance (01:04:21) Cannabis & Potency, Blunts, E-Cigarette Combinations (01:10:30) Psychosis, THC & Adolescence (01:14:11) Quitting Nicotine & Cannabis; Physical & Social Withdrawal Symptoms (01:23:05) Social Pressures, Quitting Vaping, Environment Concerns (01:30:08) Teen Activities, Social Media, Autonomy (01:36:28) Risky Behaviors, Alcohol, Driving, Sexual Behavior (01:43:27) International E-Cigarette Use, Regulation (01:46:10) Nicotine Pouches, Health Risks; Tolerance (01:53:25) Tools: Vaping Interventions, Decision Making, Harm Reduction (02:02:37) Fentanyl, Drug Testing, Recreational Drug Use (02:13:45) Tool: Organic Conversations & Risky Behavior (02:17:20) Long-Term Goals & Teens; Vaping, Pornography & Teens (02:24:08) Mental Health Crisis & Substance Use (02:29:11) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer