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    Healthy Eating & Eating Disorders - Anorexia, Bulimia, Binging

    Targeting neural circuitry and behaviors through interventions focused on changing habits and behaviors is more effective for treating anorexia, instead of just focusing on symptoms.

    enSeptember 06, 2021

    About this Episode

    In this episode, I discuss what drives hunger and satiety, and the role our brain, stomach, fat and hormones play in regulating hunger and turning off the desire to eat more. I also address how protein is assimilated better early in the day than it is later in the day, and why those using intermittent fasting might want to shift their feeding window to earlier in the day. Then I delve into the topic of disorders of eating: Anorexia Nervosa, where people starve themselves and Bulimia Nervosa where people binge and purge their food. I discuss some common myths about Anorexia such as the role of media images increasing the rates of anorexia and the myth of the "perfectionist" anorexic. I also review the symptoms, and the brain and chemical systems disrupted in this condition. I explain how anorexics become hyperaware of the fat content of foods and develop reflexive habits of fat-hyperawareness. Then I discuss the most effective treatments ranging from family-based models to those that target the habitual nature of low-fat/calorie food choices. I also discuss new more experimental clinical trials on MDMA, Psilocybin and Ibogaine for Anorexia, and both their promise and risks I review the latest work on binge eating disorder and brain stimulation, drug treatments and thyroid disruption in Bulimia and why the treatments for Bulimia are so similar to those for ADHD. Finally, I discuss "cheat days," body dysmorphia and the growing list of novel forms of eating disorders start to finish. As always, science and science-based tools are discussed. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction: Fasting, & Defining Healthy Eating (00:08:55) Morning Protein Is Important  (00:22:21) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT (00:26:29) Defining & Diagnosing Eating Disorders (00:29:00) Anorexia Nervosa (Overview & Myths) (00:33:44) Bulimia (Overview & Myths) (00:37:35) Binge Eating Disorders, EDNOS, OSFEDS, Pica (00:39:44) What is Hunger? What is Satiety? (00:42:00) Neuronal & Hormonal “Accelerators & Brakes” on Eating (00:46:17) Fat, Leptin & Fertility & Metabolic Dysfunctions in Obesity (00:50:30) Why We Overeat (00:55:30) Homeostasis & Reward Systems/Decisions  (00:59:58) Anorexia (01:04:28) The Cholesterol Paradox (01:06:13) Psychological vs. Biological/Genetic Factors in Anorexia (01:09:44) Chemical Imbalances, Serotonergic Treatments (01:12:56) Altered Habits & Rewards in Anorexia: Hyperacuity for Fat Content (01:18:28) Brain Areas for Reward Based Decision Making vs. Habits (01:24:06) Habit-Reward Circuits Are Flipped in Anorexics: Reward for Deprivation (01:28:30) How Do You Break a Habit?  (01:33:23) Family Based Models, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (01:35:39) MDMA, Psilocybin, Clinical Trials, Ibogaine  (01:40:35) Anabolic vs. Catabolic Exercise, Spontaneous Movements, NEAT (01:43:23) Distorted Self Image in Anorexia  (01:47:54) Bulimia & Binge-Eating, “Cheat Days”, Thyroid Hormone (01:53:05) Inhibitory Control, Impulsivity, Adderall, Wellbutrin (01:58:00) Direct Brain Stimulation: Nucleus Accumbens (02:04:28) Anorexia/Reward. vs Bulimia/Binging   (02:05:45) Healthy Eating Revisited (02:10:55) Synthesis, Body Dysmorphias (02:14:15) Support: Podcast, & Research Studies Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer

    🔑 Key Takeaways

    • Intermittent fasting may improve health markers, but weight loss depends on calorie consumption and expenditure. Customizing feeding windows and ensuring hydration are essential. Having a healthy food relationship involves understanding eating habits and positive attitudes towards body composition.
    • Healthy eating and fasting practices should be tailored to individual needs and preferences. Skipping meals does not guarantee weight loss and can be harmful. Eating disorders should be diagnosed and treated. Time of protein intake has little impact on muscle growth. Research to find what works best for you.
    • Ingesting protein and amino acids early in the day is vital for muscle growth and maintenance. Regardless of age and athleticism, loss of skeletal muscle can lead to injury, cognitive and metabolic deficits. Leucine and mTOR pathway play a crucial role in muscle hypertrophy.
    • Consuming quality protein and amino acids early in the day is important for muscle maintenance and synthesis. Plant-based foods can also provide high-quality protein. Healthy eating windows depend on individual values and there are clear criteria for defining eating disorders.
    • Self-diagnosing is not recommended, as eating disorders are dangerous and should be treated by qualified healthcare professionals. Anorexia nervosa is hardwired into biology, not caused by societal pressures. Treatment is essential for recovery.
    • Binge eating, overeating, and bulimia are different, and there is no one-size-fits-all cause. While anorexia and bulimia have biological roots, it's critical to understand the connection between the brain, body, and eating behaviors to achieve a healthy eating attitude.
    • Our hunger and satiety are regulated by mechanical and chemical signaling mechanisms from the stomach and brain. The hypothalamus controls appetite and eating cessation through POMC and AGRP neurons. Eating behaviour can be altered through neuron manipulation, resulting in anorexia or hyperphagia.
    • Hunger and satiety involve a range of signals and pathways, including hormones, gut neurons, and metabolic processes. Disorders and eating habits can interfere with healthy regulation, making mindful eating and chewing important for better control.
    • Our brains are hardwired to seek food, but this primitive reflex can lead to eating disorders and impulsive behaviors. Understanding the underlying mechanisms can help us make better decisions.
    • Treating eating disorders must address underlying biological mechanisms, including habit formation and reward processes. Anorexia can be driven by hormonal disruptions and reward mechanisms, not just societal pressures. New classifications improve diagnosis and treatment options.
    • Anorexia, often beginning in adolescence, can have negative effects on hormones, insulin, and cholesterol. Understanding the complex causes and intervening early can improve outcomes for those affected.
    • Targeting neural circuitry and behaviors through interventions focused on changing habits and behaviors is more effective for treating anorexia, instead of just focusing on symptoms.
    • Reflexive habits connected to low-calorie food options are vital in driving anorexic behavior. Targeting the habit-forming brain areas for intervention is crucial in treating anorexia. Reward-based decision-making can be controlled through the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.
    • Anorexia alters the reward system in the brain, linking habit formation with avoiding certain foods and only seeking low-calorie options. This reinforces negative behavior and creates a false sense of reward for those suffering from anorexia.
    • Intervention in neural circuitry related to habits and rewiring them through interoception can be more effective for redirecting anorexic behaviors towards healthier food consumption patterns. Understanding weak central coherence can help in identifying points of habit transformation.
    • Anorexia can be overcome through a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy, pharmacological treatments, and support from family and professionals. By understanding the biology and psychology of the disorder, individuals can rewire their brains to overcome challenges and avoid relapse.
    • Safety is crucial and must be approached with the guidance of trained medical professionals. Understanding the origins of habits and breaking them through self-awareness is vital for healing. Resistance training and muscle-building activities can help anorexics without focusing solely on weight loss.
    • Fidgeting and weight-bearing activities help burn body fat while interventions focusing on habit formation and healthy weight gain can rewire an anorexic's distorted self-image through neuroplasticity, but pointing out perceived flaws may not work.
    • Bulimia and binge eating disorder involve overeating and ignoring fullness signals, leading to serious disruptions in gut health and emotional distress. Rewiring neural circuits through habit change can lead to a healthier life.
    • Increasing serotonin and dopamine levels can improve top-down control and decrease impulsivity in eating disorders. Deep brain stimulation can target specific areas of the brain responsible for food reward perception. Consultation with a professional and prescription are necessary for treatment.
    • Understanding brain activity patterns and receptors involved in binge eating disorder can lead to effective non-invasive interventions in addition to deep brain stimulation.
    • Define what healthy eating means for your body and enjoy food without anxiety or compulsiveness. Mindfulness techniques can help calm anxious thoughts around food. Avoid societal norms and develop healthy eating habits that work for you.
    • Eating disorders are not just mental troubles but genuine health concerns. Recognize extreme food behaviors' impact on mental health and consider Andrew Huberman's model to break down harmful perceptions and behaviors. Eating disorders are the most deadly psychiatric disorder and should be taken seriously.

    📝 Podcast Summary

    Understanding the Benefits and Considerations of Intermittent Fasting for Health and Weight Management.

    Intermittent fasting may have health benefits, such as improving insulin sensitivity and liver enzymes. However, the effectiveness of weight loss and maintenance depends on the number of calories consumed and burned. The duration of the feeding window during intermittent fasting varies among individuals and is based on lifestyle and circumstances. It is important to continue to ingest fluids and electrolytes during extended fasting periods to maintain brain and body function. Intermittent fasting may be an easier option for some individuals to limit calorie intake compared to portion control. Overall, having a healthy relationship with food involves understanding metabolism, how eating frequency and the type of food consumed impact appetite and satiety, and having a positive psychological relationship with body weight and composition.

    The Importance of Personalized Nutrition and Eating Habits

    There is no one-size-fits-all approach to healthy eating and it's important to identify individual differences in eating patterns. Skipping breakfast or dinner has no significant impact on weight loss or health parameters. It's only important to maintain a long fasting period to experience its benefits. Eating disorders are clinically diagnosable and can have serious health hazards. Healthy and disordered eating depends on thinking, decision-making, and homeostatic processes. Studies suggest that emphasizing or skewing protein intake toward early day or late day has no significant impact on muscle hypertrophy and overall protein synthesis of muscle. It's important to explore different studies and references related to nutrition to determine what works best for each individual.

    Importance of Protein and Amino Acids for Muscle Hypertrophy

    Ingesting protein and amino acids early in the day can be beneficial for muscle hypertrophy in both mice and humans, according to a study. Maintaining muscle is extremely important for everyone, regardless of age and athletic ability, as loss of skeletal muscle can cause injury, cognitive deficits, and metabolic deficits as we age. The amino acid leucine and the mTOR pathway are vital for muscle growth. Intermittent fasters may want to make sure they are getting sufficient quality amino acids early in the day. However, the study does not say that you should avoid protein later in the day. The circadian clock mechanism in muscle cells is under strong regulation and has different gene expression patterns throughout the 24-hour cycle.

    The Importance of Quality Protein and Amino Acids for Muscle Maintenance and Synthesis Mechanism

    Eating quality protein and amino acids early in the day can help in maintaining or enhancing muscle tissue volume as circadian regulation of clock gene BML is vitally important for protein synthesis mechanism. Quality protein includes most essential amino acids and in particular leucine. Getting quality amino acids early in the day from whatever foods are in alignment with your particular values in your particular eating plan is important. There is no strict definition for quality protein. Ingesting plant-based foods can also provide high-quality protein. Healthy eating windows are subjective and there is no one-size-fits-all protocol. Self-diagnosis of eating disorders can be precarious and clear criteria exist in the psychiatric and psychological communities to define disorders such as anorexia and bulimia.

    The Importance of Seeking Help for Eating Disorders

    Self-diagnosing eating disorders based on information alone is not recommended. It is important to seek the help of a qualified healthcare professional with deep expertise in recognizing the symptomology of eating disorders. Anorexia nervosa is the most dangerous psychiatric disorder and has a high probability of death if left untreated. It is not caused by an overemphasis on perfectionism or societal pressures. Rather, it appears to be hardwired into the biology of individuals who suffer from it. Men can also experience anorexia but at lower rates than women. Seeking treatment for anorexia is essential, and it can be treated and cured. Bulimia is another form of eating disorder that is characterized by binge eating or overeating.

    Understanding Different Eating Disorders and Their Correlations.

    Binge eating, overeating, and bulimia are three different eating disorders. Binge eating is consuming a vast amount of calories in a short interval, while overeating is ingesting more calories over an extended period. Bulimia is the act of binge eating followed by purging. Though more prevalent in women than men, bulimia exists in both. There is no direct correlation between bulimia and early sexual trauma as it is a stereotype. Anorexia and bulimia both have clear biological underpinnings, and there are instances where these two disorders can coexist. While anorexia leads to the loss of menstrual cycles, binge eating disorder is characterized by excessive overeating. It's essential to understand the relationship between the brain, body, and eating behaviors to comprehend what healthy eating means.

    The Fascinating Science behind our Hunger and Satiety

    Hunger and satiety are regulated by mechanical and chemical signaling mechanisms in the body. The stomach sends mechanical signals to the brain that it's full, making us less hungry. Similarly, certain neurons signal to the brain about chemical information in the form of nutrients, indicating our level of satiety. The hypothalamus in our forebrain contains neurons that control appetite and cessation of eating, with POMC neurons acting as a break on appetite and AGRP neurons stimulating feeding and causing excitement or positive anxiety about food. Sunlight exposure ramps up the former and reduces appetite in summer months. Eating behavior can be altered by manipulating these neurons, either resulting in anorexia or hyperphagia.

    Understanding the Complexity of Hunger and Satiety

    Hunger and satiety are regulated by multiple signals and pathways including body fat, gut neurons responding to fatty acids, amino acids, and sugars. Leptin hormone secreted from body fat suppresses appetite and regulates the menstrual cycle. Anorexia is caused due to a lack of leptin hormones in the bloodstream. Metabolic disorders disrupt blood glucose metabolism and leptin signaling, causing hunger even if the body has plenty of energy reserve. Eating decisions are complicated and influenced by a variety of factors. Mindful eating and improved chewing habits are recommended for better eating patterns.

    The Evolutionary Roots of Eating Disorders and Impulsivity.

    From an evolutionary standpoint, it makes sense to eat as often, as much and as fast as possible because food was scarce and seeking food was dangerous. The brain has hardwired circuitry to regulate hunger and satiety, and the arcuate nucleus plays a vital role in hunger regulation. There are many signals that the arcuate nucleus is paying attention to such as social context, and prior history of interactions with food. This primitive reflex to ingest as much food as possible as quickly as possible is what underlies eating disorders like bulimia and binge-eating disorder. These disorders are closely associated with impulsivity and impulsive behaviors of other kinds. Finally, viewing behavior, good decision-making and bad decision-making as a simple box diagram can help in understanding why we do what we do.

    The Complex Biology of Anorexia and Bulimia

    Anorexia and bulimia disrupt homeostatic and reward processes in the body and brain, causing individuals to struggle with decision-making and behavior. Interventions must target these underlying mechanisms, such as building and breaking habits, to effectively treat these disorders. Anorexia is not solely caused by unrealistic body expectations, but rather by hormonal disruptions and other biological mechanisms. Even in societies with scarce food, individuals still experience anorexia due to a reward mechanism that makes them feel better when they don't eat. Nuanced and new classifications of anorexia exist, which take into account menstrual abnormalities and other factors, making it a clinically diagnosable disorder.

    The Effects of Anorexia on Development, Health, and Genetics

    Anorexia tends to start in adolescents around puberty, which is a significant source of dramatic developmental changes. These changes drive bodily and perceptual changes, and it is a dramatic shift for individuals that don't nourish themselves. Anorexia can lead to downstream negative effects such as hypogonadism, amenorrhea and reduced insulin secretion. Anorexics who ingest very little food often have high levels of cholesterol. This is due to the liver generating cholesterol in the absence of cholesterol to synthesize sex steroid hormones. Anorexia is complex, and there are often genetic and psychosocial factors at play. It is crucial to understand the causes and intervene early to improve outcomes for those affected.

    Anorexia is a complex disorder that needs a targeted approach for treatment.

    Anorexia is not just about not eating enough, but about the neural circuitry and behaviors driving the condition. While drugs targeting serotonin levels can decrease anxiety, they also decrease appetite and may not be effective in treating anorexia. Instead, interventions focused on changing habits and behaviors, such as evaluating food preferences and identifying unique perceptions, may be more effective in helping anorexic patients increase hunger and appetite. Understanding the neural circuitry behind anorexia can lead to more targeted and effective treatments, as opposed to solely focusing on symptoms and unhealthy behaviors.

    Understanding the Brain's Role in Anorexia and Intervention Strategies

    Anorexics have a hyper awareness of the fat content of foods, leading to reflexively avoiding high-fat content foods and defaulting towards low-calorie options. This reflexive habit formation is vital in driving their dysfunctional under-eating behavior. Brain areas associated with habit formation and execution are the best point of intervention. Reward-based decision-making is controlled by a brain area called the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Understanding the processes in the brain and chemicals that drive decision making and knowledge, as well as identifying and intervening in habit formation and execution, are keys to treating anorexia. Habits are reflexive behaviors that allow us to function robotically, but in the case of anorexia, they become dysfunctional. In the future, intervention strategies can target the brain's habit-forming areas for successful treatment.

    The Brain's Role in Anorexia Habits

    Decision-making is a metabolically demanding process that requires the prefrontal cortex, while reflexes and habits are subconscious processes that don't require conscious effort. Anorexics have a brain area involved in evaluating food decision-making and another area involved in the reflexive consumption and avoidance of particular foods. The reward systems in the brain of anorexics have been attached to the execution of habits in a way that is unhealthy for body weight. The chemical reward is now given for avoiding certain foods and only approaching low calorie, low-fat foods. The habit of avoiding particular foods rewards anorexics internally, providing them a sense of reward.

    Understanding and Rewiring Anorexic Habits through Neural Circuitry Intervention and Interoception.

    The anorexic brain is skewed towards avoiding high calorie foods and is rewarded for suppressing ingestion of such; their habits are automized and they feel good for consuming low fat, low calorie foods. Intervening in neural circuitry related to the habit is more effective than telling an anorexic to eat or taking them away from thin images. Rewiring the habit can be achieved through interoception and associating interactions with food with cues occurring within the body. Weak central coherence, an inability to see the forest through the trees, is a feature of anorexic habits. Understanding the points of entry for habits can aid in rewiring them for healthier behaviors.

    Understanding Anorexia and Rewiring the Brain

    Anorexics have weak central coherence, which means they focus obsessively on one particular feature, like finding a face in a coffee bean array. They struggle with set shifting and have difficulty relaxing during meal times. However, once they understand their challenges, they can intervene and rewire their brains with the help of cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacological treatments. Family-based therapy is effective for adolescents, while chemical treatments like MTMA or magic mushrooms can help people rewire their brains with the guidance of professionals. Understanding the biology and psychology around anorexia and having an internal support network is crucial in avoiding relapse triggered by stressful life circumstances.

    Exploring MTMA and Psilocybin for Eating Disorders and Depression

    Clinical trials for MTMA and psilocybin for eating disorders and depression are ongoing. These compounds can only be explored under the guidance of a properly trained medical doctor, as self-appointed guides have resulted in chronic visual snow, tic disorders, and insomnia. Safety must be a top priority before approaching these compounds. Breaking habits through self-awareness by informed individuals of the habit's origins is crucial. Anorexics need to understand that there has been a switch in their brain, and to see food as nourishment rather than punishment. Resistance training and activities that build muscle can be beneficial without necessarily losing weight, which is important for anorexics who tend to be constantly moving and on low-calorie diets.

    Fidgeting and Weight-Bearing Activities for Weight Loss and Rewiring Self-Perception

    Frequent fidgeting and weight-bearing activities promote anabolic activity that helps burn off body fat and calories which can be beneficial for overweight individuals trying to lose weight. Anorexics have a distorted self-image where their visual perceptions are off and they genuinely believe themselves to be overweight or imperfect which is challenging to change. However, interventions that focus on habit formation and healthy weight gain can help rewire their perception of self. Neuroplasticity related to the circuitry of habit formation, decision-making, and reward can be rewired, making it possible to shift perceptions of self-image. It's important to consider that anorexics do not see themselves accurately, and pointing out what others perceive as flaws in their appearance might not work.

    Understanding Bulimia and Binge Eating Disorder

    Bulimia and binge eating disorder are characterized by the inability to control eating, involving the ingestion of far more calories than needed in a short period of time. The body's mechanical signals that indicate fullness are overridden, leading to these disorders. It's important to note that these disorders are not just a result of self-induced vomiting or laxative use, but also driven by neural circuitry. Such disorders can cause severe disruptions to the gut microbiome, a lot of shame, and social isolation. It's crucial to change habits to rewire the neural circuits responsible for these disorders, leading to a healthier life.

    Treatment for Bulimia, Binge Eating Disorder, and Obesity

    Bulimia and binge eating disorder can be treated with drugs that increase serotonin and dopamine levels, which can increase top-down control in the prefrontal cortex. Binge eating disorder can also be treated with deep brain stimulation targeting the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, which are responsible for food reward perception. Impulsivity is a major issue in bulimia and can be controlled by increasing levels of serotonin, dopamine, and adrenaline. Top-down control is crucial in avoiding impulsivity, and drugs increasing their levels can have a positive result. Obesity related to binge eating disorder can also be treated with Wellbutrin, a drug primarily increasing dopamine and norepinephrine. All these treatments require professional consultation and prescription.

    Deep brain stimulation as a potential treatment for binge eating disorder and non-invasive interventions to combat obesity.

    Deep brain stimulation is a potentially effective treatment for binge eating disorder, which can lead to obesity and other health complications. Although it is an invasive approach, studies show promising results in offsetting activity patterns in the brain that lead to an elevated sense of reward from food. Dr. Halpern at the University of Pennsylvania is recruiting patients for these studies. Additionally, understanding which brain areas are involved in the disorder and what receptors they express can lead to non-invasive interventions like drug treatments and behavioral interventions. While anorexia is a disruption in unhealthy habits coupled to the reward pathway, binge eating disorder and bulimia are unhealthy habits not necessarily coupled to reward, and can cause immense shame and lack of impulse control.

    Developing a Healthy Relationship with Food and Mindful Eating

    Understanding what underlies eating disorders is important. Developing a healthy relationship with food is equally important. Anxiety around food is common, but calming techniques like mindfulness meditation can help. We eat largely out of desire, not need, and no topic is more complicated than food and nutrition. Asking what healthy eating means for us and enjoying food both socially and individually without being neurotic or compulsive about it is essential. It is crucial to define what healthy means for our own bodies and not fall for the societal norms. Developing these healthy habits also requires avoiding approaching food in an anxious state.

    Understanding the Seriousness of Eating Disorders

    Eating disorders are serious and life-threatening health concerns. While social media and media hype may contribute to body dysmorphia, disorders related to plastic surgery, steroid abuse, drug abuse, and diet are also concerns. It's crucial to recognize that eating disorders are not just mental troubling, but they're a genuine concern to our health. We must ask ourselves questions about our extremes related to food behaviors and their effects on our mental health. Andrew Huberman's model of thinking about the boxes between what we think and what we do is useful for all kinds of behaviors and perceptions. It's essential to consider eating disorders as a significant health issue, the most deadly psychiatric disorder by a significant margin, and we should not take it lightly.

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    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: The Science of Dreams, Nightmares & Lucid Dreaming

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: The Science of Dreams, Nightmares & Lucid Dreaming
    This is episode 6 of a 6-part special series on sleep with Dr. Matthew Walker, Ph.D., a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley and a leading public educator on sleep for mental and physical health, learning and human performance. In this episode, we discuss dreaming, including the biological mechanism of dreams, what dreams mean and their role in daytime life.  We explore how dreams can enhance our creativity and emotional well-being and help us resolve various challenges and dilemmas. We discuss how to remember and interpret your dreams and the abstractions/symbols frequently present in dreams. We also discuss nightmares and therapies to treat reoccurring nightmares. We explain what lucid dreaming is and if there are benefits or drawbacks to this type of dreaming. Dr. Walker also answers frequently asked audience questions and discusses snoring, body position, sleep supplements, sleep challenges due to aging, menopause, stopping racing thoughts, and how to fall back asleep if you wake in the middle of the night.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman WHOOP: https://www.join.whoop.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps 00:00:00 Dreaming 00:01:13 Sponsors: BetterHelp, LMNT & Helix Sleep 00:05:06 Dreams & REM Sleep 00:12:20 Evolution of REM Sleep, Humans 00:17:13 REM Sleep & PGO Waves; Dreams & Brain Activity 00:24:26 Dreams, Images & Brain Activity; Sleepwalking & Sleep Talking 00:30:51 Sponsor: AG1 00:32:04 Dream Benefits, Creativity & Emotional Regulation; Challenge Resolution 00:41:27 Daily Experience vs. Dreaming, Emotions 00:45:08 Dream Interpretation & Freud, Dream Relevance 00:52:59 Abstractions, Symbols, Experience & Dreams; “Fuzzy Logic” 01:00:28 Sponsor: Whoop 01:01:36 Nightmares; Recurring Nightmares & Therapy 01:11:08 Targeted Memory Reactivation, Sounds & Nightmares 01:15:38 Odor, Paired Associations, Learning & Sleep 01:18:53 Fear Extinction, Memory & Sleep; Tool: Remembering Dreams 01:25:38 Lucid Dreaming, REM Sleep, Paralysis 01:32:33 Lucid Dreaming: Benefits? Unrestorative Sleep? 01:44:07 Improve Lucid Dreaming 01:49:30 Tool: Negative Rumination & Falling Asleep 01:53:41 Tools: Body Position, Snoring & Sleep Apnea; Mid-Night Waking & Alarm Clock 01:58:43 Sleep Banking?; Tool: Falling Back Asleep, Rest 02:05:53 Tool: Older Adults & Early Waking; Sleep Medications 02:11:25 Tool: Menopause & Sleep Disruption, Hot Flashes 02:15:06 Remembering Dreams & Impacts Sleep Quality? 02:18:32 Tool: Sleep Supplements 02:26:48 Tool: Most Important Tip for Sleep 02:30:56 Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    Dr. Casey Means: Transform Your Health by Improving Metabolism, Hormone & Blood Sugar Regulation

    Dr. Casey Means: Transform Your Health by Improving Metabolism, Hormone & Blood Sugar Regulation
    In this episode, my guest is Dr. Casey Means, M.D., a physician trained at Stanford University School of Medicine, an expert on metabolic health and the author of the book, "Good Energy." We discuss how to leverage nutrition, exercise and environmental factors to enhance your metabolic health by improving mitochondrial function, hormone and blood sugar regulation.  We also explore how fasting, deliberate cold exposure and spending time in nature can impact metabolic health, how to control food cravings and how to assess your metabolic health using blood testing, continuous glucose monitors and other tools.  Metabolic dysfunction is a leading cause of chronic disease, obesity and reduced lifespan around the world. Conversely, improving your mitochondrial and metabolic health can positively affect your health span and longevity. Listeners of this episode will learn low- and zero-cost tools to improve their metabolic health, physical and mental well-being, body composition and target the root cause of various common diseases. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Maui Nui Venison: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman  Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman  AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman  InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps 00:00:00 Dr. Casey Means 00:02:18 Sponsors: Maui Nui, Eight Sleep & AeroPress 00:06:32 Metabolism, Metabolic Dysfunction, Medicinal Blindspot 00:14:17 Trifecta of Bad Energy 00:24:02 Western Living, United States, Specialization & Medicine 00:27:57 Insulin Resistance, Tool: Mitochondrial Capacity & Exercise 00:33:33 Sponsor: AG1 00:35:03 Tools: Walking & Glucose; Frequent Movement 00:44:25 Tools: Exercises to Improve Mitochondrial Capacity; Desk Treadmill 00:51:18 Soleus Push-Ups & Fidgeting, Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT) 00:57:14 Sponsor: InsideTracker 00:58:21 Tool: Blood Test Biomarkers, Vital Signs & Mitochondrial Function 01:11:16 Navigate Medical System & Blood Tests, Consumer Lab Testing 01:16:46 Tool: Environmental Factors; Food, Life as a Process 01:21:58 Tool: Ultra-Processed vs. Real Food, Obesity, Soil & Micronutrients 01:32:03 Ultra-Processed Foods: Brain & Cellular Confusion 01:39:10 Tools: Control Cravings, GLP-1 Production, Microbiome Support 01:51:42 Ozempic, GLP-1 Analogs; Root Cause & Medicine 02:00:54 Tool: Deliberate Cold & Heat Exposure, Brown Fat 02:07:27 Tool: Intermittent Fasting & Metabolic Flexibility; Insulin Sensitivity 02:17:03 Tool: Continuous Glucose Monitors (CGMs) & Awareness, Glucose Spikes 02:24:34 Tool: CGMs, Glycemic Variability, Dawn Effect, Individuality 02:33:10 Sleep; Continuous Monitoring & Biomarkers 02:37:39 Mindset & Safety, Stress & Cell Danger Response 02:44:04 Tool: Being in Nature, Sunlight, Fear 02:54:44 Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Improve Sleep to Boost Mood & Emotional Regulation

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Improve Sleep to Boost Mood & Emotional Regulation
    This is episode 5 of our 6-part special series on sleep with Dr. Matthew Walker, Ph.D., a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley and the host of The Matt Walker Podcast. In this episode, we explain the connection between sleep and mood, emotional regulation and mental well-being.  We explain the role of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in processing emotions and emotional memories and why sleep deprivation causes agitation, impulsivity and emotional reactivity.  We also discuss why sleep disruption is a hallmark feature of PTSD, anxiety, depression, suicidality, and other psychiatric conditions.  We explain protocols for improving REM sleep and other sleep phases in order to harness the therapeutic power of quality sleep to feel calmer and emotionally restored. This episode describes various actionable tools to improve sleep for those struggling with mental health or mood and those wanting to bolster their overall state and well-being.  The next episode in this special series explores dreams, including lucid dreaming, nightmares and dream interpretation. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Sleep & Mental Health (00:01:09) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, LMNT & BetterHelp (00:05:14) Emotions & Sleep, Amygdala (00:17:27) Emotional Memory & Sleep (00:25:48) “Overnight Therapy” & REM Sleep, Noradrenaline (00:29:13) Sponsor: AG1 (00:30:27) Sleep to “Remember & Forget”, Trauma; REM Sleep (00:38:27) Hinge Analogy; Motivation, Impulsivity & Addiction (00:47:08) Tool: Improve REM Sleep, Social Jet Lag, Alcohol & THC, Addiction (00:56:18) Sponsor: InsideTracker (00:57:23) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) & REM Sleep (01:06:53) Noradrenaline & REM Sleep, PTSD & Prazosin (01:09:40) Addiction, Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR); Liminal States (01:16:46) Anxiety & Sleep, Mood vs. Emotions (01:23:50) Deep Non-REM Sleep & Anxiety, Sleep Quality (01:28:51) Tool: Improve Deep Non-REM Sleep, Temperature; Alcohol (01:34:56) Suicidality & Sleep, Pattern Recognition; Nightmares (01:46:21) Depression, Anxiety & Time Context (01:51:24) Depression, Too Much Sleep?; REM Changes & Antidepressants (01:57:37) Sleep Deprivation & Depression (02:01:34) Tool: Circadian Misalignment & Mental Health, Chronotype (02:04:05) Tools: Daytime Light & Nighttime Darkness; “Junk Light” (02:13:04) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    AMA #17: Making Time for Fitness, Top Sleep Tools & Best Learning Strategies

    AMA #17: Making Time for Fitness, Top Sleep Tools & Best Learning Strategies
    Welcome to a preview of the 17th Ask Me Anything (AMA) episode, part of Huberman Lab Premium. Huberman Lab Premium was launched for two main reasons. First, it was launched in order to raise support for the main Huberman Lab podcast — which will continue to come out every Monday at zero-cost. Second, it was launched as a means to raise funds for important scientific research. A significant portion of proceeds from the Huberman Lab Premium subscription will fund human research (not animal models) selected by Dr. Huberman, with a dollar-for-dollar match from the Tiny Foundation. Read our Annual Letter 2023. If you're an existing Premium member, you can login to access the full episode. If you're not a member, you can join Huberman Lab Premium to enjoy exclusive content, including monthly Ask Me Anything (AMA) episodes, AMA transcripts, podcast episode transcripts, early access to live events and help advance human scientific research. Resources Foundational Fitness Protocol Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction to AMA #17 (00:00:14) Exciting Announcement (00:02:16) Diving Into the Foundational Fitness Protocol (00:09:37) Flexibility in Your Fitness Routine (00:17:12) Optimizing Workout Times & Prioritizing Health (00:23:31) Closing Thoughts & Huberman Lab Premium Benefits In the full AMA episode, we discuss: Periodization & the Philosophy of Fitness Unlocking the Secrets of Sleep: Insights & Tools Chronotypes and Personalized Sleep Strategies The QQRT Formula: Quantity, Quality, Regularity & Timing of Sleep Exploring Naps & Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) Effective Learning & Note-Taking Strategies The Power of Teaching & Self-Testing in Learning Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer

    Protocols to Strengthen & Pain Proof Your Back

    Protocols to Strengthen & Pain Proof Your Back
    In this episode, I explain how to strengthen and build a stable, pain-free back and how to reduce or eliminate existing back pain. I explain the anatomy and physiology of the spinal cord and vertebrae, intervertebral disks and nerve pathways, and the abdominal and back muscles that together can be leveraged to stabilize the back.  Then, I describe protocols: “McGill’s Big 3” exercises, a highly effective psoas stretch, abdominal stabilization, breathing techniques, and protocols to reinforce essential supports for the back, including the neck, pelvis, feet, and toes.  I also explain how you can reduce and potentially eliminate back pain and sciatica using a specific type of bar hang, “cobra push-ups,” medial-glute strengthening exercises, and more.  Back pain greatly impedes one’s ability to enjoy daily activities; this episode provides zero-cost, minimal time-investment protocols to improve your back strength and stability and allow you to move through life pain-free and with ease and mobility.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman Joovv: https://joovv.com/huberman Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman Plunge: https://plunge.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Back Health (00:03:47) Sponsors: AeroPress, Joovv & Waking Up (00:07:57) Back Anatomy: Spine, Vertebrae, Spinal Cord (00:12:07) Spinal Cord & Nerves; Herniated Discs (00:19:50) Build Strong Pain-Free Back; Bulging Discs (00:24:26) Back Pain & Professional Evaluation; Tool: Spine Self-Assessment  (00:34:58) Sponsor: AG1 (00:36:29) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Curl-Up (00:44:40) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Side Plank (00:53:13) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Bird Dog; Back Pain (01:04:10) Sponsor: Plunge (01:05:37) Tool: Back Pain & Oreo Analogy, Bar Hang (01:10:34) Time & Back Pain; Tool: Reversing Disc Herniation, Cobra Push-Ups  (01:21:28) Sciatica, Referred Pain, Herniated Disc (01:24:21) Tool: Improve Spine Stability, Strengthen Neck (01:29:23) Tools: Strengthen Feet, Toe Spreading (01:34:35) Tools: Belly Breathing; Stagger Stance (01:42:03) Tools: Relieve Low Back Pain, Medial Glute Activation; Rolled Towel (01:50:59) Tool: Psoas Stretching (01:57:00) Tool: Back Awareness; Strengthen & Pain-Proof Back (02:05:49) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Using Sleep to Improve Learning, Creativity & Memory

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Using Sleep to Improve Learning, Creativity & Memory
    This is episode 4 of a 6-part special series on sleep with Dr. Matthew Walker, Ph.D., a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, and author of the best-selling book "Why We Sleep." In this episode, we discuss the relationship between sleep, learning and creativity.  We explain why and how sleep before and after a learning bout can improve memory and performance for both cognitive tasks and physical skills. We also discuss how to use time learning and sleep, how to use naps, non-sleep deep rest states, and caffeine to optimize learning, and the mechanisms for sleep and memory consolidation.  We also explain the critical role that sleep plays in creativity and one's ability to discover novel solutions to challenges and problems.  This episode is filled with actionable information on using sleep to enhance skill learning and improve memory and creativity.  The next episode in this guest series explains how sleep benefits emotional regulation and mental health.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman  WHOOP: https://join.whoop.com/huberman  Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman  InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Sleep & Learning (00:00:59) Sponsors: Helix Sleep, Whoop & Waking Up (00:05:48) Learning, Memory & Sleep (00:09:32) Memory & Sleep, “All-Nighters”, Hippocampus (00:13:46) Naps & Learning Capacity (00:16:59) Early School Start Times, Performance & Accidents (00:26:38) Medical Residency & Sleep Deprivation (00:29:35) Sponsor: AG1 (00:30:49) Tool: Sleep Before Learning; Cramming Effect (00:35:09) Tools: Caffeine; Timing Peak Learning; “Second Wind” (00:44:25) Memory Consolidation in Sleep (00:55:07) Sleepwalking & Talking; REM-Sleep Behavioral Disorder (01:00:16) REM Sleep Paralysis, Alcohol, Stress (01:07:41) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:08:46) Skills, Motor Learning & Sleep (01:17:03) Tool: Timing Sleep & Learning, Skill Enhancement (01:20:00) Naps; Specificity & Memory Consolidation, Sleep Spindles (01:27:21) Sleep, Motor Learning & Athletes; Automaticity (01:34:10) Can Learning Improve Sleep? (01:39:13) Tool: Exercise to Improve Sleep; Performance, Injury & Motivation (01:44:38) Pillars of Health; Dieting & Sleep Deprivation (01:49:35) Performance & Poor Sleep, Belief Effects, “Orthosomnia” (01:57:03) “Overnight Alchemy”, Sleep & Novel Memory Linking (02:05:58) Sleep & Creativity (02:11:09) Tools: Waking & Technology; Naps; “Sleep on a Problem” (02:20:51) Creative Insight & Sleep (02:26:18) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher: Vaping, Alcohol Use & Other Risky Youth Behaviors

    Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher: Vaping, Alcohol Use & Other Risky Youth Behaviors
    In this episode, my guest is Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher, PhD, FSAHM. She is a professor of pediatrics and adolescent medicine and a developmental psychologist at Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Halpern-Felsher is a world expert in adolescent decision-making and risk-taking behaviors. She explains the huge increase in vaping (e-cigarettes) by young people. She explains why vaping nicotine and cannabis is particularly dangerous to the developing brain. We discuss the rise in vaping addiction, the unique social pressures and social media influences faced by youth that make quitting challenging, and interventions to aid them in quitting or reducing use. We also discuss the role of technology and social media. And, the use of alcohol, nicotine pouches, fentanyl, and other risky behaviors that adolescents face now. This episode should interest parents, teachers, coaches, teens, and families. It covers the current youth substance use landscape and also covers resources and ways to quit these addictive behaviors.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Use Ask Huberman Lab, our new AI-powered platform, for a summary, clips, and insights from this episode. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman  Mateina: https://drinkmateina.com/huberman  LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman  Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher (00:01:40) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, Mateina & LMNT  (00:05:38) Adolescence (00:09:19) Household Conflict, Parents; Smart Phones (00:12:35) Smart Phones & Social Media (00:18:25) Vaping, E-Cigarettes, Nicotine & Cannabis (00:23:46) Adolescent Nicotine Use: Marketing, Flavors (00:30:41) Sponsor: AG1 (00:32:13) Nicotine Initiation, Freebase vs. Salt-Based Nicotine, Concentration (00:41:35) Addiction & Withdrawal; E-Cigarette Access (00:48:48) Vaping Health Hazards, Aldehydes, Flavors (00:56:32) Sponsor: Waking Up (00:57:48) “Just Say No”, Adolescent Defiance (01:04:21) Cannabis & Potency, Blunts, E-Cigarette Combinations (01:10:30) Psychosis, THC & Adolescence (01:14:11) Quitting Nicotine & Cannabis; Physical & Social Withdrawal Symptoms (01:23:05) Social Pressures, Quitting Vaping, Environment Concerns (01:30:08) Teen Activities, Social Media, Autonomy (01:36:28) Risky Behaviors, Alcohol, Driving, Sexual Behavior (01:43:27) International E-Cigarette Use, Regulation (01:46:10) Nicotine Pouches, Health Risks; Tolerance (01:53:25) Tools: Vaping Interventions, Decision Making, Harm Reduction (02:02:37) Fentanyl, Drug Testing, Recreational Drug Use (02:13:45) Tool: Organic Conversations & Risky Behavior (02:17:20) Long-Term Goals & Teens; Vaping, Pornography & Teens (02:24:08) Mental Health Crisis & Substance Use (02:29:11) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer