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    Using Salt to Optimize Mental & Physical Performance

    Proper sodium intake can help counteract stress and anxiety, and a little bit of sea salt can help stabilize blood pressure and increase resilience to challenges.

    enMarch 14, 2022

    About this Episode

    I discuss the role of salt (sodium) in the nervous system and the key role that it plays in mental performance, physical performance and health. I explain how the brain senses salt levels in our body and how that relates to our feelings of thirst. I cover the physiology of the renal system and the hormones that control sodium and water balance in our body. I also explore how salt interacts with stress and our immune systems and its crucial role in neuron function. Additionally, I examine research findings suggesting that some individuals might benefit from increased intake of sodium and other electrolytes (magnesium and potassium) to enhance mental performance, lessen anxiety, and offset dizziness. Yet, other people may need less sodium. I discuss how you can determine your optimal sodium intake and why sodium intake levels need to be uniquely tailored to an individual’s lifestyle. Finally, I explain how salt creates ‘hidden’ sugars in many processed foods and the problems that can create. Throughout the episode, I explain peer-reviewed findings outlining salt’s essential role in overall health and describe general recommendations and tools anyone can use to find their optimal salt balance and thereby enhance their brain and body’s performance. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Role of Salt  (00:02:57) Neuropod Cells, Artificial Sweeteners & ‘Hidden’ Cravings  (00:10:36) Sponsors: AG1, Thesis (00:15:06) Salt Regulation  (00:17:13) How the Brain Senses Salt (00:24:15) Salt & Thirst  (00:29:27) Blood Pressure & Thirst  (00:33:47) Kidneys & Urine Regulation (00:39:08) Vasopressin: Roles in Libido & Urination  (00:45:46) How Much Salt Do You Need?  (00:56:45) Should You Increase Your Salt Intake?  (01:02:19) Tools: Determining Your Individual Salt Intake (01:14:02) Iodine, Sea Salt  (01:17:13) Salt: Roles in Stress & Anxiety  (01:24:20) Other Electrolytes: Magnesium & Potassium  (01:27:57) Tools: Effects of Low-carbohydrate Diets & Caffeine  (01:32:28) General Recommendations for Salt Intake  (01:36:34) Perception of Salt & Sugar Taste, Processed Foods  (01:47:13) Role of Sodium in Neuronal Function, Action Potentials  (01:53:13) Dehydration  (01:55:36) What Salt Intake is Best for You?  (02:00:58) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter  Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer

    🔑 Key Takeaways

    • Being aware of the effects of salt and hidden sugars in processed foods can help optimize mental, physical health, and athletic performance. Scientists are making groundbreaking discoveries about the role of neuro pod cells in our cravings for sugary foods.
    • Our gut can differentiate between sugar and artificial sweeteners, impacting our cravings. While the effects on insulin responses are unclear, we should be aware of how artificial sweeteners impact our gut and brain, and consider natural alternatives like Stevia.
    • Our brain has small sets of neurons that interact with the body in context to regulate fluid balance and appetite for nutrients like salt, sugar, and carbohydrates. While table salt does not always equate to sodium in grams, a blood-brain barrier around the brain is essential to protect it from harmful substances since neurons do not regenerate much after injury.
    • The LVL T is a vital structure in the brain that helps to regulate fluid balance and blood pressure, and its dysfunction can have severe consequences for health.
    • Recognizing the difference between osmotic and hypovolemic thirst can help us understand our body's needs and make healthier choices for our hydration.
    • Sodium and water are vital for regulating fluid balance in the body, and understanding the role of the kidney in retaining or releasing substances, such as salt, is important for maintaining proper hydration.
    • Vasopressin, a hormone responsible for preventing excess water release in the kidneys, plays a significant role in regulating sexual behavior and mating. Its use in nasal sprays should be done with caution due to its potent effects on the body.
    • Optimal salt intake varies greatly based on personal factors such as blood pressure, hormone levels, and exercise. It is important to work with a healthcare professional to determine the appropriate salt and fluid intake for overall health and brain function.
    • Maintaining a moderate salt intake is crucial for overall health. High salt intake combined with other unhealthy eating habits can lead to dangerous health complications, while a lower salt diet can reduce such events. It is important to evaluate research and make informed decisions about salt intake.
    • While processed foods are high in sodium, consuming more than the recommended intake may not always be harmful. Individual evaluation and doctor consultation should be prioritized, especially for those with low blood pressure conditions. Always prioritize safe and proper evaluation before making any changes.
    • The ideal amount of salt consumption varies from person to person, depending on their health and lifestyle. Paying attention to cravings and balancing salt and fluid intake is essential for overall well-being.
    • To perform at our best, we should start exercise hydrated with electrolytes, drink fluids every 15 minutes based on our body weight, and ensure we stay hydrated during cognitive or physical activities to avoid fatigue.
    • Salt plays a crucial role in regulating the body's water balance and hormonal systems, and too little salt can cause problems with the nervous system. Sea salt contains beneficial minerals for human health.
    • Proper sodium intake can help counteract stress and anxiety, and a little bit of sea salt can help stabilize blood pressure and increase resilience to challenges.
    • Proper sodium, potassium, and magnesium intake through diet is essential for regulating stress responses, muscle soreness reduction, sleep promotion, cognitive function, and longevity. The context of one's diet plays a significant role in determining the right intake.
    • Drink 1.5 times more water than caffeinated drinks and add a tiny pinch of sodium to replenish fluids and electrolytes, as recommended in 'The Salt Fix.' Consider individual salt intake and caveats for pre-hypertension and hypertension.
    • Understanding the role of salt and sugar receptors in our taste system can help us manage our intake of both and make healthier dietary choices. Regularly consuming high levels of salt can increase health risks, while balanced intake can enhance the taste of food without compromising health.
    • Our brain's perception of taste is based on comparison, which can lead to overconsumption when taste is masked or hidden in processed food. Pay attention to the intake of unprocessed food for optimal health benefits.
    • Consuming unprocessed foods can help regulate sodium and reduce sugar cravings. Sodium plays a crucial role in neural communication by allowing for electrical activity and creating a positive charge outside neurons.
    • Maintaining proper salt intake is crucial for optimal brain and nervous system function. Adjusting fluid and electrolyte intake during exercise or hot environments is important and overdoing salt intake can disrupt kidney function.
    • Individuals should not universally increase or decrease their salt intake without considering various factors like health status and diet. Salt plays a crucial role in our mental and physical health, but excessive intake can lead to unhealthy cravings. Consultation with a doctor and moderation is essential.

    📝 Podcast Summary

    The Impact of Salt and Hidden Sugars on Our Health and Performance.

    Salt not only regulates blood pressure but also our appetite for salt and sugar intake, affecting our health and performance in athletics and cognition. The gut also senses sugars through neurons called neuro pod cells, which promote the seeking and consumption of sugary foods subconsciously. Therefore, understanding salt intake and hidden sugars in processed foods can lead to optimizing mental, physical health, and performance. Presale tickets for two live events by Andrew Huberman, a neurobiology and ophthalmology professor at Stanford School of Medicine, are available at hubermanlab.com/tour. Scientists like Diego Bohorquez at Duke University are making incredible discoveries of neuro pod cells and their role in how we crave and consume sugary foods at both conscious and subconscious levels.

    Understanding the Role of Neuro Pod Cell in Our Gut and Artificial Sweeteners

    Our gut has a sensor cell known as neuro pod cell that can differentiate between sweet things containing calories like sugar and those without calories like artificial sweeteners. This subconscious ability impacts our cravings and is important to understand. Though the insulin response from artificial sweeteners in humans is still unexplored, we need to comprehend how they affect the brain's functioning and register at the gut level. We also need to study how food manufacturers put artificial sweeteners in foods to make us crave sweet foods more. Many consumers are curious about artificial sweeteners and consume them in small amounts. But we should be aware that non-caloric sweeteners can disrupt the gut microbiome, and some might find natural sweeteners like Stevia more appealing.

    The Role of Salt in Regulating Fluid Balance and Nutrient Appetite in the Body

    Salt plays a critical role in regulating fluid balance, salt appetite, and appetite for other nutrients like sugar and carbohydrates. The brain harbors small sets of neurons that sense the levels of salt in our body and interact with the body in the context of salt. Salt also regulates the appetite for other nutrients, but it is important to note that table salt in grams does not always equate to sodium in grams. The blood-brain barrier is a particular fence that protects the brain and other organs such as the ovaries and testes from harmful substances. The neurons you are born with are the ones that you are going to use most of your life, and the brain does not regenerate much after injury. Therefore, having a blood-brain barrier around the brain is essential to protect it.

    The LVL T: A Circumventricular Organ with a Key Role in Fluid Balance.

    The ovaries and testes have a barrier from the blood to prevent mutation and protect the genetic material. The brain has a blood-brain barrier that makes it difficult for substances to pass through, but there are weaker fences in some regions. O V L T is a circumventricular organ, which has a limited barrier, and it monitors salt balance, as well as the level of blood pressure. The neurons in O V L T can detect changes in the bloodstream and set off certain events within your brain and body that make you either want to drink more fluid or stop drinking fluid. It is critical for life because the failure of LVL T to function correctly can result in death.

    Understanding the Two Categories of Thirst

    There are two categories of thirst, osmotic and hypovolemic. Osmotic thirst is caused by high salt concentration in the blood, which activates specific neurons in the OVO LT that send electrical signals to other brain areas. This signaling eventually leads to the release of vasopressin, or antidiuretic hormone, which restricts urine secretion. Hypovolemic thirst occurs when there is a drop in blood pressure. The OLT senses this reduction in blood pressure due to the presence of Beryl receptors and activates thirst through various pathways, including the secretion of Renon and activation of angiotensin two. Understanding the mechanisms behind thirst can help us make healthier choices about what we drink.

    The Complexities of Thirst and Kidney Function

    Thirst is not just about seeking water, but also seeking to balance osmolarity by seeking salty fluids or foods. Sodium and water work together to generate thirst and regulate fluid balance in the body. Understanding the kidney, which is responsible for retaining or releasing various substances from the body including salt, is key to understanding fluid balance. The kidney responds to hormonal signals like vasopressin to either hold onto or release more fluids. Most people don't realize that urine is filtered blood and the kidney is a complex organ responsible for filtering out certain substances. Increase in osmolarity, or concentration of salt, will be detected by the OVLT and signal cascades through the superoptic nucleus.

    Vasopressin and its Functions in the Body

    The hormone vasopressin acts on the kidneys to prevent the release of excess water, which may cause the need to urinate. It does this by increasing the permeability of tubes in the kidney so that the fluid that would otherwise go to the bladder never makes it there. Vasopressin is also involved in sexual behavior and mating. While vasopressin nasal sprays are available, caution is advised in their recreational use as they have powerful effects on the brain and body. The kidney uses sodium to conserve water, and where there is concentrated sodium, water tends to follow and be held onto.

    Understanding the Complex Relationship between Hormones, Salt and Fluid

    The relationship between hormones, salt, and fluid is complex, and there is no simple formula to determine the optimal salt intake. Personal factors, such as blood pressure, hormone levels, and exercise, will affect the body's response to salt and water retention. High salt intake can be harmful to the body, including the brain, but a low salt intake can also lead to poor brain function and overall health. It is essential to monitor blood pressure and work with a healthcare professional to determine the appropriate salt and fluid intake for each individual.

    The Importance of Moderation in Salt Intake for Brain and Heart Health

    Moderation is key when it comes to salt intake for overall brain and heart health. Too high or too low salt diet can be detrimental for health. Studies have shown that high salt intake coupled with other unhealthy diet elements like high levels of carbohydrates and fats can lead to hazardous events such as cardiovascular events and stroke. It is important to note that a low, not truly low, but lower salt diet can reduce the number of these events. According to a study published in the journal of the American medical association, the ideal sodium excretion for optimum health is about 4-5 grams of salt per day. It is important to evaluate the literature and make informed health choices.

    The Complex Relationship Between Sodium Intake and Health

    Processed foods contain high amounts of sodium, and the recommended cutoff for ingestion of sodium is 2.3 grams per day. Ingesting 4-5 grams of sodium is associated with low incidents of hazardous outcomes for some people, indicating that more sodium intake might actually be beneficial for them. However, such decisions must be made with caution and only after consulting a doctor or evaluating individual context. Blood pressure is regulated partly by sodium intake, and low blood pressure conditions like orthostatic disorders may benefit from increasing sodium intake. The focus should be on knowing your blood pressure and addressing whether an increase in sodium intake would relieve symptoms in a safe context, after proper evaluation. However, never play games with blood sugar or blood osmolarity that could lead to negative events.

    Context Matters When it Comes to Salt Intake

    Context is vital when it comes to salt intake. People with high blood pressure may need to limit their salt intake, while those with postural orthostatic syndromes may require higher amounts of salt. For most people, a moderate increase in salt intake is not harmful, as long as they consume enough fluids, particularly water. The body can store sodium, but excess storage is not good for long-term health. Salt and hunger/thirst for salt are regulated, so paying attention to your cravings can be beneficial, provided you're eating healthy, non-processed foods. Sweating excessively, being in a cold, dry, or hot environment, and exercising a lot are all reasons to ensure sufficient salt and fluid intake.

    The Importance of Hydration and Electrolytes for Optimal Performance

    The Galpin equation states that we should start exercise hydrated with electrolytes, not just with water, as losing one to five pounds of water per hour can impact our mental and physical performance. The equation suggests that we should drink fluid every 15 minutes based on our body weight in pounds divided by 30, which may be more fluid than we usually consume. Additionally, it is essential to ensure that our body is hydrated sufficiently while performing any cognitive or physical activity and that we hydrate regularly. Most people are probably under hydrating, not just from the perspective of water intake, but also lack of electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, and magnesium, which can cause tiredness and crashes.

    The Importance of Salt in Regulating the Body

    Salt plays a crucial role in regulating the body's water balance and hormonal systems. Glucocorticoids and aldosterone are two hormones that help regulate metabolism and sodium excretion from the kidneys. The body adapts to a certain amount of salt intake over time, making salt appetite not the best indication of how much salt one should ingest. Sodium and water have a close relationship, and the body regulates its salt and water balance by retaining or releasing water. Salt was a valuable commodity throughout human history. Excess salt can be harmful, but too little salt can also cause problems, especially concerning the nervous system. Sea salt contains many minerals that can be beneficial to human health.

    The Impact of Adrenal Glands on Fluid Balance and Salinity Cravings

    The adrenal glands produce hormones that directly impact our fluid balance and regulate our craving and tolerance for salty solutions. Eliminating the glucocorticoid system through adrenalectomy shifts the threshold for what is considered too salty. Low dietary sodium can exacerbate anxiety in animals and humans. Stress actually activates the immune system in the short term, and bringing sodium into the body can counteract or resist stressors, including infection. Adding a little bit of sea salt or salting one's food can stabilize blood pressure and increase one's ability to lean into stressors and challenges.

    The Importance of Sodium, Magnesium, and Potassium in Diet

    Sodium intake can help suppress anxiety responses during stress, and the body craves salty foods during stress due to a primitive mechanism of preparing for additional challenges. Magnesium is important, and while some people get enough through their diet, others may need to supplement it. Different forms of magnesium can promote muscle soreness reduction, sleep promotion, cognitive function, and longevity. Potassium and sodium work together closely in regulating sodium balance in the body and brain. Low carbohydrate diets increase the need for sodium and potassium intake, while carbohydrate-rich diets may require less. Overall, the context of one's diet plays a significant role in determining proper sodium, potassium, and magnesium intake.

    Avoid Dehydration while Intermittent Fasting with Caffeine

    Drinking caffeine or tea while intermittent fasting can cause the excretion of fluids from the body, including sodium and potassium, leading to dehydration. It is important to replenish fluids, salt, and potassium, especially if exercising while fasted. For every ounce of caffeinated coffee/tea, drink 1.5 times as much water, and add a tiny pinch of sodium (quarter teaspoon = excessive salt intake). The book 'The Salt Fix' by Dr. James DiNicolantonio provides useful recommendations based on individual situations and emphasizes the positive effects of salt on health outcomes. His recommended salt intake is anywhere from 8 to 12 grams a day, but appropriate caveats must be considered for pre-hypertension and hypertension.

    The Connection Between Salt and Sugar Intake

    The recommended daily sodium intake for most people is 2.3 grams, but it can be as high as 4.8 grams depending on certain factors. However, very high salt intake increases health risks. The relationship between salt intake and sugar consumption is also important. We have salt receptors in our body that signal to the brain when we consume salty substances, affecting our perception of salt and our desire for it. This is similar to how sweet and bitter receptors work in the body. Parallel pathways in the taste system allow us to perceive different components of the foods we eat. Understanding these pathways can help us regulate our salt and sugar intake and make informed decisions about our diet.

    Understanding the Relationship between Taste and Overconsumption.

    Our nervous system evaluates absolute levels of anything in the context of perception only by comparison. Sweet and salty taste have a homeostatic balance and masking either taste can lead to overconsumption of food. Food manufacturers exploit the way our brain represents the pure form of tastes and their combinations by putting hidden sugars into processed foods, which can activate the neurons that signal the brain to release more dopamine and make us crave more of that food. To explore increasing or decreasing sodium intake for health benefits, it is useful to do that in the context of unprocessed food intake background.

    The Role of Sodium in Neuronal Function and Salt Cravings

    Consuming foods in their basic form and taste can help hone in on specific salt needs. Blood pressure is an important metric to monitor when determining appropriate sodium intake, but ingesting salty or sweet foods can skew results. Increasing salt intake in a backdrop of unprocessed foods can reduce sugar cravings, given the way that neuronal pathways for salty and sweet interact. Sodium plays a crucial role in neuronal function, allowing neurons to engage in electrical activity through the action potential, which is fundamental in neural communication. Sodium carries a positive charge, which helps create a positive charge outside neurons when necessary, allowing for the firing of action potentials and the release of chemicals that inspire or suppress action potentials in other neurons.

    The Role of Sodium in Neurological Function

    Sodium plays a crucial role in neuron communication through action potentials. Without sufficient sodium levels, neurons won't function as well, and in extreme cases, dehydration can lead to confusion, dizziness, and a lack of coordination. Drinking too much water without sufficient electrolytes, especially sodium, can also disrupt the balance of sodium and potassium and hinder the brain's ability to function. It's important to maintain a proper salt intake depending on individual health parameters and context, and to adjust fluid and electrolyte intake accordingly during exercise or hot environments. Ingesting sufficient salt allows the brain and nervous system to function optimally, but overdoing it can lead to hypernatremia and disrupt kidney function.

    The Role and Importance of Salt Intake in Our Health.

    Salt intake cannot be universally recommended for all individuals as it depends on various factors such as fluid and caffeine intake, diet, health status and electrolyte balance. Increasing salt intake may be beneficial for people experiencing low blood pressure and postural syndromes, but must be done healthily and under the guidance of a doctor. The perception of salty and sweet tastes can influence sugar intake and increase processed food cravings, which should be avoided. Salt plays a critical role in the nervous system, and is important for mental and physical health, cognitive function, and performance. The development of an app or tool to determine individual salt intake may be useful in the future. Overall, salt is an incredible substance that our physiology depends on, and its regulation is essential for maintaining a healthy body.

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    Dr. Casey Means: Transform Your Health by Improving Metabolism, Hormone & Blood Sugar Regulation

    Dr. Casey Means: Transform Your Health by Improving Metabolism, Hormone & Blood Sugar Regulation
    In this episode, my guest is Dr. Casey Means, M.D., a physician trained at Stanford University School of Medicine, an expert on metabolic health and the author of the book, "Good Energy." We discuss how to leverage nutrition, exercise and environmental factors to enhance your metabolic health by improving mitochondrial function, hormone and blood sugar regulation.  We also explore how fasting, deliberate cold exposure and spending time in nature can impact metabolic health, how to control food cravings and how to assess your metabolic health using blood testing, continuous glucose monitors and other tools.  Metabolic dysfunction is a leading cause of chronic disease, obesity and reduced lifespan around the world. Conversely, improving your mitochondrial and metabolic health can positively affect your health span and longevity. Listeners of this episode will learn low- and zero-cost tools to improve their metabolic health, physical and mental well-being, body composition and target the root cause of various common diseases. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Maui Nui Venison: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman  Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman  AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman  InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps 00:00:00 Dr. Casey Means 00:02:18 Sponsors: Maui Nui, Eight Sleep & AeroPress 00:06:32 Metabolism, Metabolic Dysfunction, Medicinal Blindspot 00:14:17 Trifecta of Bad Energy 00:24:02 Western Living, United States, Specialization & Medicine 00:27:57 Insulin Resistance, Tool: Mitochondrial Capacity & Exercise 00:33:33 Sponsor: AG1 00:35:03 Tools: Walking & Glucose; Frequent Movement 00:44:25 Tools: Exercises to Improve Mitochondrial Capacity; Desk Treadmill 00:51:18 Soleus Push-Ups & Fidgeting, Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT) 00:57:14 Sponsor: InsideTracker 00:58:21 Tool: Blood Test Biomarkers, Vital Signs & Mitochondrial Function 01:11:16 Navigate Medical System & Blood Tests, Consumer Lab Testing 01:16:46 Tool: Environmental Factors; Food, Life as a Process 01:21:58 Tool: Ultra-Processed vs. Real Food, Obesity, Soil & Micronutrients 01:32:03 Ultra-Processed Foods: Brain & Cellular Confusion 01:39:10 Tools: Control Cravings, GLP-1 Production, Microbiome Support 01:51:42 Ozempic, GLP-1 Analogs; Root Cause & Medicine 02:00:54 Tool: Deliberate Cold & Heat Exposure, Brown Fat 02:07:27 Tool: Intermittent Fasting & Metabolic Flexibility; Insulin Sensitivity 02:17:03 Tool: Continuous Glucose Monitors (CGMs) & Awareness, Glucose Spikes 02:24:34 Tool: CGMs, Glycemic Variability, Dawn Effect, Individuality 02:33:10 Sleep; Continuous Monitoring & Biomarkers 02:37:39 Mindset & Safety, Stress & Cell Danger Response 02:44:04 Tool: Being in Nature, Sunlight, Fear 02:54:44 Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Improve Sleep to Boost Mood & Emotional Regulation

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Improve Sleep to Boost Mood & Emotional Regulation
    This is episode 5 of our 6-part special series on sleep with Dr. Matthew Walker, Ph.D., a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley and the host of The Matt Walker Podcast. In this episode, we explain the connection between sleep and mood, emotional regulation and mental well-being.  We explain the role of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in processing emotions and emotional memories and why sleep deprivation causes agitation, impulsivity and emotional reactivity.  We also discuss why sleep disruption is a hallmark feature of PTSD, anxiety, depression, suicidality, and other psychiatric conditions.  We explain protocols for improving REM sleep and other sleep phases in order to harness the therapeutic power of quality sleep to feel calmer and emotionally restored. This episode describes various actionable tools to improve sleep for those struggling with mental health or mood and those wanting to bolster their overall state and well-being.  The next episode in this special series explores dreams, including lucid dreaming, nightmares and dream interpretation. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Sleep & Mental Health (00:01:09) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, LMNT & BetterHelp (00:05:14) Emotions & Sleep, Amygdala (00:17:27) Emotional Memory & Sleep (00:25:48) “Overnight Therapy” & REM Sleep, Noradrenaline (00:29:13) Sponsor: AG1 (00:30:27) Sleep to “Remember & Forget”, Trauma; REM Sleep (00:38:27) Hinge Analogy; Motivation, Impulsivity & Addiction (00:47:08) Tool: Improve REM Sleep, Social Jet Lag, Alcohol & THC, Addiction (00:56:18) Sponsor: InsideTracker (00:57:23) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) & REM Sleep (01:06:53) Noradrenaline & REM Sleep, PTSD & Prazosin (01:09:40) Addiction, Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR); Liminal States (01:16:46) Anxiety & Sleep, Mood vs. Emotions (01:23:50) Deep Non-REM Sleep & Anxiety, Sleep Quality (01:28:51) Tool: Improve Deep Non-REM Sleep, Temperature; Alcohol (01:34:56) Suicidality & Sleep, Pattern Recognition; Nightmares (01:46:21) Depression, Anxiety & Time Context (01:51:24) Depression, Too Much Sleep?; REM Changes & Antidepressants (01:57:37) Sleep Deprivation & Depression (02:01:34) Tool: Circadian Misalignment & Mental Health, Chronotype (02:04:05) Tools: Daytime Light & Nighttime Darkness; “Junk Light” (02:13:04) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    AMA #17: Making Time for Fitness, Top Sleep Tools & Best Learning Strategies

    AMA #17: Making Time for Fitness, Top Sleep Tools & Best Learning Strategies
    Welcome to a preview of the 17th Ask Me Anything (AMA) episode, part of Huberman Lab Premium. Huberman Lab Premium was launched for two main reasons. First, it was launched in order to raise support for the main Huberman Lab podcast — which will continue to come out every Monday at zero-cost. Second, it was launched as a means to raise funds for important scientific research. A significant portion of proceeds from the Huberman Lab Premium subscription will fund human research (not animal models) selected by Dr. Huberman, with a dollar-for-dollar match from the Tiny Foundation. Read our Annual Letter 2023. If you're an existing Premium member, you can login to access the full episode. If you're not a member, you can join Huberman Lab Premium to enjoy exclusive content, including monthly Ask Me Anything (AMA) episodes, AMA transcripts, podcast episode transcripts, early access to live events and help advance human scientific research. Resources Foundational Fitness Protocol Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction to AMA #17 (00:00:14) Exciting Announcement (00:02:16) Diving Into the Foundational Fitness Protocol (00:09:37) Flexibility in Your Fitness Routine (00:17:12) Optimizing Workout Times & Prioritizing Health (00:23:31) Closing Thoughts & Huberman Lab Premium Benefits In the full AMA episode, we discuss: Periodization & the Philosophy of Fitness Unlocking the Secrets of Sleep: Insights & Tools Chronotypes and Personalized Sleep Strategies The QQRT Formula: Quantity, Quality, Regularity & Timing of Sleep Exploring Naps & Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) Effective Learning & Note-Taking Strategies The Power of Teaching & Self-Testing in Learning Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer

    Protocols to Strengthen & Pain Proof Your Back

    Protocols to Strengthen & Pain Proof Your Back
    In this episode, I explain how to strengthen and build a stable, pain-free back and how to reduce or eliminate existing back pain. I explain the anatomy and physiology of the spinal cord and vertebrae, intervertebral disks and nerve pathways, and the abdominal and back muscles that together can be leveraged to stabilize the back.  Then, I describe protocols: “McGill’s Big 3” exercises, a highly effective psoas stretch, abdominal stabilization, breathing techniques, and protocols to reinforce essential supports for the back, including the neck, pelvis, feet, and toes.  I also explain how you can reduce and potentially eliminate back pain and sciatica using a specific type of bar hang, “cobra push-ups,” medial-glute strengthening exercises, and more.  Back pain greatly impedes one’s ability to enjoy daily activities; this episode provides zero-cost, minimal time-investment protocols to improve your back strength and stability and allow you to move through life pain-free and with ease and mobility.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman Joovv: https://joovv.com/huberman Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman Plunge: https://plunge.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Back Health (00:03:47) Sponsors: AeroPress, Joovv & Waking Up (00:07:57) Back Anatomy: Spine, Vertebrae, Spinal Cord (00:12:07) Spinal Cord & Nerves; Herniated Discs (00:19:50) Build Strong Pain-Free Back; Bulging Discs (00:24:26) Back Pain & Professional Evaluation; Tool: Spine Self-Assessment  (00:34:58) Sponsor: AG1 (00:36:29) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Curl-Up (00:44:40) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Side Plank (00:53:13) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Bird Dog; Back Pain (01:04:10) Sponsor: Plunge (01:05:37) Tool: Back Pain & Oreo Analogy, Bar Hang (01:10:34) Time & Back Pain; Tool: Reversing Disc Herniation, Cobra Push-Ups  (01:21:28) Sciatica, Referred Pain, Herniated Disc (01:24:21) Tool: Improve Spine Stability, Strengthen Neck (01:29:23) Tools: Strengthen Feet, Toe Spreading (01:34:35) Tools: Belly Breathing; Stagger Stance (01:42:03) Tools: Relieve Low Back Pain, Medial Glute Activation; Rolled Towel (01:50:59) Tool: Psoas Stretching (01:57:00) Tool: Back Awareness; Strengthen & Pain-Proof Back (02:05:49) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Using Sleep to Improve Learning, Creativity & Memory

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Using Sleep to Improve Learning, Creativity & Memory
    This is episode 4 of a 6-part special series on sleep with Dr. Matthew Walker, Ph.D., a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, and author of the best-selling book "Why We Sleep." In this episode, we discuss the relationship between sleep, learning and creativity.  We explain why and how sleep before and after a learning bout can improve memory and performance for both cognitive tasks and physical skills. We also discuss how to use time learning and sleep, how to use naps, non-sleep deep rest states, and caffeine to optimize learning, and the mechanisms for sleep and memory consolidation.  We also explain the critical role that sleep plays in creativity and one's ability to discover novel solutions to challenges and problems.  This episode is filled with actionable information on using sleep to enhance skill learning and improve memory and creativity.  The next episode in this guest series explains how sleep benefits emotional regulation and mental health.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman  WHOOP: https://join.whoop.com/huberman  Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman  InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Sleep & Learning (00:00:59) Sponsors: Helix Sleep, Whoop & Waking Up (00:05:48) Learning, Memory & Sleep (00:09:32) Memory & Sleep, “All-Nighters”, Hippocampus (00:13:46) Naps & Learning Capacity (00:16:59) Early School Start Times, Performance & Accidents (00:26:38) Medical Residency & Sleep Deprivation (00:29:35) Sponsor: AG1 (00:30:49) Tool: Sleep Before Learning; Cramming Effect (00:35:09) Tools: Caffeine; Timing Peak Learning; “Second Wind” (00:44:25) Memory Consolidation in Sleep (00:55:07) Sleepwalking & Talking; REM-Sleep Behavioral Disorder (01:00:16) REM Sleep Paralysis, Alcohol, Stress (01:07:41) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:08:46) Skills, Motor Learning & Sleep (01:17:03) Tool: Timing Sleep & Learning, Skill Enhancement (01:20:00) Naps; Specificity & Memory Consolidation, Sleep Spindles (01:27:21) Sleep, Motor Learning & Athletes; Automaticity (01:34:10) Can Learning Improve Sleep? (01:39:13) Tool: Exercise to Improve Sleep; Performance, Injury & Motivation (01:44:38) Pillars of Health; Dieting & Sleep Deprivation (01:49:35) Performance & Poor Sleep, Belief Effects, “Orthosomnia” (01:57:03) “Overnight Alchemy”, Sleep & Novel Memory Linking (02:05:58) Sleep & Creativity (02:11:09) Tools: Waking & Technology; Naps; “Sleep on a Problem” (02:20:51) Creative Insight & Sleep (02:26:18) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher: Vaping, Alcohol Use & Other Risky Youth Behaviors

    Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher: Vaping, Alcohol Use & Other Risky Youth Behaviors
    In this episode, my guest is Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher, PhD, FSAHM. She is a professor of pediatrics and adolescent medicine and a developmental psychologist at Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Halpern-Felsher is a world expert in adolescent decision-making and risk-taking behaviors. She explains the huge increase in vaping (e-cigarettes) by young people. She explains why vaping nicotine and cannabis is particularly dangerous to the developing brain. We discuss the rise in vaping addiction, the unique social pressures and social media influences faced by youth that make quitting challenging, and interventions to aid them in quitting or reducing use. We also discuss the role of technology and social media. And, the use of alcohol, nicotine pouches, fentanyl, and other risky behaviors that adolescents face now. This episode should interest parents, teachers, coaches, teens, and families. It covers the current youth substance use landscape and also covers resources and ways to quit these addictive behaviors.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Use Ask Huberman Lab, our new AI-powered platform, for a summary, clips, and insights from this episode. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman  Mateina: https://drinkmateina.com/huberman  LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman  Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher (00:01:40) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, Mateina & LMNT  (00:05:38) Adolescence (00:09:19) Household Conflict, Parents; Smart Phones (00:12:35) Smart Phones & Social Media (00:18:25) Vaping, E-Cigarettes, Nicotine & Cannabis (00:23:46) Adolescent Nicotine Use: Marketing, Flavors (00:30:41) Sponsor: AG1 (00:32:13) Nicotine Initiation, Freebase vs. Salt-Based Nicotine, Concentration (00:41:35) Addiction & Withdrawal; E-Cigarette Access (00:48:48) Vaping Health Hazards, Aldehydes, Flavors (00:56:32) Sponsor: Waking Up (00:57:48) “Just Say No”, Adolescent Defiance (01:04:21) Cannabis & Potency, Blunts, E-Cigarette Combinations (01:10:30) Psychosis, THC & Adolescence (01:14:11) Quitting Nicotine & Cannabis; Physical & Social Withdrawal Symptoms (01:23:05) Social Pressures, Quitting Vaping, Environment Concerns (01:30:08) Teen Activities, Social Media, Autonomy (01:36:28) Risky Behaviors, Alcohol, Driving, Sexual Behavior (01:43:27) International E-Cigarette Use, Regulation (01:46:10) Nicotine Pouches, Health Risks; Tolerance (01:53:25) Tools: Vaping Interventions, Decision Making, Harm Reduction (02:02:37) Fentanyl, Drug Testing, Recreational Drug Use (02:13:45) Tool: Organic Conversations & Risky Behavior (02:17:20) Long-Term Goals & Teens; Vaping, Pornography & Teens (02:24:08) Mental Health Crisis & Substance Use (02:29:11) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer