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    The Science of Vision, Eye Health & Seeing Better

    Practicing smooth pursuit, accommodation mechanisms, and rest for your eyes can preserve vision. Try early morning flashing red light with caution under the guidance of an optometrist or ophthalmologist to enhance photoreceptor function.

    enJune 14, 2021

    About this Episode

    This episode I describe how we see, meaning how our eyes focus, convert light information into electricity the rest of the brain can understand and how our brain creates the incredible thing we experience as “sight”. I also describe how we can train and support our visual system to improve at any age. I describe more than a dozen protocols to support depth perception, offset near-sightedness, improve mood, sleep, and our ability to focus (both visual focus and our mental focus generally). I also explain how to use eyesight to improve our levels of alertness and why visual hallucinations, lazy eyes and colorblindness occur. I also describe various compounds that may assist in supporting visual health and possibly improve our vision. Many simple, zero-cost protocols and a lot of scientific mechanisms are covered in this episode in clear language anyone can understand-- it is for anyone that values their brain and whether eyesight, young, adult-age or advanced age. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors: AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:00:31) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT (00:04:51) Protocol: Concurrent Training For Endurance, Strength, Hypertrophy (00:07:24) The Senses, Vision, Seeing & What We Should All Do To See Better (00:10:35) Our Eyes: What They Really Do, & How They Work (00:14:30) Converting Light Into Electricity Language: Photoreceptors, Retinal Ganglion Cells (00:17:00) We Don’t See Anything Directly: It Is All A Comparison Of Reflected Light (00:19:35) Dogs, Cats, Snakes, Squirrels, Shrimps, Diving Birds, & You(r View Of The World) (00:24:05) Everything You See Is A Best Guess, Blind Spots (00:25:50) Depth Perception (00:28:00) Subconscious Vision: Light, Mood, Metabolism, Dopamine; Frog’s Skin In Your Eyes (00:32:00) Blue-Yellow Light, Sunlight; & Protocol 1 For Better Biology & Psychology; (00:35:00) Protocol 2: Prevent & Offset Near-Sightedness (Myopia): Outdoors 2 Hours Per Day (00:42:00) Improving Focus: Visual & Mental; Accommodation, Your Pupils & Your Bendy Lens (00:48:50) Protocol 3: Distance Viewing For 20min For Every 90 Minutes of “Close Viewing” (00:52:20) Protocol 4: Self-Generated Optic Flow; Move Yourself Through Space Daily (00:54:26) Protocol 5: Be More Alert; Eyelids, Eye Size, Chin Position, Looking Up Versus Down (00:59:21) Protocol 6: Sleep In A Very Dark Room To Prevent Myopia (Nearsightedness) (01:02:55) Color Vision, Colorblindness, Use Magentas Not Reds, (01:04:32) Protocol 7: Keeping Your Vision Sharp With Distance Viewing Every Day (01:06:05) Protocol 8: Smooth Pursuit (01:08:48) Protocol 9: Near-Far Visual Training 2-3 Minutes 3-4 Times a Week (01:13:33) Protocol 10: Red Light, Emerging Protocol To Improve Photoreceptors & Vision (01:16:20) Dry Eyes; Blinking, Protocol 11 (01:18:40) Lazy Eye, Binocular Vision, Amblyopia; Triggering Rapid Brain Plasticity; Protocol 12 (01:24:48) Protocol 12: Determine Your Dominant Eye; Near-Far Training (01:27:57) Visual Hallucinations: The Consequence of An Under-Active Visual Brain (01:29:47) Protocol 13: Snellen Chart: A Simple, Cost-Free Way To Test & Maintain Vision (01:33:00) Vitamin A, Lutein, Idebenone, Zeaxanthine, Astaxanthin, Blood Flow (01:44:20) Summary of Protocols, Vital Point About Blood & Oxygen For Vision (01:46:00) Episode Length, Captions, Zero-Cost Support, Instagram, Searching Topics Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer

    🔑 Key Takeaways

    • Start small and gradually increase sets, take rest days, and take complete breaks after a 10-12 week cycle. Prioritize visual health for better mental and physical performance, especially amongst young people. Seek professional help for severe vision disorders.
    • Our eyes are responsible for more than just seeing and adopting specific behaviors like light viewing can enhance and maintain our visual system, ultimately improving our overall wellbeing.
    • Vision relies on electrical signals interpreted by the brain, and perception of color varies depending on surrounding light. Animals' vision differs based on their eyes' cones, and studying this can aid in understanding consciousness.
    • Our brain's guesses about our surroundings are largely correct, but can also create blind spots and fill them in with what it thinks should be there. Our perspective of the world is limited to the colors and wavelengths of light we can see, which can vary among different species and individuals. Diving birds use their eyes' ability to adjust to water refraction to catch fish.
    • Our brain devotes a significant portion of its real estate to vision and melanopsin retinal ganglion cells regulate our sleep rhythms, mood, hormones, metabolism, pain threshold, learning, and memory. Viewing the sun for a few minutes in the morning and evening is crucial to anchor ourselves in time and enhance vision capabilities. Low/no vision people rely on touch and hearing, but light and eyesight are essential to subconscious regulation.
    • Getting early sunlight and outdoor time not only enhances mood and hormone levels but can also prevent myopia. Exposure to blue light triggers melanopsin cells, communicating the time of day to our body and brain.
    • Spending at least 2 hours outside every day without sunglasses on, especially early in the day, can improve the health of the eye's focusing mechanism and promote mental and cognitive performance.
    • Improper eye habits can harm both vision and brain. Repeated focus on nearby objects can cause headaches and reshape neural connections, while looking at a distance relaxes eye muscles and maintains brain health.
    • Regular exercise of eye muscles and breaks from up-close work can prevent vision problems, migraines, and fatigue. Optic flow through self-generated motion improves visual and mood systems, promoting lifelong health at no cost.
    • Be mindful of the position of your computer screen and the light surrounding you to trigger areas in the brain for wakefulness. Similarly, sleep in a dark room to reduce the probability of nearsightedness.
    • To improve quality of sleep, avoid exposure to light during certain hours. Also, reducing blue and bright light exposure can help prevent myopia. Additionally, spending time looking at distant objects improves vision and induces relaxation.
    • Practicing smooth pursuit training and accommodation mechanisms can reduce eye strain, improve vision, and aid in post-concussion recovery. Regularly exposing our eyes to varied stimuli can help maintain a healthy visual system.
    • Practicing smooth pursuit, accommodation mechanisms, and rest for your eyes can preserve vision. Try early morning flashing red light with caution under the guidance of an optometrist or ophthalmologist to enhance photoreceptor function.
    • Blink regularly to avoid visual distortions. Treat lazy eye in children promptly. Eat a healthy and balanced diet, including foods and supplements that support vision and reverse visual decline for better eye health.
    • Balanced visual input is crucial for developing strong binocular visual machinery. Occluding one eye without clinical need can shut down neural information, and early detection of neuromuscular issues is essential for proper vision development.
    • Correcting Strabismus in children through eye exercises can provide balanced vision and prevent muscle weakness. Consulting with an eye specialist is crucial for severe vision problems, while practicing with a Snellen chart at home can help improve vision. Understimulated visual systems can lead to hallucinations, especially in low or no vision cases.
    • Get regular eye exams from a specialist; avoid incorrect lenses. Eat dark leafy vegetables and consider supplementing with lutein-rich egg yolks. Practice simple exercises, like using a Snellen chart at home, to improve vision over time.
    • Lutein supplements benefit moderate to severe macular degeneration, but cooking eggs reduces their effectiveness. Non-animal sources of leucine are also available. Idebenone helps with congenital eye diseases. Zeaxanthin and astaxanthin from seafood improve vision and blood flow. Additionally, Aztec Saxton enhances male fertility.
    • Lutein and Astaxanthin supplements improve blood flow to the eyes, enhancing skin elasticity and quality. Endurance and strength training indirectly improves eye health. Consult with a doctor and consider other behavioral tools for a comprehensive approach.

    📝 Podcast Summary

    Building a Fitness Regimen and Supporting Visual Health for Better Performance.

    To achieve your fitness goals, emphasize what you are trying to achieve and build your workout regimen around it. Whether it's endurance or strength training, start with the minimum number of sets required and work your way up incrementally. Taking rest days is essential for injury-free progress. After a 10-12 week cycle, take 5-7 days off completely. The understanding of the senses is crucial to comprehend mental health. Young people should train and support their eyesight for better mental and physical performance as it's easier to reinforce it earlier. The episode offers practical tools to maintain visual health and helpful for people with vision disorders but consult with clinicians for severe problems.

    Understanding the Vision System for Wellbeing

    Vision involves more than just seeing things around us, and our eyes are responsible for our mood and level of alertness. The neural retinas in our eyes are part of the central nervous system and the only part of our brain outside the skull. By adopting specific behaviors like light viewing at particular times and ways, we can enhance and maintain our visual system. The eyes collect light information and send it off to the brain in a form it can understand. Photoreceptors in the eye react to light and convert it into electrical information that is processed by retinal ganglion cells and sent to the brain. By understanding how the visual system works, we can improve our overall wellbeing.

    Perceiving the World: How Vision Works for Different Creatures

    Vision is not a direct process, but a result of electrical signals that the brain interprets to make guesses about what is in front of us. The perception of color depends on the comparison of light reflected by surrounding objects. Animals perceive light differently based on the types of cones they have in their eyes. Some animals can see ultraviolet light, heat emissions, and signal using sunlight reflections on their bodies. Understanding how creatures perceive the world can help scientists study consciousness and the extent to which we can access the world around us.

    The Incredible Communication Between the Eye and the Brain

    The way that the eye communicates with the brain is incredible. The brain makes guesses about what is there and those guesses are largely right. This is why we can functionally move through the world. However, the brain's guessing can also create blind spots, which the brain fills in with what it thinks is there. The brain also creates a sense of depth by comparing the location at which information about light lands on the two eyes. We experience the outside world through a limited perspective of colors and wavelengths of light. This is why some animals and individuals with color blindness see the world differently. The eye's ability to adjust to the way water refracts the image helps diving birds catch fish.

    The Importance of Vision in Regulating Subconscious Aspects of Our Biology

    Our brain uses 40-50% of its real estate for vision, which also governs our mood, sleep, and appetite. Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells regulate our sleep rhythms, mood, hormones, metabolism, pain threshold, learning, and memory. If you are not viewing the sun for 2-10 minutes in the morning and evening, you're disrupting these rhythms. Every cell in our body needs to know if it's day or night. Hence, one of the most important aspects of our biology is to anchor ourselves in time. Low vision or no vision people have their real estate in the brain taken over by touch and hearing neurons. These neurons are faster and higher acuity. Hence, it's essential to use light and eyesight to regulate these subconscious aspects and enhance our vision capabilities.

    The Benefits of Early Sunlight and Outdoor Time

    Getting sunlight early in the day is essential to set our circadian clocks, enhance mood, optimize hormone levels and dopamine levels, and prevent myopia or nearsightedness. The ancient cells in our eyes inform our body and brain about the time of day. Exposure to blue light, even if it’s from artificial sources, triggers melanopsin cells that signal every cell in our body, including the circadian clock. The effect of sunlight is not just limited to its distance but directly related to reducing the probability of myopia emergence. Children and adults should get at least two hours of outdoor time without sunglasses to prevent and offset the formation of myopia.

    The Benefits of Sunlight on Eye Health and Mental Focus

    Getting outside for at least two hours a day without sunglasses on, even on cloudy days, can offset the formation of myopia (nearsightedness) and promote the health of the eye's focusing mechanism. The melanopsin cells, activated by sunlight, can improve the health of the muscles and neurons responsible for moving the lens in the eye. This dynamic lens allows you to adjust your vision to things up close or far away through a process called accommodation. The ability to hold visual focus is a critical determining factor in mental and cognitive performance. To enhance the health of your eyes in the short and long term, and improve mental and cognitive focus, get sunlight early in the day and spend at least 2 hours outside every day.

    The Connection between Eye Health and Brain Functioning.

    The eyes and pupils reflect the status of the brain. If one pupil is bigger than the other, it indicates brain damage. Accommodation is the ability to adjust to objects at different distances, and spending too much time looking at things up close can reshape neural circuitry and cause health problems, including headaches. Looking up from a computer or zoom screen is not enough; one needs to look out at a distance. It is essential to allow the lens and muscles of the eye to relax by looking at distant objects, helpful for healthy vision, and maintaining the proper functioning of the brain.

    Simple Habits for Healthy Eyesight

    Maintaining the health of your visual system is important for overall well-being. Exercising your eye muscles by looking out into panoramic vision and relaxing your face and eye muscles every 30 minutes of focused work can help prevent severe vision problems, migraines, and fatigue. Getting outside and experiencing non-up close vision for at least 20-30 minutes every 90 minutes of looking at things up close can also help. Optic flow through self-generated motion, like walking or biking, is good for the visual and mood systems of the brain and body. These simple protocols for healthy visual behavior are essential for maintaining good, healthy eyesight throughout your lifespan and are essentially zero cost.

    Simple Factors for Better Focus and Health

    Positioning your computer screen up at eye level or sometimes having it actually above eye level can create wakefulness and alertness for the work that you're going to do. Looking up triggers areas of the brain involved in wakefulness and eyelids opening. Similarly, children sleeping in very dark rooms have a much lower probability of developing nearsightedness. It's because the wavelengths of light that matter for these melanopsin cells can often get through the eyelids. Therefore, it's important to be mindful of the position of our eyes and the light around us for better focus and health. These simple factors may seem insignificant, but they have deep mechanisms to support them, and understanding them can positively affect our well-being.

    Importance of Sleep, Light Exposure and Eye Care

    Getting good quality sleep is essential for both children and adults, especially those with thin eyelids as they are more prone to light coming in through the eyelids. People should try to sleep in a completely black or dark environment to avoid any exposure to light, especially during the hours of 10:00 PM and 4:00 AM as it can negatively impact the dopamine and other mood-producing systems of the brain. Avoiding blue light exposure and bright light exposure can help prevent myopia in some cases, and getting bright light for two hours a day can help offset it. Spending at least ten minutes a day viewing things off in the distance can also improve vision and provide relaxation.

    Visual Exercises to Keep Your Eyes Relaxed and Healthy

    Looking at distant objects can help relax eye muscles and reduce stress. Smooth pursuit training, by visually tracking a moving object, can improve vision and keep extraocular muscles in good condition. Spending time looking at objects in our environment that require smooth pursuit, such as watching sports or kids play, can also benefit our visual system. Regularly training accommodation mechanisms by focusing on objects at different distances can improve our pattern vision and even aid in post-concussion recovery. It's important to be mindful of the stimuli we expose our eyes to and to incorporate exercises that keep our visual system functioning optimally.

    The Benefits of Eye Exercises for Vision Preservation

    Exercise your eye muscles, practice smooth pursuit, and accommodation mechanisms of your eyes to preserve your vision. Try to practice this for two to five minutes every other day. Be sure to get some rest and look at a horizon or do nothing to relax your eyes. Early morning flashing red light can help offset age-related macular degeneration by enhancing the mitochondrial function in the photo receptors. However, it's important to be careful, and talk to an optometrist or ophthalmologist before trying it as eyesight is precious and vital. Our photoreceptors are most active in the dark, and it's essential to preserve them by practicing eye exercises.

    Simple Tips for Maintaining Good Eye Health.

    Blinking for 5-15 seconds can lubricate the eyes and support clear optics. This is important as dry eyes can cause visual distortions. Additionally, occluding one eye early in life can lead to permanent changes in the way that the brain perceives the outside world, emphasizing the importance of addressing imbalances and treating lazy eye in children as early as possible. Finally, some foods and supplements have been shown to support vision and even reverse visual loss, making it important to maintain a healthy and balanced diet.

    Maintaining Balanced Visual Input for Strong Binocular Vision

    It is important to maintain balanced visual input through both eyes, especially in young children, to develop strong binocular visual machinery in the brain and eye musculature. Occluding one eye to create an imbalance can help improve the weaker eye, but it is not recommended to do so recreationally without clinical need as it can shut down the neural information for the occluded eye. Competitive plasticity suggests that covering both eyes can extend the period of critical plasticity and reopen plasticity later in life, but caution needs to be exercised. Neuromuscular issues that cause imbalances in the eyes need to be dealt with as early as possible by contacting ophthalmologists or neuro-ophthalmologists.

    Correcting Strabismus and Improving Vision

    Strabismus, which is common in young children, should be corrected as it can provide balanced vision and prevent weaker eye muscles. Eye exercises such as near-far smooth pursuit and checking for dominant and non-dominant eyes can be beneficial for those with eye fatigue or differences in focus between the eyes. It's important to consult a good ophthalmologist or optometrist, especially for severe vision problems or offsetting vision problems. Additionally, putting a Snellen chart in your home can help improve vision and can be fun to practice. Hallucinations actually occur because portions of the brain become underactive, particularly the visual portions. Visual systems are trying to make guesses about what's out there when understimulated, which is why in low to no vision people, their brain makes guesses based on auditory and touch sensations.

    Simple Steps to Preserve Your Eyesight

    Preserving your eyesight is one of the most life-enhancing things that you can do. It is important to have your vision tested by a specialist as opposed to relying on supermarket or eyeglass store tests. Putting overcorrecting or undercorrecting lenses can weaken the system. Eating dark leafy vegetables, especially in their raw form, can help support vision. Supplementation with lutein-rich egg yolks has been shown to increase macular pigment optical density and improve visual acuity, but one must determine what is safe and economical for them. Preserving eyesight and movement are vital to take care of ourselves and others, and simple exercises, like having a Snellen chart at home, can be immensely beneficial in building a framework for good vision over time.

    Nutrients for Eye Health and Beyond

    Supplementing with lutein can help offset some of the detrimental effects of age-related macular degeneration, but only for individuals with moderate to severe macular degeneration. Cooking eggs eliminates the benefits of lutein. There are other non-animal sources of leucine available. I D E B E N O N E can be beneficial for Lieber's congenital eye disease and optic neuropathies. Z E A X A N T H I N and A S T A X A N T H I N, found in seafoods, can offset some of the disruption in vision that occurs with aging, and increases ocular blood flow. Aztec Saxton, a pro-vitamin A compound, also has a notable effect on male fertility.

    Supplements and Exercise for Eye and Skin Health

    Lutein and Astaxanthin are supplements that can improve blood flow to the eyes, which can in turn improve skin elasticity, moisture, and quality. While these supplements are still in the experimental phase, studies have been done and published in peer-reviewed journals. It's important to talk to your ophthalmologist and physician before taking any supplements. Additionally, having a healthy cardiovascular system through endurance and strength training can indirectly improve eye health and vision by delivering blood, oxygen, and nutrients to the retina. However, other behavioral tools besides exercise and supplementation are necessary to support your eyesight. It's important to consider your family history of vision loss, occupational hazards, and long view vision for a comprehensive approach to eye health.

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    Dr. Casey Means: Transform Your Health by Improving Metabolism, Hormone & Blood Sugar Regulation

    Dr. Casey Means: Transform Your Health by Improving Metabolism, Hormone & Blood Sugar Regulation
    In this episode, my guest is Dr. Casey Means, M.D., a physician trained at Stanford University School of Medicine, an expert on metabolic health and the author of the book, "Good Energy." We discuss how to leverage nutrition, exercise and environmental factors to enhance your metabolic health by improving mitochondrial function, hormone and blood sugar regulation.  We also explore how fasting, deliberate cold exposure and spending time in nature can impact metabolic health, how to control food cravings and how to assess your metabolic health using blood testing, continuous glucose monitors and other tools.  Metabolic dysfunction is a leading cause of chronic disease, obesity and reduced lifespan around the world. Conversely, improving your mitochondrial and metabolic health can positively affect your health span and longevity. Listeners of this episode will learn low- and zero-cost tools to improve their metabolic health, physical and mental well-being, body composition and target the root cause of various common diseases. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Maui Nui Venison: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman  Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman  AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman  InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps 00:00:00 Dr. Casey Means 00:02:18 Sponsors: Maui Nui, Eight Sleep & AeroPress 00:06:32 Metabolism, Metabolic Dysfunction, Medicinal Blindspot 00:14:17 Trifecta of Bad Energy 00:24:02 Western Living, United States, Specialization & Medicine 00:27:57 Insulin Resistance, Tool: Mitochondrial Capacity & Exercise 00:33:33 Sponsor: AG1 00:35:03 Tools: Walking & Glucose; Frequent Movement 00:44:25 Tools: Exercises to Improve Mitochondrial Capacity; Desk Treadmill 00:51:18 Soleus Push-Ups & Fidgeting, Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT) 00:57:14 Sponsor: InsideTracker 00:58:21 Tool: Blood Test Biomarkers, Vital Signs & Mitochondrial Function 01:11:16 Navigate Medical System & Blood Tests, Consumer Lab Testing 01:16:46 Tool: Environmental Factors; Food, Life as a Process 01:21:58 Tool: Ultra-Processed vs. Real Food, Obesity, Soil & Micronutrients 01:32:03 Ultra-Processed Foods: Brain & Cellular Confusion 01:39:10 Tools: Control Cravings, GLP-1 Production, Microbiome Support 01:51:42 Ozempic, GLP-1 Analogs; Root Cause & Medicine 02:00:54 Tool: Deliberate Cold & Heat Exposure, Brown Fat 02:07:27 Tool: Intermittent Fasting & Metabolic Flexibility; Insulin Sensitivity 02:17:03 Tool: Continuous Glucose Monitors (CGMs) & Awareness, Glucose Spikes 02:24:34 Tool: CGMs, Glycemic Variability, Dawn Effect, Individuality 02:33:10 Sleep; Continuous Monitoring & Biomarkers 02:37:39 Mindset & Safety, Stress & Cell Danger Response 02:44:04 Tool: Being in Nature, Sunlight, Fear 02:54:44 Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Improve Sleep to Boost Mood & Emotional Regulation

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Improve Sleep to Boost Mood & Emotional Regulation
    This is episode 5 of our 6-part special series on sleep with Dr. Matthew Walker, Ph.D., a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley and the host of The Matt Walker Podcast. In this episode, we explain the connection between sleep and mood, emotional regulation and mental well-being.  We explain the role of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in processing emotions and emotional memories and why sleep deprivation causes agitation, impulsivity and emotional reactivity.  We also discuss why sleep disruption is a hallmark feature of PTSD, anxiety, depression, suicidality, and other psychiatric conditions.  We explain protocols for improving REM sleep and other sleep phases in order to harness the therapeutic power of quality sleep to feel calmer and emotionally restored. This episode describes various actionable tools to improve sleep for those struggling with mental health or mood and those wanting to bolster their overall state and well-being.  The next episode in this special series explores dreams, including lucid dreaming, nightmares and dream interpretation. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Sleep & Mental Health (00:01:09) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, LMNT & BetterHelp (00:05:14) Emotions & Sleep, Amygdala (00:17:27) Emotional Memory & Sleep (00:25:48) “Overnight Therapy” & REM Sleep, Noradrenaline (00:29:13) Sponsor: AG1 (00:30:27) Sleep to “Remember & Forget”, Trauma; REM Sleep (00:38:27) Hinge Analogy; Motivation, Impulsivity & Addiction (00:47:08) Tool: Improve REM Sleep, Social Jet Lag, Alcohol & THC, Addiction (00:56:18) Sponsor: InsideTracker (00:57:23) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) & REM Sleep (01:06:53) Noradrenaline & REM Sleep, PTSD & Prazosin (01:09:40) Addiction, Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR); Liminal States (01:16:46) Anxiety & Sleep, Mood vs. Emotions (01:23:50) Deep Non-REM Sleep & Anxiety, Sleep Quality (01:28:51) Tool: Improve Deep Non-REM Sleep, Temperature; Alcohol (01:34:56) Suicidality & Sleep, Pattern Recognition; Nightmares (01:46:21) Depression, Anxiety & Time Context (01:51:24) Depression, Too Much Sleep?; REM Changes & Antidepressants (01:57:37) Sleep Deprivation & Depression (02:01:34) Tool: Circadian Misalignment & Mental Health, Chronotype (02:04:05) Tools: Daytime Light & Nighttime Darkness; “Junk Light” (02:13:04) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    AMA #17: Making Time for Fitness, Top Sleep Tools & Best Learning Strategies

    AMA #17: Making Time for Fitness, Top Sleep Tools & Best Learning Strategies
    Welcome to a preview of the 17th Ask Me Anything (AMA) episode, part of Huberman Lab Premium. Huberman Lab Premium was launched for two main reasons. First, it was launched in order to raise support for the main Huberman Lab podcast — which will continue to come out every Monday at zero-cost. Second, it was launched as a means to raise funds for important scientific research. A significant portion of proceeds from the Huberman Lab Premium subscription will fund human research (not animal models) selected by Dr. Huberman, with a dollar-for-dollar match from the Tiny Foundation. Read our Annual Letter 2023. If you're an existing Premium member, you can login to access the full episode. If you're not a member, you can join Huberman Lab Premium to enjoy exclusive content, including monthly Ask Me Anything (AMA) episodes, AMA transcripts, podcast episode transcripts, early access to live events and help advance human scientific research. Resources Foundational Fitness Protocol Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction to AMA #17 (00:00:14) Exciting Announcement (00:02:16) Diving Into the Foundational Fitness Protocol (00:09:37) Flexibility in Your Fitness Routine (00:17:12) Optimizing Workout Times & Prioritizing Health (00:23:31) Closing Thoughts & Huberman Lab Premium Benefits In the full AMA episode, we discuss: Periodization & the Philosophy of Fitness Unlocking the Secrets of Sleep: Insights & Tools Chronotypes and Personalized Sleep Strategies The QQRT Formula: Quantity, Quality, Regularity & Timing of Sleep Exploring Naps & Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) Effective Learning & Note-Taking Strategies The Power of Teaching & Self-Testing in Learning Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer

    Protocols to Strengthen & Pain Proof Your Back

    Protocols to Strengthen & Pain Proof Your Back
    In this episode, I explain how to strengthen and build a stable, pain-free back and how to reduce or eliminate existing back pain. I explain the anatomy and physiology of the spinal cord and vertebrae, intervertebral disks and nerve pathways, and the abdominal and back muscles that together can be leveraged to stabilize the back.  Then, I describe protocols: “McGill’s Big 3” exercises, a highly effective psoas stretch, abdominal stabilization, breathing techniques, and protocols to reinforce essential supports for the back, including the neck, pelvis, feet, and toes.  I also explain how you can reduce and potentially eliminate back pain and sciatica using a specific type of bar hang, “cobra push-ups,” medial-glute strengthening exercises, and more.  Back pain greatly impedes one’s ability to enjoy daily activities; this episode provides zero-cost, minimal time-investment protocols to improve your back strength and stability and allow you to move through life pain-free and with ease and mobility.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman Joovv: https://joovv.com/huberman Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman Plunge: https://plunge.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Back Health (00:03:47) Sponsors: AeroPress, Joovv & Waking Up (00:07:57) Back Anatomy: Spine, Vertebrae, Spinal Cord (00:12:07) Spinal Cord & Nerves; Herniated Discs (00:19:50) Build Strong Pain-Free Back; Bulging Discs (00:24:26) Back Pain & Professional Evaluation; Tool: Spine Self-Assessment  (00:34:58) Sponsor: AG1 (00:36:29) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Curl-Up (00:44:40) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Side Plank (00:53:13) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Bird Dog; Back Pain (01:04:10) Sponsor: Plunge (01:05:37) Tool: Back Pain & Oreo Analogy, Bar Hang (01:10:34) Time & Back Pain; Tool: Reversing Disc Herniation, Cobra Push-Ups  (01:21:28) Sciatica, Referred Pain, Herniated Disc (01:24:21) Tool: Improve Spine Stability, Strengthen Neck (01:29:23) Tools: Strengthen Feet, Toe Spreading (01:34:35) Tools: Belly Breathing; Stagger Stance (01:42:03) Tools: Relieve Low Back Pain, Medial Glute Activation; Rolled Towel (01:50:59) Tool: Psoas Stretching (01:57:00) Tool: Back Awareness; Strengthen & Pain-Proof Back (02:05:49) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Using Sleep to Improve Learning, Creativity & Memory

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Using Sleep to Improve Learning, Creativity & Memory
    This is episode 4 of a 6-part special series on sleep with Dr. Matthew Walker, Ph.D., a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, and author of the best-selling book "Why We Sleep." In this episode, we discuss the relationship between sleep, learning and creativity.  We explain why and how sleep before and after a learning bout can improve memory and performance for both cognitive tasks and physical skills. We also discuss how to use time learning and sleep, how to use naps, non-sleep deep rest states, and caffeine to optimize learning, and the mechanisms for sleep and memory consolidation.  We also explain the critical role that sleep plays in creativity and one's ability to discover novel solutions to challenges and problems.  This episode is filled with actionable information on using sleep to enhance skill learning and improve memory and creativity.  The next episode in this guest series explains how sleep benefits emotional regulation and mental health.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman  WHOOP: https://join.whoop.com/huberman  Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman  InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Sleep & Learning (00:00:59) Sponsors: Helix Sleep, Whoop & Waking Up (00:05:48) Learning, Memory & Sleep (00:09:32) Memory & Sleep, “All-Nighters”, Hippocampus (00:13:46) Naps & Learning Capacity (00:16:59) Early School Start Times, Performance & Accidents (00:26:38) Medical Residency & Sleep Deprivation (00:29:35) Sponsor: AG1 (00:30:49) Tool: Sleep Before Learning; Cramming Effect (00:35:09) Tools: Caffeine; Timing Peak Learning; “Second Wind” (00:44:25) Memory Consolidation in Sleep (00:55:07) Sleepwalking & Talking; REM-Sleep Behavioral Disorder (01:00:16) REM Sleep Paralysis, Alcohol, Stress (01:07:41) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:08:46) Skills, Motor Learning & Sleep (01:17:03) Tool: Timing Sleep & Learning, Skill Enhancement (01:20:00) Naps; Specificity & Memory Consolidation, Sleep Spindles (01:27:21) Sleep, Motor Learning & Athletes; Automaticity (01:34:10) Can Learning Improve Sleep? (01:39:13) Tool: Exercise to Improve Sleep; Performance, Injury & Motivation (01:44:38) Pillars of Health; Dieting & Sleep Deprivation (01:49:35) Performance & Poor Sleep, Belief Effects, “Orthosomnia” (01:57:03) “Overnight Alchemy”, Sleep & Novel Memory Linking (02:05:58) Sleep & Creativity (02:11:09) Tools: Waking & Technology; Naps; “Sleep on a Problem” (02:20:51) Creative Insight & Sleep (02:26:18) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher: Vaping, Alcohol Use & Other Risky Youth Behaviors

    Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher: Vaping, Alcohol Use & Other Risky Youth Behaviors
    In this episode, my guest is Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher, PhD, FSAHM. She is a professor of pediatrics and adolescent medicine and a developmental psychologist at Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Halpern-Felsher is a world expert in adolescent decision-making and risk-taking behaviors. She explains the huge increase in vaping (e-cigarettes) by young people. She explains why vaping nicotine and cannabis is particularly dangerous to the developing brain. We discuss the rise in vaping addiction, the unique social pressures and social media influences faced by youth that make quitting challenging, and interventions to aid them in quitting or reducing use. We also discuss the role of technology and social media. And, the use of alcohol, nicotine pouches, fentanyl, and other risky behaviors that adolescents face now. This episode should interest parents, teachers, coaches, teens, and families. It covers the current youth substance use landscape and also covers resources and ways to quit these addictive behaviors.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Use Ask Huberman Lab, our new AI-powered platform, for a summary, clips, and insights from this episode. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman  Mateina: https://drinkmateina.com/huberman  LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman  Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher (00:01:40) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, Mateina & LMNT  (00:05:38) Adolescence (00:09:19) Household Conflict, Parents; Smart Phones (00:12:35) Smart Phones & Social Media (00:18:25) Vaping, E-Cigarettes, Nicotine & Cannabis (00:23:46) Adolescent Nicotine Use: Marketing, Flavors (00:30:41) Sponsor: AG1 (00:32:13) Nicotine Initiation, Freebase vs. Salt-Based Nicotine, Concentration (00:41:35) Addiction & Withdrawal; E-Cigarette Access (00:48:48) Vaping Health Hazards, Aldehydes, Flavors (00:56:32) Sponsor: Waking Up (00:57:48) “Just Say No”, Adolescent Defiance (01:04:21) Cannabis & Potency, Blunts, E-Cigarette Combinations (01:10:30) Psychosis, THC & Adolescence (01:14:11) Quitting Nicotine & Cannabis; Physical & Social Withdrawal Symptoms (01:23:05) Social Pressures, Quitting Vaping, Environment Concerns (01:30:08) Teen Activities, Social Media, Autonomy (01:36:28) Risky Behaviors, Alcohol, Driving, Sexual Behavior (01:43:27) International E-Cigarette Use, Regulation (01:46:10) Nicotine Pouches, Health Risks; Tolerance (01:53:25) Tools: Vaping Interventions, Decision Making, Harm Reduction (02:02:37) Fentanyl, Drug Testing, Recreational Drug Use (02:13:45) Tool: Organic Conversations & Risky Behavior (02:17:20) Long-Term Goals & Teens; Vaping, Pornography & Teens (02:24:08) Mental Health Crisis & Substance Use (02:29:11) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer