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    The Science of Gratitude & How to Build a Gratitude Practice

    Quickly activate the neural circuits associated with gratitude through engaging with inspiring stories for as little as one minute.

    enNovember 22, 2021

    About this Episode

    In this episode, I discuss the science of gratitude, which has been shown in peer-reviewed studies to have tremendous positive effects on mental and physical health. I explain, however, that most commonly used gratitude practices are ineffective (such as gratitude lists). The key elements of highly effective gratitude practices are described, including the essential need for story (narrative), receiving or perceiving gratitude rather than giving it, and the role that theory of mind plays in this context. I also discuss why we can't simply make up feelings of gratitude and how reluctance undermines the process. I also explain the neural circuit mechanisms that underlie the reductions in fear and increases in motivation and lowering of inflammatory chemicals that effective narrative-based gratitude can trigger. Throughout the episode, I use the science of gratitude to design a brief but highly effective protocol.  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction: Gratitude Science & Surprises (00:01:50) Controlling Heart Rate with Story (00:04:48) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT (00:09:11) Major, Long-Lasting Benefits of Gratitude Practice (00:12:20) Prosocial vs. Defensive Thinking, Behaviors, & Neural Circuits  (00:17:50) Why We All Need an Effective Gratitude Practice (00:21:22) Neurochemistry & Neural Circuits of Gratitude (00:25:10) Prefrontal Cortex Set Context (00:30:10) Ineffective Gratitude Practices; Autonomic Variables (00:34:55) Key Features of Effective Gratitude Practices: Receiving Thanks & Story (00:42:30) Theory of Mind Is Key (00:45:50) Building Effective Gratitude Practices: Adopting Narratives, Duration (00:52:28) Narratives That Shift Brain-Body Circuits  (00:56:150 You Can’t Lie About Liking Something; Reluctance In Giving (00:59:55) How Gratitude Changes Your Brain: Reduces Anxiety, Increases Motivation (01:03:00) 5 Minutes (Is More Than Enough), 3X Weekly, Timing Each Day  (01:05:44) Empathy & Anterior Cingulate Cortex (01:07:35) Reducing Inflammation & Fear with Gratitude (01:10:56) Serotonin, Kanna/Zembrin  (01:16:00) Neuroplasticity, Pharmacology, Brain Machine Interfaces (01:18:50) The Best Gratitude Practices: & How To, My Protocol (01:24:25) Subscribe & Feedback, Supporting Sponsors, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer

    🔑 Key Takeaways

    • Learning to use gratitude effectively can have a positive impact on your mental and physical health.
    • Listening to stories can influence our physiology, rewiring our brain and body to become calmer or more responsive.
    • Embrace gratitude and reap its far-reaching benefits to experience improved mental and physical health!
    • Gratitude helps to unlock the balance between dark and light, allowing us to choose between feeling good or feeling less good about things.
    • Practicing gratitude is a powerful tool to shift our brain's neural circuits and enhance our mental and physical health.
    • Gratitude can help us stay in the moment and connect with others, leading to increased happiness.
    • To unlock the full benefits of gratitude, we need to employ specific practices with knowledge of why we're doing them.
    • Engaging in practices such as hyperventilation, meditative stances, cold baths, chanting, or pharmacology can help us increase autonomic arousal and shift our neural circuitry towards more pro-social behaviors.
    • Experiencing gratitude and connecting with stories of other people who have received help can have profound effects on our physiology and psychology.
    • Understanding Theory of Mind helps us to empathize with others and foster gratitude.
    • Quickly activate the neural circuits associated with gratitude through engaging with inspiring stories for as little as one minute.
    • Using the same story or narrative to practice gratitude can help activate neural circuits associated with gratitude in our brain and heart, leading to a more relaxed state and a sense of awe or joy.
    • Genuine interactions are the key to meaningful relationships.
    • Gratitude practice has the potential to reduce fear and anxiety and increase motivation and positive emotions, by rewiring our neural circuitry.
    • Make gratitude practices a part of your daily routine to become more mindful, aware and make more positive decisions in life.
    • Practicing gratitude can help us become more empathic and better understand the emotional states of others.
    • Practicing gratitude can help reduce inflammation and fear in the body for both men and women.
    • Enhance your experiences of gratitude and joy by exploring the potential of neurochemistry.
    • Combining different approaches to enhance neuroplasticity can have a more powerful effect than any single approach.
    • Practicing gratitude is a scientifically proven way to increase motivation and reduce anxiety for a healthier mind and body.

    📝 Podcast Summary

    Unlocking the Science Behind an Effective Gratitude Practice

    Gratitude is an important emotion which can have a positive impact on our health and wellbeing.Studies show that having an effective gratitude practice can have a dramatic effect on many different aspects of our lives, such as our mental health and physical performance.Surprisingly, this practice does not simply involve writing down what we are grateful for - there is more to it than that.Today, the Huberman Lab Podcast is discussing the science behind effective gratitude, which includes practices that everyone can easily do, and even sometimes be fun.By understanding this science, we can learn how to use gratitude to benefit our lives in a meaningful way.

    The Power of Storytelling: Rewiring Our Brain & Body

    Listening to stories can have a powerful effect on our bodies.A study found that when people listened to the same story, their heart rates became very similar.This suggests that our brain and body are highly coordinated and can be rewired to help us become calmer or more responsive.The study also showed that people have a stereotyped response to a given story, even though the story was heard in different locations and at different times.These findings help us understand how the power of narrative can influence our physiology.

    Reap the Amazing Benefits of Gratitude Practice

    Gratitude practice has a profound positive effect on our mental and physical health.Studies show that regular practice of gratitude, even just once a week, can lead to long lasting changes in our sense of wellbeing.It can also provide resilience to trauma, both old and future.Additionally, gratitude practice can improve our relationships with ourselves and all the people around us.It's a powerful tool that can have effects comparable to those of exercise and pharmacology.So, let's start practicing gratitude and reap its amazing benefits!

    Unlocking the Balance Between Dark and Light with Gratitude

    Gratitude is a pro-social behaviour that can help us to be more effective in our interactions with others and even ourselves.It is linked to neural circuits in the brain which are distinct from those associated with defensive behaviours.Sigmund Freud, a famous psychologist, believed that our ability to be happy was restricted by our own makeup and that unhappiness was much more easily experienced.However, the emergence of the positive psychology movement has helped to understand and explain neural circuits associated with happiness and other pro-social behaviours.Through this, we can see that there is a balance between dark and light in both psychology and neuroscience, which allows us to choose between feeling good or feeling less good about things.

    Taking Control of Your Happiness with Gratitude

    Gratitude is an essential practice to make us feel good and to be happy.It is like a seesaw, which has two sides - feeling happy and feeling worried.Our brain is wired in such a way that the defensive circuits are more dominant than the pro-social circuits.To balance out this difference, we need to practice gratitude regularly.Gratitude practices can help us tilt the seesaw in favour of feeling happy and this will eventually shift our brain's neural circuits.Regular gratitude practice can help us enhance our mental and physical health.

    Exploring the Neurochemistry of Gratitude

    Gratitude is a powerful emotion that can make us feel happy and connected to others.To understand the science behind this feeling, we must look at the neurochemistry and neural circuits associated with it.The main neuromodulator associated with gratitude is serotonin, released from a collection of neurons in the brain.When people experience gratitude, two main brain areas are activated - the anterior cingulate cortex and the medial prefrontal cortex.This area of the brain is responsible for planning and evaluating different types of experiences.Through this process, serotonin increases the activity of neural circuits that encourage us to stay in the moment and connect with others.This is how gratitude, and its associated neurochemistry, can make us happier.

    Unlocking the Power of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Through Gratitude

    The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is an incredibly powerful part of the brain.It has the ability to set the context of our experiences, and thus define the meaning of them.For example, if we choose to get into an ice bath, the MPFC can positively impact the neurochemicals released in our system, compared to being forced into the ice bath.Similarly, the MPFC can also set the context for the practice of gratitude, and thus allow us to derive tremendous health benefits from it.But simply lying to ourselves won't work.Instead, we need to employ specific practices and have knowledge of why we're doing them in order to reap the full benefits of gratitude.

    Unlocking the Power of Gratitude Practices to Activate Positive Neural Circuitry

    Gratitude practices are an effective way to activate positive neural circuitry in the brain and body.However, most practices such as writing down or reciting a list of things to be thankful for, don't actually have a big impact on neural chemistry.To increase the potency of gratitude practices, one needs to increase autonomic arousal, which can be done through hyperventilation, meditative stances, cold baths, chanting, or pharmacology.Through these practices, we can become more alert and bring more detail and richness to our perception of what we are grateful for.This can help shift the neural circuitry towards more pro-social behaviors.

    The Power of Gratitude and Storytelling

    Experiencing gratitude or receiving gratitude can have powerful effects on our physiology and psychology.Studies have shown that receiving gratitude is more potent than expressing it in terms of positive shifts it can create.It activates the prefrontal cortex and increases serotonin and oxytocin levels in the brain.Listing out all the things one is grateful for is one approach, but even hearing stories of other people who have received help and survived hardship can also have profound effects.This shows the importance of storytelling and associating with the idea of receiving help in order to experience gratitude.

    Unveiling The Theory Of Mind: Activating Prefrontal Cortex Neural Circuits

    Theory of Mind is a way of understanding another person's thoughts and feelings without needing to experience them ourselves.This concept was developed by Simon Baron-Cohen of Oxford University, who happens to be related to the comedian Sasha Baron-Cohen.Theory of Mind is tested in adults and children through scenarios, such as someone placing an object in a drawer and then another person coming in and looking for it.People with strong Theory of Mind understand that the person is confused, while those with autism and Asperger's may focus on the location of the object.Theory of Mind requires activation of the prefrontal cortex neural circuits, which set the context for what we experience.By understanding Theory of Mind, we can better comprehend how to empathize with others and activate our gratitude circuits.

    Activate the Neural Circuits of Gratitude Through Simple Stories

    Having a daily gratitude practice can have a huge positive effect on our lives.It's not just about writing down things we're thankful for, but rather, can be done through engaging with inspiring stories.This could be done through movies, podcasts, books or social media.Taking a few notes about the story can help us remember the emotion and message of it, and repeating the same story can help our brains become used to this feeling and activate the neural circuits associated with gratitude quickly.It can be done for as little as one minute or two, and still have a great impact, making this a very simple and effective way to cultivate a feeling of gratitude.

    Can Stories Synchronize Heart Rates and Activate Gratitude?

    The power of stories has been scientifically proven to influence and synchronize heart rates of individuals even when they are not in the same place.This means that if we use the same story or narrative when practising gratitude, it can help activate the neural circuits associated with gratitude in our brain and heart.This will create a more relaxed state in our bodies and can even lead to a sense of awe or joy.Therefore, having a story to return to and using it over and over again is an effective tool to practice gratitude and reap its benefits.

    Unlocking the Power of Genuine Gratitude

    Educational Learnings: Gratitude is an essential part of human relationships and it is important that it is genuine.Science has shown that the intention of the benefactor is a much stronger factor in determining whether someone feels genuinely grateful than the size of the gift.If we are the ones giving, we must ensure that our actions are genuine and wholehearted or we risk undermining the feeling of gratitude.This teaches us that genuine interactions are key to having meaningful relationships.

    Harness the Power of Gratitude to Rewire Your Brain

    Repeated gratitude practice has long lasting and positive effects on our neural circuitry.It reduces fear and anxiety circuits and increases motivation and circuits associated with positive emotions.A study showed that a regular gratitude practice could shift the functional connectivity of emotion pathways and make anxiety and fear circuits less active.It increases the efficacy of the positive emotion, feel good circuits and the circuits associated with motivation and pursuit.This provides a strong incentive to have a gratitude practice and use it regularly to have a long lasting positive effect on our neural circuitry.

    Can Gratitude Practices Enhance Your Wellbeing?

    You can use gratitude practices to enhance your wellbeing, motivation and reduce resentment and fear.It is incredibly effective, taking only five minutes a day and can be as brief as one minute.These gratitude practices require you to listen to a story at least once and then have a shorthand version to refer back to.It's recommended to do the practice 3 times a week at any time of day.This practice will help you to become more mindful and aware of your thoughts, allowing you to make more positive decisions in your life.It is a simple way to improve your overall wellbeing.

    Unlocking The Power Of Gratitude For Empathy

    Waking up in the morning or going to sleep at night is a great time to practice gratitude.Science suggests that this regular practice of gratitude can help us become more empathic and better understand the emotional states of others.This is because it has an effect on the anterior cingulate cortex in our brain, which is associated with empathy.Studies have shown that gratitude practices can make this area of the brain become more robust and be better engaged with our feelings and emotions.This effect has been seen in both humans and animals, where animals help other animals, and humans help other humans with the aid of gratitude practices.Therefore, gratitude is an effective way to be a better and more empathic person.

    Harnessing The Power of Gratitude To Reduce Inflammation and Fear

    Gratitude can have a powerful effect on our physical and mental health.A recent study published in the journal Brain Behavior and Immunity found that women with regular gratitude practices showed reduced activity in the amygdala, a part of the brain associated with fear and threat detection.This, in turn, led to a drop in levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6, two inflammatory cytokines that can be harmful when present in high concentrations for long periods of time.The changes were observed almost immediately after the gratitude practice was completed.Although the study was conducted on female subjects, the results are likely applicable to men as well.Therefore, practicing gratitude can help reduce inflammation and fear in the body.

    Enhancing Your Gratitude and Joy with Neurochemistry

    Gratitude is a feeling that brings us contentment and joy.It is associated with a certain chemistry in our brains - serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, oxytocin and other neurochemicals.These chemicals can be enhanced with certain compounds such as 5-HTP and tryptophan, but these should be used cautiously as they may disrupt our sleep cycles.There is also a legal over-the-counter compound called Kanna or Zembrin which has the potential to increase serotonin levels and improve our experience of gratitude.Again, caution should be exercised with any supplement or pharmacology and one should always consult a doctor before taking any new substance.With the right approach, our gratitude and contentment can be enhanced and our experience of joy can be amplified.

    Enhancing Neuroplasticity with Multiple Approaches

    Neuroplasticity is a process in which the brain can adapt and change.It can be enhanced in various ways, such as through behavioural practices, taking substances that increase neurochemistry, and using brain machine interfaces.Combining different approaches, such as substances and practices, can have a more powerful effect on neuroplasticity than any single approach.Examples of such substances include Kanna, which has been linked to increases in cognition, executive function and reductions in anxiety.The future of neuroplasticity lies in the use of multiple tools combined together.

    Discover the Power of Gratitude and Reduce Anxiety

    Practicing gratitude is a scientifically proven way to increase motivation and reduce anxiety.Its effects can be seen in the body in the form of anti-inflammatory markers and brain-heart breathing coordination.The most effective gratitude practice should be grounded in a narrative of either you receiving or observing genuine thanks.Write down a few bullet points about the story to serve as a reminder and then read them off as a cue to your nervous system.Spend 1-5 minutes really feeling into the experience.Doing this 3 times a week at any time of day can have a huge impact.Gratitude has been discussed for centuries and is a powerful tool for anyone to use.

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    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Improve Sleep to Boost Mood & Emotional Regulation

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Improve Sleep to Boost Mood & Emotional Regulation
    This is episode 5 of our 6-part special series on sleep with Dr. Matthew Walker, Ph.D., a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley and the host of The Matt Walker Podcast. In this episode, we explain the connection between sleep and mood, emotional regulation and mental well-being.  We explain the role of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in processing emotions and emotional memories and why sleep deprivation causes agitation, impulsivity and emotional reactivity.  We also discuss why sleep disruption is a hallmark feature of PTSD, anxiety, depression, suicidality, and other psychiatric conditions.  We explain protocols for improving REM sleep and other sleep phases in order to harness the therapeutic power of quality sleep to feel calmer and emotionally restored. This episode describes various actionable tools to improve sleep for those struggling with mental health or mood and those wanting to bolster their overall state and well-being.  The next episode in this special series explores dreams, including lucid dreaming, nightmares and dream interpretation. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Sleep & Mental Health (00:01:09) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, LMNT & BetterHelp (00:05:14) Emotions & Sleep, Amygdala (00:17:27) Emotional Memory & Sleep (00:25:48) “Overnight Therapy” & REM Sleep, Noradrenaline (00:29:13) Sponsor: AG1 (00:30:27) Sleep to “Remember & Forget”, Trauma; REM Sleep (00:38:27) Hinge Analogy; Motivation, Impulsivity & Addiction (00:47:08) Tool: Improve REM Sleep, Social Jet Lag, Alcohol & THC, Addiction (00:56:18) Sponsor: InsideTracker (00:57:23) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) & REM Sleep (01:06:53) Noradrenaline & REM Sleep, PTSD & Prazosin (01:09:40) Addiction, Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR); Liminal States (01:16:46) Anxiety & Sleep, Mood vs. Emotions (01:23:50) Deep Non-REM Sleep & Anxiety, Sleep Quality (01:28:51) Tool: Improve Deep Non-REM Sleep, Temperature; Alcohol (01:34:56) Suicidality & Sleep, Pattern Recognition; Nightmares (01:46:21) Depression, Anxiety & Time Context (01:51:24) Depression, Too Much Sleep?; REM Changes & Antidepressants (01:57:37) Sleep Deprivation & Depression (02:01:34) Tool: Circadian Misalignment & Mental Health, Chronotype (02:04:05) Tools: Daytime Light & Nighttime Darkness; “Junk Light” (02:13:04) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    AMA #17: Making Time for Fitness, Top Sleep Tools & Best Learning Strategies

    AMA #17: Making Time for Fitness, Top Sleep Tools & Best Learning Strategies
    Welcome to a preview of the 17th Ask Me Anything (AMA) episode, part of Huberman Lab Premium. Huberman Lab Premium was launched for two main reasons. First, it was launched in order to raise support for the main Huberman Lab podcast — which will continue to come out every Monday at zero-cost. Second, it was launched as a means to raise funds for important scientific research. A significant portion of proceeds from the Huberman Lab Premium subscription will fund human research (not animal models) selected by Dr. Huberman, with a dollar-for-dollar match from the Tiny Foundation. Read our Annual Letter 2023. If you're an existing Premium member, you can login to access the full episode. If you're not a member, you can join Huberman Lab Premium to enjoy exclusive content, including monthly Ask Me Anything (AMA) episodes, AMA transcripts, podcast episode transcripts, early access to live events and help advance human scientific research. Resources Foundational Fitness Protocol Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction to AMA #17 (00:00:14) Exciting Announcement (00:02:16) Diving Into the Foundational Fitness Protocol (00:09:37) Flexibility in Your Fitness Routine (00:17:12) Optimizing Workout Times & Prioritizing Health (00:23:31) Closing Thoughts & Huberman Lab Premium Benefits In the full AMA episode, we discuss: Periodization & the Philosophy of Fitness Unlocking the Secrets of Sleep: Insights & Tools Chronotypes and Personalized Sleep Strategies The QQRT Formula: Quantity, Quality, Regularity & Timing of Sleep Exploring Naps & Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) Effective Learning & Note-Taking Strategies The Power of Teaching & Self-Testing in Learning Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer

    Protocols to Strengthen & Pain Proof Your Back

    Protocols to Strengthen & Pain Proof Your Back
    In this episode, I explain how to strengthen and build a stable, pain-free back and how to reduce or eliminate existing back pain. I explain the anatomy and physiology of the spinal cord and vertebrae, intervertebral disks and nerve pathways, and the abdominal and back muscles that together can be leveraged to stabilize the back.  Then, I describe protocols: “McGill’s Big 3” exercises, a highly effective psoas stretch, abdominal stabilization, breathing techniques, and protocols to reinforce essential supports for the back, including the neck, pelvis, feet, and toes.  I also explain how you can reduce and potentially eliminate back pain and sciatica using a specific type of bar hang, “cobra push-ups,” medial-glute strengthening exercises, and more.  Back pain greatly impedes one’s ability to enjoy daily activities; this episode provides zero-cost, minimal time-investment protocols to improve your back strength and stability and allow you to move through life pain-free and with ease and mobility.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman Joovv: https://joovv.com/huberman Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman Plunge: https://plunge.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Back Health (00:03:47) Sponsors: AeroPress, Joovv & Waking Up (00:07:57) Back Anatomy: Spine, Vertebrae, Spinal Cord (00:12:07) Spinal Cord & Nerves; Herniated Discs (00:19:50) Build Strong Pain-Free Back; Bulging Discs (00:24:26) Back Pain & Professional Evaluation; Tool: Spine Self-Assessment  (00:34:58) Sponsor: AG1 (00:36:29) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Curl-Up (00:44:40) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Side Plank (00:53:13) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Bird Dog; Back Pain (01:04:10) Sponsor: Plunge (01:05:37) Tool: Back Pain & Oreo Analogy, Bar Hang (01:10:34) Time & Back Pain; Tool: Reversing Disc Herniation, Cobra Push-Ups  (01:21:28) Sciatica, Referred Pain, Herniated Disc (01:24:21) Tool: Improve Spine Stability, Strengthen Neck (01:29:23) Tools: Strengthen Feet, Toe Spreading (01:34:35) Tools: Belly Breathing; Stagger Stance (01:42:03) Tools: Relieve Low Back Pain, Medial Glute Activation; Rolled Towel (01:50:59) Tool: Psoas Stretching (01:57:00) Tool: Back Awareness; Strengthen & Pain-Proof Back (02:05:49) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Using Sleep to Improve Learning, Creativity & Memory

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Using Sleep to Improve Learning, Creativity & Memory
    This is episode 4 of a 6-part special series on sleep with Dr. Matthew Walker, Ph.D., a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, and author of the best-selling book "Why We Sleep." In this episode, we discuss the relationship between sleep, learning and creativity.  We explain why and how sleep before and after a learning bout can improve memory and performance for both cognitive tasks and physical skills. We also discuss how to use time learning and sleep, how to use naps, non-sleep deep rest states, and caffeine to optimize learning, and the mechanisms for sleep and memory consolidation.  We also explain the critical role that sleep plays in creativity and one's ability to discover novel solutions to challenges and problems.  This episode is filled with actionable information on using sleep to enhance skill learning and improve memory and creativity.  The next episode in this guest series explains how sleep benefits emotional regulation and mental health.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman  WHOOP: https://join.whoop.com/huberman  Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman  InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Sleep & Learning (00:00:59) Sponsors: Helix Sleep, Whoop & Waking Up (00:05:48) Learning, Memory & Sleep (00:09:32) Memory & Sleep, “All-Nighters”, Hippocampus (00:13:46) Naps & Learning Capacity (00:16:59) Early School Start Times, Performance & Accidents (00:26:38) Medical Residency & Sleep Deprivation (00:29:35) Sponsor: AG1 (00:30:49) Tool: Sleep Before Learning; Cramming Effect (00:35:09) Tools: Caffeine; Timing Peak Learning; “Second Wind” (00:44:25) Memory Consolidation in Sleep (00:55:07) Sleepwalking & Talking; REM-Sleep Behavioral Disorder (01:00:16) REM Sleep Paralysis, Alcohol, Stress (01:07:41) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:08:46) Skills, Motor Learning & Sleep (01:17:03) Tool: Timing Sleep & Learning, Skill Enhancement (01:20:00) Naps; Specificity & Memory Consolidation, Sleep Spindles (01:27:21) Sleep, Motor Learning & Athletes; Automaticity (01:34:10) Can Learning Improve Sleep? (01:39:13) Tool: Exercise to Improve Sleep; Performance, Injury & Motivation (01:44:38) Pillars of Health; Dieting & Sleep Deprivation (01:49:35) Performance & Poor Sleep, Belief Effects, “Orthosomnia” (01:57:03) “Overnight Alchemy”, Sleep & Novel Memory Linking (02:05:58) Sleep & Creativity (02:11:09) Tools: Waking & Technology; Naps; “Sleep on a Problem” (02:20:51) Creative Insight & Sleep (02:26:18) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher: Vaping, Alcohol Use & Other Risky Youth Behaviors

    Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher: Vaping, Alcohol Use & Other Risky Youth Behaviors
    In this episode, my guest is Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher, PhD, FSAHM. She is a professor of pediatrics and adolescent medicine and a developmental psychologist at Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Halpern-Felsher is a world expert in adolescent decision-making and risk-taking behaviors. She explains the huge increase in vaping (e-cigarettes) by young people. She explains why vaping nicotine and cannabis is particularly dangerous to the developing brain. We discuss the rise in vaping addiction, the unique social pressures and social media influences faced by youth that make quitting challenging, and interventions to aid them in quitting or reducing use. We also discuss the role of technology and social media. And, the use of alcohol, nicotine pouches, fentanyl, and other risky behaviors that adolescents face now. This episode should interest parents, teachers, coaches, teens, and families. It covers the current youth substance use landscape and also covers resources and ways to quit these addictive behaviors.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Use Ask Huberman Lab, our new AI-powered platform, for a summary, clips, and insights from this episode. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman  Mateina: https://drinkmateina.com/huberman  LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman  Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher (00:01:40) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, Mateina & LMNT  (00:05:38) Adolescence (00:09:19) Household Conflict, Parents; Smart Phones (00:12:35) Smart Phones & Social Media (00:18:25) Vaping, E-Cigarettes, Nicotine & Cannabis (00:23:46) Adolescent Nicotine Use: Marketing, Flavors (00:30:41) Sponsor: AG1 (00:32:13) Nicotine Initiation, Freebase vs. Salt-Based Nicotine, Concentration (00:41:35) Addiction & Withdrawal; E-Cigarette Access (00:48:48) Vaping Health Hazards, Aldehydes, Flavors (00:56:32) Sponsor: Waking Up (00:57:48) “Just Say No”, Adolescent Defiance (01:04:21) Cannabis & Potency, Blunts, E-Cigarette Combinations (01:10:30) Psychosis, THC & Adolescence (01:14:11) Quitting Nicotine & Cannabis; Physical & Social Withdrawal Symptoms (01:23:05) Social Pressures, Quitting Vaping, Environment Concerns (01:30:08) Teen Activities, Social Media, Autonomy (01:36:28) Risky Behaviors, Alcohol, Driving, Sexual Behavior (01:43:27) International E-Cigarette Use, Regulation (01:46:10) Nicotine Pouches, Health Risks; Tolerance (01:53:25) Tools: Vaping Interventions, Decision Making, Harm Reduction (02:02:37) Fentanyl, Drug Testing, Recreational Drug Use (02:13:45) Tool: Organic Conversations & Risky Behavior (02:17:20) Long-Term Goals & Teens; Vaping, Pornography & Teens (02:24:08) Mental Health Crisis & Substance Use (02:29:11) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer