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    Dr. Jeffrey Goldberg: How to Improve Your Eye Health & Offset Vision Loss

    Starting early with proper eye care, exercising eyes regularly, and seeking professional advice can prevent eye strain, headaches, and improve overall visual health. Consult an optometrist or ophthalmologist for personalized care.

    enJune 26, 2023

    About this Episode

    In this episode, my guest is Jeffrey Goldberg, MD, PhD, professor and chair of the department of ophthalmology at the Byers Eye Institute at Stanford University. His clinical and research efforts focus on retinal and optic nerve diseases such as glaucoma and discovering stem cell and nanotechnology treatments to cure blindness. We discuss how to maintain and improve eye health throughout life, the advantages and disadvantages of corrective lenses, including if you should wear “readers,” the use and risks of contact lenses, considerations for LASIK eye surgery, floaters, dry eye, the importance of sunlight and UV protection and specific exercises to improve eye and vision health. Dr. Goldberg also explains age-related conditions: cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy; and the behavioral and supplementation-based, prescription and surgical tools used to promote eye health. This episode provides essential tools for listeners of any age and background to maintain eye health and offset vision loss. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Waking Up: https://www.wakingup.com/huberman Momentous: https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Jeffrey Goldberg (00:03:25) Sponsors: LMNT & Waking Up (00:06:29) Childhood & Eye Exams (00:11:36) Eye Misalignment & Recovery (00:20:38) Myopia (Near-Sightedness), Children & Sunlight (00:27:03) Sponsor: AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:31:18) Eye Safety & Protection; Eye Hygiene (00:40:07) Adults & Eye Exams; Optometrist vs Ophthalmologist (00:46:35) Presbyopia (Age-Related Vision Decline), Reading Glasses (00:54:54) Reading Glasses: Use & Recommendations (00:58:34) Night Vision & Glasses (01:03:54) Corrective Eye Glasses, Exercises (01:09:52) Near-Far Exercise & Presbyopia; Smooth Pursuit Exercise & Concussion (01:13:25) Supranormal Vision & Performance Training (01:19:11) 20/20 Vision; Visual Acuity (01:24:51) Contact Lenses: Use, Risks & Aging (01:31:34) UV Protection & Cataracts, “Blue Blockers” (01:38:20) Light Sensitivity & Eye Color (01:40:29) LASIK Eye Surgery (01:46:26) Dry Eye, Tears & Age (01:53:24) Dry Eye, Serum Tears & Preservative-Free Artificial Tears; PRP (02:00:46) Vision Loss: Cataracts, Glaucoma (02:09:23) Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Dry & Wet Forms (02:14:02) Diabetic Retinopathy, Type I vs Type II Diabetes (02:18:54) Diabetic Retinopathy Treatment, Blood Pressure (02:22:17) Glaucoma Screening & Treatment (02:28:07) Smoking, Vaping & Vision Diseases; Cannabis & Eye Pressure (02:35:13) Eye Pressure & Sleep Position (02:37:48) Macular Degeneration, Optic Neuropathies & Red-Light Therapy (02:42:23) “Floaters” (02:45:29) Eye Twitching (02:48:10) AREDS2 Supplementation & Age-Related Macular Degeneration (02:53:39) Glaucoma & Vitamin B3 Supplementation (02:58:42) Retinal Imaging & Neurodegeneration Screening, Multiple Sclerosis (03:06:30) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer

    🔑 Key Takeaways

    • Dr. Jeffrey Goldberg shares modern and effective methods for enhancing vision quality, including behavioral tools, exercises, and surgeries for potential diseases like glaucoma and macular degeneration.
    • Early detection of visual problems such as amblyopia and eye misalignment is crucial. Parents should be aware of signs like lack of eye contact and poor vision in one eye. Misalignment issues should be corrected early to avoid permanent damage.
    • Early detection and corrective measures such as patching the weaker eye can prevent permanent damage and improve eyesight, emphasizing the need for regular eye exams.
    • Spending time outdoors in natural sunlight can reduce the risk and progression of myopia in children. Encouraging a balance of outdoor activities and screen time can benefit children's eye health.
    • Spending time outdoors, exposure to full-spectrum light, and exercise can improve eye health. Avoiding extreme brightness and toxins is also crucial. Further research is needed to determine optimal outdoor activity duration.
    • Our eyes are delicate structures and require proper protection and cleanliness to prevent injury and degenerative diseases. Education on eye safety and hygiene can prevent unnecessary eye injuries and promote healthy vision.
    • Rubbing eyes gently is okay, but avoid abrasive rubbing. Use sterile saline solution for eyewash and seek regular eye exams. Optometrists offer primary care and early disease management, while ophthalmologists handle advanced diseases and surgeries.
    • Regular eye exams are necessary to detect potential eye diseases like glaucoma and presbyopia, which may occur around age 40. A comprehensive eye exam, including checking the surface of the eyes and eyelids, is important for maintaining good eye health.
    • Reading glasses can provide clearer vision for close-up tasks but may accelerate dependence on them as we age. It's important to take care of our eyes through proper hygiene, sunlight exposure, and regular eye checkups. Consult an eye doctor before using any vision aids.
    • Use appropriate lenses to avoid weakening the retina and brain with blurry information. Don't compromise your daily activities and enjoyment of life by avoiding using recommended prescription glasses as needed.
    • People with latent hyperopia may need glasses with proper prescription lenses for nighttime vision. While bright light may help compensate during the day, it can lead to fatigue. Correction with prism lenses may not be effective, so indulging in far viewing and full spectrum light may be an alternative solution.
    • Starting early with proper eye care, exercising eyes regularly, and seeking professional advice can prevent eye strain, headaches, and improve overall visual health. Consult an optometrist or ophthalmologist for personalized care.
    • Pencil pushups can help recover from concussions and improve smooth pursuit. The new Vision Performance Center at Stanford is studying athletes' vision characteristics and using special programs to push normal vision towards supra-normal levels.
    • Researchers are exploring ways to improve human vision beyond the norm, from measuring differences in visual acuity to training techniques. Such enhancements have practical applications for athletes, drivers, and everyday people.
    • Giving visual stimulation to newborns is crucial to their development, as their vision is blurry at first. Contact lenses can improve certain aspects of vision that glasses cannot, but must be used with caution to avoid negative effects.
    • Follow cleaning guidelines and monitor tolerance as we age. Use UV-blocking features and balance blue light exposure with bright sunlight to avoid bacterial infections, corneal scarring, and sun damage.
    • Wearing wide brim hats or sunglasses can reduce UV light exposure and reduce the risk of cataracts and skin cancers. Morning sunlight viewing is also recommended.
    • People with light-colored eyes may experience sensitivity to light. LASIK is a cost-effective solution to improve vision, but it is important to consult with an eye surgeon beforehand especially if you already have dry eyes.
    • LASIK surgery can improve quality of life for those with severe prescriptions, while finding a treatment for dry eye can enhance vision and reduce discomfort.
    • Increased screen time leads to inadequate blinking, causing dry eyes. Eyelid cleaning and reducing inflammation are some remedies, while PRP can be a potential treatment for severe dry eyes.
    • Preservative-free artificial tears are less irritating and serum tears contain growth factors for tissue rejuvenation, but proper trials and studies are needed to ensure safety and effectiveness before widespread use.
    • Regular eye check-ups can help detect and prevent common causes of vision loss, but access to care is a major issue in many countries. The need for global ophthalmology programs is essential to increase access to care and address these problems on a larger scale.
    • Regular eye exams are essential for early detection and treatment of eye diseases like glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration, which can cause irreversible blindness. Access to healthcare and therapies vary worldwide.
    • There are different types of macular degeneration, including a genetic form called retinitis pigmentosa and dry form macular degeneration. Diabetic retinopathy is a major complication of diabetes that can lead to vision loss, but early screening is crucial for prevention and treatment.
    • Controlling blood sugar and blood pressure, getting regular eye exams, and early detection and treatment are crucial in preserving vision and preventing diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma.
    • Glaucoma can be treated with laser therapy or eyedrops, but long-term laser treatment may be more effective. Patients should reduce risk factors and comply with medications to prevent vision loss. Early detection is crucial.
    • Regular exercise, nutritious diet, and avoiding smoking are essential for maintaining good ocular health. While Cannabis may help lower eye pressure, smoking is not recommended. Edible forms may be used responsibly, and eye-specific drugs derived from Cannabis compounds effectively treat glaucoma.
    • Getting enough quality sleep is crucial for overall health, including eye health. Red or near infrared light therapy may be beneficial, but the dose, brightness, and wavelength need further research to avoid potential eye damage.
    • While floaters may resolve on their own and can be ignored, eye twitching can be alleviated by addressing factors such as fatigue and aging. Research into light therapies offers hope for improving eye health.
    • A combination of vitamins and minerals can help slow down the progression of dry Macular Degeneration in moderate to severe ranges. However, these supplements are not recommended for mild cases and maintaining a healthy weight is also crucial for good eye health.
    • High dose Vitamin B3 supplements show potential in slowing down the progression of optic nerve degenerative diseases like glaucoma. However, patients should be careful of other unproven supplements and not substitute them for proven prescribed treatments.
    • The imaging of the neural retina presents a promising diagnostic tool for predicting and tracking the progression of Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases, paving the way for early intervention and precision health practices.

    📝 Podcast Summary

    Tips and insights for maintaining and improving vision health

    Dr. Jeffrey Goldberg, an expert in vision, shares insights in a podcast about maintaining and improving vision health through behavioral tools, exercises, and surgeries. He discusses the benefits and drawbacks of corrective lenses, sunlight, and age-related considerations for LASIK surgery. Moreover, he explains ways to clean and use contact lenses, remedies for dry eye, and scientific approaches for nutritional supplementation. Dr. Goldberg also offers insights for newborn babies to maintain eye health. The podcast provides highly relevant and modern information to enhance vision quality and mitigate vision loss for potential diseases like retinitis pigmentosa, glaucoma, and macular degeneration. Furthermore, Dr. Goldberg's knowledge on curing blindness provides significant hope for people suffering from visual impairments.

    The Importance of Regular Eye Exams for Children

    Regular eye exams for babies and children are important to detect visual problems such as amblyopia and misalignment of the eyes early on. The first eye exam for babies involves checking the red reflex and parents should be aware of signs like lack of eye contact, nystagmus, and poor vision in one eye. Most kids get screened for amblyopia in elementary schools. Misalignment issues should be corrected as early as possible to prevent the brain from permanently losing the ability to develop strong connections from the data coming in from one of the two eyes.

    How Retraining the Weaker Eye Can Improve Eyesight and Prevent Long-Term Damage

    Retraining the weaker eye and realigning the muscles can help improve eyesight even in later childhood or early teen years and potentially reopen critical period plasticity. However, if misalignment or amblyopia is left uncorrected for years, it can lead to permanent damage and affect depth perception. It is important to maintain a balance of information coming into both eyes, even for short periods of time, and seek corrective measures such as patching the weaker eye to prevent long-term damage. Intermittent eye misalignment or amblyopia that goes unnoticed can accumulate over time and lead to vision problems, highlighting the importance of regular eye exams.

    Outdoor Time May Help Prevent Myopia in Children

    Spending time outdoors may reduce the risk of myopia or nearsightedness in children. Studies have shown that spending too much time doing near work such as reading or looking at screens may increase the risk of myopia. However, recent studies suggest that outdoor lighting plays a vital role in reducing the risk of developing myopia. Less exposure to full-spectrum lighting in typical indoor environments may also contribute to Myopia. Encouraging kids to spend time outdoors in sunlight can significantly reduce the progression of myopia in children. Parents can allow kids to use technology but ensure they spend considerable time outdoors as well.

    The Importance of Outdoor Activities, Light Exposure, and Exercise for Eye Health.

    Spending time outdoors can have potential benefits on eye health, but the optimum duration for such activities is still not well defined. Randomized controlled trials with control groups can help answer this question. Full-spectrum light can help set the circadian rhythm and is beneficial regardless of age, but it is not strongly linked to improving nearsightedness in older adults. Exercise has positive health benefits for the eyes and the rest of the body. While it is important to avoid extreme brightness, minimizing exposure to toxins, acids, and solvents can also aid in maintaining better eye health.

    Importance of Eye Safety and Cleanliness

    Eye safety and protection must be emphasized more as our eyes are delicate structures subject to degenerative disease and injury. People working in certain industries and even those doing gardening are at risk of eye trauma. Eye cleanliness is also important, but regular eye washing is not necessary as tears contain enzymes that break down bacteria. However, eyelashes and eyelids can accumulate dead skin, leading to inflammation that requires eye scrubs or using mild shampoo. Rubbing the eyes may not be harmful, but getting gunk in the eyes can cause temporary loss of vision, which is frightening as vision is crucial. More education around eye protection and proper eye cleanliness can prevent unnecessary eye injuries.

    Eye Care Tips and Roles of Optometrists vs Ophthalmologists

    Regular, occasional, gentle eye rubbing is fine as long as it is done without scrunching the eyes too tight and abrasive rubbing. Sterile saline solution is ideal for an eyewash, while preserved and non-preserved artificial teardrops are safe to use in the eye. Optometrists and ophthalmologists have overlapping roles in eye care provision, with optometrists focusing on primary care screening and early disease management and ophthalmologists having surgical training and managing more advanced diseases. Both can diagnose and prescribe appropriate treatments for eye diseases. It is recommended to get regular eye exams, even without blurry vision or difficulty seeing, and optometrists are easier to access but ophthalmologists are needed for eye surgeries.

    The Importance of Eye Care for Maintaining Good Eye Health

    Access to regular eye care is crucial to maintaining good eye health. While it may not be necessary to visit a specialist if you're in your teens, twenties, or thirties without any eye complaints, it is recommended to get screened for potential eye diseases like glaucoma. This screening could include a puff test to check eye pressure or an allotment test to check for eye rigidity. Additionally, presbyopia, or aging of the eye lens, may occur around age 40 and lead to the need for reading glasses even if distance vision is fine. It's important to get a comprehensive eye exam, including checking the surface of the eyes and the eyelids and lashes.

    The Benefits and Risks of Using Reading Glasses

    Using reading glasses can help relax our eye muscles and provide clearer vision for close-up tasks like reading a book or using a phone. As we age, the ability of our eye muscles to shape the lens gets weaker, which increases our dependence on reading glasses. While some studies suggest that using reading glasses may accelerate this dependence, the psychological addiction to good vision remains undeniable. Therefore, it's essential to take care of our eyes by exposing them to sunlight before using gadgets, practicing proper eye hygiene, and seeking regular eye checkups to detect vision problems early. It's best to consult an eye doctor before using any reading glasses or other vision aids.

    Maintaining Optimal Vision with Glasses

    As people age, they may need to use reading glasses or prescription glasses to maintain their optimal vision without straining their eyes. It is recommended to visit an optometrist or ophthalmologist for standard screening exams, and to use the appropriate lenses to avoid weakening the retina and brain by feeding it blurry information. While it is possible to exercise the lens and eye muscles by not using stronger readers or avoiding them, it is also important to give the retina and brain the sharpest visual signals available. One should enjoy their best vision all the time and not compromise their daily activities and enjoyment of life by avoiding using the recommended prescription glasses, including readers, as needed.

    Dealing with Latent Hyperopia: Issues and Solutions

    Latent hyperopia can cause people to struggle with nighttime vision and may require glasses with proper prescription lenses. Bright light can compensate for blurry vision during the daytime but can increase fatigue as muscles become tired. The focusing power of the optical system of our eyes is tuned for being beyond infinity, and latent hyperopias are constantly using those muscles. Corrective lenses such as prism lenses can cause significant shifts in eye positions and relying on them may not be useful. People may indulge in far viewing and full spectrum light during the daytime instead of depending on corrective lenses.

    Importance of Proper Eye Care for Children

    Proper eye care is essential in our formative years, and the right time to start is when children are young. Optometrists specialize in identifying the best corrective lenses for children to reduce eye strain and headaches that come with eye muscle exhaustion. It is essential to exercise the eyes, especially when they have a natural tendency to turn in when reading. Near-far exercises like pencil pushups are useful in exercising the eye muscles without causing any harm. However, it is crucial to consult an expert for the most suitable approach as each case may require a unique intervention. Visit an Optometrist or Ophthalmologist to correct any vision issues and improve visual health.

    Enhancing vision activity and achieving supra-normal vision through training.

    Pencil pushups help in recovering from Concussion by enhancing Smooth Pursuit which is the ability to smoothly follow an object with our eyes. Doing these exercises is safe and can improve visual activity. The new Vision performance center at Stanford is focusing not just on rehabilitating sick eyes but also on enhancing normal vision to supra-normal vision. This includes studying athletes' vision characteristics that show faster visual reflexes, higher visual acuity, and the possibility of achieving supra-normal vision through training. A great example is a training program using special goggles that black out visual information fractionally to improve catching and passing a basketball. The program is new and has opened up opportunities to understand how training can push normal vision towards supra-normal levels.

    The Science of Human Vision Enhancement

    Advances in human performance are expanding beyond joints, muscles, and strength to include vision. Researchers are studying the differences between normal and Supranormal vision and developing ways to measure and train people to improve their vision. This has practical applications for athletes, drivers, and regular people. Legal blindness is defined as 2200 or worse, but there are people with worse vision driving, which is dangerous. The standard for perfect vision is 2020, but some people can have better than normal vision at 2015 or 2010. In healthy people, the degree of visual acuity is generally similar between the two eyes.

    The Importance of Visual Stimulation for Newborns and Benefits of Contact Lenses for Adults.

    Newborn babies have blurry vision for the first six to eight months, so parents should smile big and give visual stimulation. While some species of animals have naturally better vision, humans have high acuity vision in the center of their field of view and a lower resolution, but fast detection camera at the periphery. Contact lenses can decrease oxygen diffusion and change tear dynamics, but most people can tolerate them well. Contact lenses can correct higher order aberrations that Glasses cannot, leading to higher quality vision.

    Maintaining Eye Health with Contact Lenses

    Using daily disposable contact lenses and following the recommended use and cleaning is critical in avoiding bacterial infections or corneal scarring. As we age, contacts may become less tolerable, so it's important to monitor how your eyes are adjusting. While blue light blockers can be helpful in reducing melatonin suppression at night, it's important to get enough bright light during the day. UV light, which is next to blue light on the light spectrum, is not good for our eyes or skin, so it's important to use eyeglasses or contact lenses with UV-blocking features to avoid sun damage.

    Protection from UV Light for Healthy Eyes and Skin

    It is important to block UV light to protect the periocular environment around the eye and prevent accelerated formation of cataract. While blue blocking glasses may not be helpful, wearing wide brim hats or sunglasses can reduce direct and reflected UV light exposure. However, it may not make a huge difference in the health of your eyes whether you wear them dogmatically or not. Morning sunlight viewing for 10 minutes is recommended, as low solar angle sunlight is not likely to cause extensive UV damage to the eyes. Wide brim hats also help by keeping the sun off your face and preventing skin cancers caused by sunlight exposure on cheeks and nose.

    Understanding Light Sensitivity and LASIK Eye Surgery

    People with blue or light colored eyes are more likely to have sensitivity to light due to biological differences in the iris muscles that constrict and dilate in response to light. LASIK eye surgery can correct misshapen corneas and improve vision, but may cause dry eye problems in some patients. It is important to consult with an eye surgeon before considering LASIK, especially if you already have dry eye. LASIK is a convenient and cost-effective solution for many people who would benefit from not wearing prescription glasses over the course of a decade or two.

    The Importance of LASIK Surgery and Treatment for Dry Eye

    LASIK surgery can greatly improve the quality of life for people with severe glasses or contact lens prescriptions, but it is generally not recommended for children or young teenagers whose eyes are still changing. Dry eye is a common eye disease that affects millions of people as they age, and it is caused by a decrease in both the quantity and quality of the tears our eyes produce. The saltwater component of tears can be replaced with over-the-counter artificial tears, but the oil component is more difficult to replace. The development of a treatment that works for dry eye, particularly for those for whom standard drops are not effective, would greatly enhance quality of life for many people.

    The Rise of Dry Eye: Causes, Available Treatments, and Future Solutions

    Dry eye is a major issue and has become more prevalent due to increased screen time. When we blink less, we distribute Tears less effectively and squeeze out less including the oils effectively, which hold tears on the surface of our eye. As an industry, we haven't figured out how to effectively replace or treat oil glands, causing discomfort for patients. While over the counter artificial tears work for most, severe cases require next generation treatments including eyelid cleaning, reducing inflammation, and regenerating nerves. Blood Serum tears contain growth factors that could help people with severe dry eyes, and PRP is related to but not yet used for this purpose.

    Preservative-free and Serum Tears for Severe Dry Eye Symptoms

    Preservative-free artificial tears are recommended for people with severe dry eye symptoms who use eye drops frequently. These are more expensive but are less irritating to the ocular surface as they contain no preservatives. Serum tears, generated by diluting liquid part of one's blood with saltwater, are being studied for their usefulness in ocular surface conditions. The serum contains growth factors that can aid in tissue rejuvenation. However, it is not a standard care treatment in ophthalmology yet. When a new treatment is introduced, proper trials and studies should be carried out to ensure safety and effectiveness before it is widely used.

    Importance of Regular Eye Check-ups to Prevent Vision Loss and Access to Care in Ophthalmology

    Refractive error is the most common cause of vision loss and is fundamentally correctable. Cataract is the second cause of vision loss and is a reversible and easily treatable problem. Glaucoma is the most common optic neuropathy and can lead to irreversible vision loss. It is important to get eye check-ups regularly to detect these conditions early and prevent or slow down their progression. However, access to care is a major issue in many countries, making it difficult for people to receive the necessary treatments. Therefore, there is a need for more global ophthalmology programs to increase access to care and solve these problems on a larger scale.

    The Importance of Regular Eye Exams for Detecting and Treating Eye Diseases

    Regular eye exams are crucial in detecting eye diseases like glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. Glaucoma, the leading cause of irreversible blindness, can be treated by controlling eye pressure through medications, lasers or surgeries. The disease affects peripheral vision first, and early detection is essential to prevent vision loss. Age-related macular degeneration is a common disease that affects the retina and compromises its function. Wet macular degeneration is the more severe form, where new blood vessels grow and interfere with vision, but treatments like antibodies injections are available. The future is promising for slowing down macular degeneration, but access to healthcare and therapies for eye diseases vary in the world.

    Types of Macular Degeneration and Diabetic Retinopathy

    Successful trials of a treatment for dry form macular degeneration have shown 20-25% slowing of disease progression. However, patients are still likely to experience vision loss. Retinitis pigmentosa is an inherited form of macular degeneration, affecting the rods, cones, and cells in the back of the eye. Although less common than macular degeneration, it can be devastating, especially in children and babies. Diabetic retinopathy is a major complication of diabetes, causing damage to the retina. Type 1 diabetics usually present with sudden loss of ability to make insulin, while type 2 diabetics can have a mild or severe continuum of insulin resistance. Both types are at risk of diabetic retinopathy with similar symptoms involving leaky blood vessels and microvascular events in the retina. Early screening is crucial for prevention and treatment of these eye conditions.

    Controlling diabetes and blood pressure is key to preventing diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma.

    Controlling blood sugar and blood pressure through lifestyle changes, medication, and regular eye exams are important to prevent or reduce diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. Additionally, early detection and treatment of these conditions are crucial in preserving vision. Lowering eye pressure, even if initially within the normal range, has been shown to slow the progression of glaucoma. Diabetic retinopathy can be treated with drugs that can be injected directly into the eye. However, the most effective way to prevent diabetic retinopathy is to control diabetes with good blood sugar management. A comprehensive screening exam with checks for eye pressure and optic nerve head is necessary to reliably detect and monitor glaucoma.

    Glaucoma Treatment Options and Risk Factors

    Glaucoma can be treated with eyedrops or laser therapy, but long-term laser treatment may have advantages over eyedrops, including fewer side effects and better patient compliance. However, even with these treatments, 10-20% of patients may lose functional vision and 5-15% may go blind. Aging, smoking, and alcohol consumption are all risk factors for glaucoma and macular degeneration, and patients should strive to reduce these behaviors to improve eye health. Eye care providers should reinforce these messages with patients and encourage compliance with prescribed medications, even if patients do not notice daily benefits. It's important to detect and treat glaucoma early to prevent vision loss and to monitor the health of the optic nerve.

    Cannabis and Ocular Health: Maintaining a Good Eye Health

    Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, a nutritious diet, and avoiding smoking and vaping, is crucial for maintaining good ocular health, especially for those at risk for glaucoma. While Cannabis may help to lower eye pressure, smoking is not recommended due to its negative impact on lung health and dry eyes. Edible forms may be used responsibly in select cases to control eye pressure at night while sleeping. Additionally, companies are working towards developing eye-specific and long-acting drugs derived from Cannabis compounds, which can be highly effective in treating glaucoma while minimizing any adverse side effects.

    Sleep and Light Therapy for Eye Health

    Getting a good night's sleep is crucial for the total health of the whole human being, especially for patients with severe glaucoma. Although studies on the impact of sleeping on either side on the eyes have produced conflicting results, it is believed the time and duration of sleep spent on each eye may be similar. Red or near infrared light therapy can be neuroprotective, and some studies show that it may help offset some vision loss due to age-related macular degeneration. However, the right dose, brightness, and optimal wavelength for the therapy are still unclear, and red light exposure, if too bright, can damage the eyes.

    Exploring Light Therapies for Eye Health and Dealing with Floaters and Eye Twitching

    Research is exploring the potential of light therapies to maximize our eye health, both during development and as we age. The occurrence of floaters is caused by the shrinking and contraction of fibers and gels in the eye as we age. Although it is tempting to remove them surgically, floaters usually go away by themselves within a few months. Patients often stop noticing floaters if they intentionally ignore them in the beginning. Eye twitching is mostly due to a bad nerve ending in the eyelid muscles. This can be caused by several factors, including fatigue and aging.

    Supplements for Eye Health and Macular Degeneration

    There are supplements available in the market for improving or maintaining eye health, but it's worth noting that only a few are supported by extensive studies. One such study is the ARIDS, which recommended a combination of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, zinc, copper, and betacarotene to slow down the progression of dry Macular Degeneration in moderate to severe ranges. Another study called ARIDS 2 proved that a lower dose of zinc and carotinoids like lutein and xanthine also help in slowing down the disease. These supplements are not recommended for mild Macular Degeneration but can be beneficial for those in the moderate to severe category. It's crucial to keep an eye on calorie intake to avoid obesity and diabetes that indirectly affects eye health.

    Vitamin B3 may slow down optic nerve degenerative diseases.

    Taking high dose Vitamin B3 supplements may help slow down the progression of optic nerve degenerative diseases such as glaucoma. Limited but randomized controlled clinical trials have shown that it is safe and may improve retinal function in the short term. Large phase three clinical trials are currently ongoing, and more data is expected to be available in the next year or two. However, patients should be cautious about other supplements that claim to support eye and vision health. While some may have a plausible explanation for how they may help, there is often no good data to support it. Patients should not substitute proven prescribed treatments with unproven alternative therapies.

    Imaging the Neural Retina: A New Diagnostic Tool for Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Imaging of the neural retina may be a powerful diagnostic tool for predicting and tracking the progression of Alzheimer's and other forms of neurodegeneration. While ophthalmologists are able to see the degeneration of the retina and optic nerve, there is not yet the specificity to differentiate between different diseases. However, recent discoveries of novel structures in the retina of patients with Multiple Sclerosis may lead to a new generation of biomarkers for diagnosing and treating diseases. This is an exciting area for eye care and the rest of medicine, as precision health aims to intervene early and prevent diseases in the future.

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    LIVE EVENT Q&A: Dr. Andrew Huberman at the ICC Sydney Theatre

    LIVE EVENT Q&A: Dr. Andrew Huberman at the ICC Sydney Theatre
    Recently I had the pleasure of hosting a live event in Sydney, Australia. This event was part of a lecture series called The Brain Body Contract. My favorite part of the evening was the question and answer period, where I had the opportunity to answer questions from the attendees of each event. Included here is the Q&A from our event at the ICC Sydney Theatre. Sign up to get notified about future events: https://www.hubermanlab.com/events Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman Timestamps 00:00 Introduction 00:15 Live Event Recap: The Brain Body Contract 00:32 Sponsors: AG1 & Eight Sleep 03:30 Q&A Session Begins: Napping and Sleep Quality 06:34 The Power of the Placebo Effect 11:31 Entering Rest and Digest State: Techniques and Tools 15:35 Muscle Growth, Learning & the Brain 20:13 Hallucinogens: Personal Experiences & Clinical Insights 27:28 The Misunderstood Effects of MDMA 27:42 Exploring the Potential of MDMA in Clinical Settings 29:25 The Complex World of Psychedelics & Mental Health 30:07 Ketamine: From Misconception to Medical Use 31:53 The Fascinating Science of DMT 33:11 Supporting Science: Funding & Future Directions 34:48 The Gut-Brain Axis: A Key to Overall Health 40:41 Sleep Patterns and Chronotypes: Personalizing Rest 42:50 Addressing ADHD & Focus in the Modern World 49:27 Closing Remarks & Gratitude Disclaimer
    Huberman Lab
    enMay 17, 2024

    Dr. James Hollis: How to Find Your True Purpose & Create Your Best Life

    Dr. James Hollis: How to Find Your True Purpose & Create Your Best Life
    In this episode, my guest is Dr. James Hollis, Ph.D., a Jungian psychoanalyst, renowned educator and author on finding and pursuing one’s unique purpose. Dr. Hollis is also an expert in the psychology of relationships and healing from trauma. We discuss how early family dynamics and social context create patterns of both adaptive and maladaptive behavior and internal narratives that, when examined, lead to better choices and a deeply fulfilling existence. We discuss discovering your unique self-identity and purpose through specific practices of reflection, meditation and conversations with others. We also discuss self-perception and the evolution of roles within marriages, parent-child relationships, and work. Throughout the episode, Dr. Hollis provides both basic knowledge and practical tools to help us assess ourselves and better understand who we are and what we really want in careers, relationships of all kinds, and society. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Mateína: https://drinkmateina.com/huberman Joovv: https://joovv.com/huberman BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps 00:00:00 Dr. James Hollis 00:02:14 Sponsors: Mateina, Joovv & BetterHelp 00:05:57 Self, Ego, Sense of Self 00:13:59 Unconscious Patterns, Blind Spots, Dreams; Psyche & Meaning 00:21:56 Second Half of Life, Purpose, Depression 00:25:37 Sponsor: AG1 00:27:08 Tool: Daily Reflection; Crisis 00:31:47 Families & Children, Permission & Burdens 00:37:27 Complex Identification, Self-Perception; Social Media & Borderline 00:41:55 Daily Stimulus Response, Listening to the Soul 00:45:40 Exiting Stimulus-Response, Loneliness, Burnout 00:51:19 Meditation & Perception, Reflection 00:54:58 Sponsor: Waking Up 00:56:15 Recognizing the “Shadow” & Adulthood 01:02:48 Socialization; Family & Life Journey 01:09:04 Relationships & “Otherness”, Standing Your Ground 01:15:51 Marriage, “Starter Marriages” & Evolution; Parenting 01:19:37 Shadow Issues, Success & External Reward, Personal Growth 01:27:59 Men, Alcohol, “Stoic Man”, Loneliness, Fear & Longing 01:37:33 Women & Men, Focused vs. Diffuse Awareness; Male Rite of Passage 01:44:31 Sacrifice, Relationships; Facing Fears 01:48:20 Therapy, “Abyss of the Self”, Repeating Patterns & Stories 01:55:17 Women, Career & Family, Partner Support; Redefining Roles 02:01:40 Pathology & Diagnosis, Internet 02:07:05 Life, Suffering & Accountability, “Swamplands” & Task 02:11:32 Abuse & Recovery of Self, Patience, Powerlessness 02:14:11 Living a Larger Life; “Shut Up, Suit Up, Show Up” 02:17:49 Life Stages; Despair & Integrity Conflict 02:25:00 Death, Ego, Mortality & Meaning 02:38:07 Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
    Huberman Lab
    enMay 13, 2024

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: The Science of Dreams, Nightmares & Lucid Dreaming

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: The Science of Dreams, Nightmares & Lucid Dreaming
    This is episode 6 of a 6-part special series on sleep with Dr. Matthew Walker, Ph.D., a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley and a leading public educator on sleep for mental and physical health, learning and human performance. In this episode, we discuss dreaming, including the biological mechanism of dreams, what dreams mean and their role in daytime life.  We explore how dreams can enhance our creativity and emotional well-being and help us resolve various challenges and dilemmas. We discuss how to remember and interpret your dreams and the abstractions/symbols frequently present in dreams. We also discuss nightmares and therapies to treat reoccurring nightmares. We explain what lucid dreaming is and if there are benefits or drawbacks to this type of dreaming. Dr. Walker also answers frequently asked audience questions and discusses snoring, body position, sleep supplements, sleep challenges due to aging, menopause, stopping racing thoughts, and how to fall back asleep if you wake in the middle of the night.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman WHOOP: https://www.join.whoop.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps 00:00:00 Dreaming 00:01:13 Sponsors: BetterHelp, LMNT & Helix Sleep 00:05:06 Dreams & REM Sleep 00:12:20 Evolution of REM Sleep, Humans 00:17:13 REM Sleep & PGO Waves; Dreams & Brain Activity 00:24:26 Dreams, Images & Brain Activity; Sleepwalking & Sleep Talking 00:30:51 Sponsor: AG1 00:32:04 Dream Benefits, Creativity & Emotional Regulation; Challenge Resolution 00:41:27 Daily Experience vs. Dreaming, Emotions 00:45:08 Dream Interpretation & Freud, Dream Relevance 00:52:59 Abstractions, Symbols, Experience & Dreams; “Fuzzy Logic” 01:00:28 Sponsor: Whoop 01:01:36 Nightmares; Recurring Nightmares & Therapy 01:11:08 Targeted Memory Reactivation, Sounds & Nightmares 01:15:38 Odor, Paired Associations, Learning & Sleep 01:18:53 Fear Extinction, Memory & Sleep; Tool: Remembering Dreams 01:25:38 Lucid Dreaming, REM Sleep, Paralysis 01:32:33 Lucid Dreaming: Benefits? Unrestorative Sleep? 01:44:07 Improve Lucid Dreaming 01:49:30 Tool: Negative Rumination & Falling Asleep 01:53:41 Tools: Body Position, Snoring & Sleep Apnea; Mid-Night Waking & Alarm Clock 01:58:43 Sleep Banking?; Tool: Falling Back Asleep, Rest 02:05:53 Tool: Older Adults & Early Waking; Sleep Medications 02:11:25 Tool: Menopause & Sleep Disruption, Hot Flashes 02:15:06 Remembering Dreams & Impacts Sleep Quality? 02:18:32 Tool: Sleep Supplements 02:26:48 Tool: Most Important Tip for Sleep 02:30:56 Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    Dr. Casey Means: Transform Your Health by Improving Metabolism, Hormone & Blood Sugar Regulation

    Dr. Casey Means: Transform Your Health by Improving Metabolism, Hormone & Blood Sugar Regulation
    In this episode, my guest is Dr. Casey Means, M.D., a physician trained at Stanford University School of Medicine, an expert on metabolic health and the author of the book, "Good Energy." We discuss how to leverage nutrition, exercise and environmental factors to enhance your metabolic health by improving mitochondrial function, hormone and blood sugar regulation.  We also explore how fasting, deliberate cold exposure and spending time in nature can impact metabolic health, how to control food cravings and how to assess your metabolic health using blood testing, continuous glucose monitors and other tools.  Metabolic dysfunction is a leading cause of chronic disease, obesity and reduced lifespan around the world. Conversely, improving your mitochondrial and metabolic health can positively affect your health span and longevity. Listeners of this episode will learn low- and zero-cost tools to improve their metabolic health, physical and mental well-being, body composition and target the root cause of various common diseases. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Maui Nui Venison: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman  Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman  AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman  InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps 00:00:00 Dr. Casey Means 00:02:18 Sponsors: Maui Nui, Eight Sleep & AeroPress 00:06:32 Metabolism, Metabolic Dysfunction, Medicinal Blindspot 00:14:17 Trifecta of Bad Energy 00:24:02 Western Living, United States, Specialization & Medicine 00:27:57 Insulin Resistance, Tool: Mitochondrial Capacity & Exercise 00:33:33 Sponsor: AG1 00:35:03 Tools: Walking & Glucose; Frequent Movement 00:44:25 Tools: Exercises to Improve Mitochondrial Capacity; Desk Treadmill 00:51:18 Soleus Push-Ups & Fidgeting, Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT) 00:57:14 Sponsor: InsideTracker 00:58:21 Tool: Blood Test Biomarkers, Vital Signs & Mitochondrial Function 01:11:16 Navigate Medical System & Blood Tests, Consumer Lab Testing 01:16:46 Tool: Environmental Factors; Food, Life as a Process 01:21:58 Tool: Ultra-Processed vs. Real Food, Obesity, Soil & Micronutrients 01:32:03 Ultra-Processed Foods: Brain & Cellular Confusion 01:39:10 Tools: Control Cravings, GLP-1 Production, Microbiome Support 01:51:42 Ozempic, GLP-1 Analogs; Root Cause & Medicine 02:00:54 Tool: Deliberate Cold & Heat Exposure, Brown Fat 02:07:27 Tool: Intermittent Fasting & Metabolic Flexibility; Insulin Sensitivity 02:17:03 Tool: Continuous Glucose Monitors (CGMs) & Awareness, Glucose Spikes 02:24:34 Tool: CGMs, Glycemic Variability, Dawn Effect, Individuality 02:33:10 Sleep; Continuous Monitoring & Biomarkers 02:37:39 Mindset & Safety, Stress & Cell Danger Response 02:44:04 Tool: Being in Nature, Sunlight, Fear 02:54:44 Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Improve Sleep to Boost Mood & Emotional Regulation

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Improve Sleep to Boost Mood & Emotional Regulation
    This is episode 5 of our 6-part special series on sleep with Dr. Matthew Walker, Ph.D., a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley and the host of The Matt Walker Podcast. In this episode, we explain the connection between sleep and mood, emotional regulation and mental well-being.  We explain the role of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in processing emotions and emotional memories and why sleep deprivation causes agitation, impulsivity and emotional reactivity.  We also discuss why sleep disruption is a hallmark feature of PTSD, anxiety, depression, suicidality, and other psychiatric conditions.  We explain protocols for improving REM sleep and other sleep phases in order to harness the therapeutic power of quality sleep to feel calmer and emotionally restored. This episode describes various actionable tools to improve sleep for those struggling with mental health or mood and those wanting to bolster their overall state and well-being.  The next episode in this special series explores dreams, including lucid dreaming, nightmares and dream interpretation. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Sleep & Mental Health (00:01:09) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, LMNT & BetterHelp (00:05:14) Emotions & Sleep, Amygdala (00:17:27) Emotional Memory & Sleep (00:25:48) “Overnight Therapy” & REM Sleep, Noradrenaline (00:29:13) Sponsor: AG1 (00:30:27) Sleep to “Remember & Forget”, Trauma; REM Sleep (00:38:27) Hinge Analogy; Motivation, Impulsivity & Addiction (00:47:08) Tool: Improve REM Sleep, Social Jet Lag, Alcohol & THC, Addiction (00:56:18) Sponsor: InsideTracker (00:57:23) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) & REM Sleep (01:06:53) Noradrenaline & REM Sleep, PTSD & Prazosin (01:09:40) Addiction, Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR); Liminal States (01:16:46) Anxiety & Sleep, Mood vs. Emotions (01:23:50) Deep Non-REM Sleep & Anxiety, Sleep Quality (01:28:51) Tool: Improve Deep Non-REM Sleep, Temperature; Alcohol (01:34:56) Suicidality & Sleep, Pattern Recognition; Nightmares (01:46:21) Depression, Anxiety & Time Context (01:51:24) Depression, Too Much Sleep?; REM Changes & Antidepressants (01:57:37) Sleep Deprivation & Depression (02:01:34) Tool: Circadian Misalignment & Mental Health, Chronotype (02:04:05) Tools: Daytime Light & Nighttime Darkness; “Junk Light” (02:13:04) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    AMA #17: Making Time for Fitness, Top Sleep Tools & Best Learning Strategies

    AMA #17: Making Time for Fitness, Top Sleep Tools & Best Learning Strategies
    Welcome to a preview of the 17th Ask Me Anything (AMA) episode, part of Huberman Lab Premium. Huberman Lab Premium was launched for two main reasons. First, it was launched in order to raise support for the main Huberman Lab podcast — which will continue to come out every Monday at zero-cost. Second, it was launched as a means to raise funds for important scientific research. A significant portion of proceeds from the Huberman Lab Premium subscription will fund human research (not animal models) selected by Dr. Huberman, with a dollar-for-dollar match from the Tiny Foundation. Read our Annual Letter 2023. If you're an existing Premium member, you can login to access the full episode. If you're not a member, you can join Huberman Lab Premium to enjoy exclusive content, including monthly Ask Me Anything (AMA) episodes, AMA transcripts, podcast episode transcripts, early access to live events and help advance human scientific research. Resources Foundational Fitness Protocol Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction to AMA #17 (00:00:14) Exciting Announcement (00:02:16) Diving Into the Foundational Fitness Protocol (00:09:37) Flexibility in Your Fitness Routine (00:17:12) Optimizing Workout Times & Prioritizing Health (00:23:31) Closing Thoughts & Huberman Lab Premium Benefits In the full AMA episode, we discuss: Periodization & the Philosophy of Fitness Unlocking the Secrets of Sleep: Insights & Tools Chronotypes and Personalized Sleep Strategies The QQRT Formula: Quantity, Quality, Regularity & Timing of Sleep Exploring Naps & Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) Effective Learning & Note-Taking Strategies The Power of Teaching & Self-Testing in Learning Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer

    Protocols to Strengthen & Pain Proof Your Back

    Protocols to Strengthen & Pain Proof Your Back
    In this episode, I explain how to strengthen and build a stable, pain-free back and how to reduce or eliminate existing back pain. I explain the anatomy and physiology of the spinal cord and vertebrae, intervertebral disks and nerve pathways, and the abdominal and back muscles that together can be leveraged to stabilize the back.  Then, I describe protocols: “McGill’s Big 3” exercises, a highly effective psoas stretch, abdominal stabilization, breathing techniques, and protocols to reinforce essential supports for the back, including the neck, pelvis, feet, and toes.  I also explain how you can reduce and potentially eliminate back pain and sciatica using a specific type of bar hang, “cobra push-ups,” medial-glute strengthening exercises, and more.  Back pain greatly impedes one’s ability to enjoy daily activities; this episode provides zero-cost, minimal time-investment protocols to improve your back strength and stability and allow you to move through life pain-free and with ease and mobility.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman Joovv: https://joovv.com/huberman Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman Plunge: https://plunge.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Back Health (00:03:47) Sponsors: AeroPress, Joovv & Waking Up (00:07:57) Back Anatomy: Spine, Vertebrae, Spinal Cord (00:12:07) Spinal Cord & Nerves; Herniated Discs (00:19:50) Build Strong Pain-Free Back; Bulging Discs (00:24:26) Back Pain & Professional Evaluation; Tool: Spine Self-Assessment  (00:34:58) Sponsor: AG1 (00:36:29) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Curl-Up (00:44:40) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Side Plank (00:53:13) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Bird Dog; Back Pain (01:04:10) Sponsor: Plunge (01:05:37) Tool: Back Pain & Oreo Analogy, Bar Hang (01:10:34) Time & Back Pain; Tool: Reversing Disc Herniation, Cobra Push-Ups  (01:21:28) Sciatica, Referred Pain, Herniated Disc (01:24:21) Tool: Improve Spine Stability, Strengthen Neck (01:29:23) Tools: Strengthen Feet, Toe Spreading (01:34:35) Tools: Belly Breathing; Stagger Stance (01:42:03) Tools: Relieve Low Back Pain, Medial Glute Activation; Rolled Towel (01:50:59) Tool: Psoas Stretching (01:57:00) Tool: Back Awareness; Strengthen & Pain-Proof Back (02:05:49) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Using Sleep to Improve Learning, Creativity & Memory

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Using Sleep to Improve Learning, Creativity & Memory
    This is episode 4 of a 6-part special series on sleep with Dr. Matthew Walker, Ph.D., a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, and author of the best-selling book "Why We Sleep." In this episode, we discuss the relationship between sleep, learning and creativity.  We explain why and how sleep before and after a learning bout can improve memory and performance for both cognitive tasks and physical skills. We also discuss how to use time learning and sleep, how to use naps, non-sleep deep rest states, and caffeine to optimize learning, and the mechanisms for sleep and memory consolidation.  We also explain the critical role that sleep plays in creativity and one's ability to discover novel solutions to challenges and problems.  This episode is filled with actionable information on using sleep to enhance skill learning and improve memory and creativity.  The next episode in this guest series explains how sleep benefits emotional regulation and mental health.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman  WHOOP: https://join.whoop.com/huberman  Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman  InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Sleep & Learning (00:00:59) Sponsors: Helix Sleep, Whoop & Waking Up (00:05:48) Learning, Memory & Sleep (00:09:32) Memory & Sleep, “All-Nighters”, Hippocampus (00:13:46) Naps & Learning Capacity (00:16:59) Early School Start Times, Performance & Accidents (00:26:38) Medical Residency & Sleep Deprivation (00:29:35) Sponsor: AG1 (00:30:49) Tool: Sleep Before Learning; Cramming Effect (00:35:09) Tools: Caffeine; Timing Peak Learning; “Second Wind” (00:44:25) Memory Consolidation in Sleep (00:55:07) Sleepwalking & Talking; REM-Sleep Behavioral Disorder (01:00:16) REM Sleep Paralysis, Alcohol, Stress (01:07:41) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:08:46) Skills, Motor Learning & Sleep (01:17:03) Tool: Timing Sleep & Learning, Skill Enhancement (01:20:00) Naps; Specificity & Memory Consolidation, Sleep Spindles (01:27:21) Sleep, Motor Learning & Athletes; Automaticity (01:34:10) Can Learning Improve Sleep? (01:39:13) Tool: Exercise to Improve Sleep; Performance, Injury & Motivation (01:44:38) Pillars of Health; Dieting & Sleep Deprivation (01:49:35) Performance & Poor Sleep, Belief Effects, “Orthosomnia” (01:57:03) “Overnight Alchemy”, Sleep & Novel Memory Linking (02:05:58) Sleep & Creativity (02:11:09) Tools: Waking & Technology; Naps; “Sleep on a Problem” (02:20:51) Creative Insight & Sleep (02:26:18) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher: Vaping, Alcohol Use & Other Risky Youth Behaviors

    Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher: Vaping, Alcohol Use & Other Risky Youth Behaviors
    In this episode, my guest is Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher, PhD, FSAHM. She is a professor of pediatrics and adolescent medicine and a developmental psychologist at Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Halpern-Felsher is a world expert in adolescent decision-making and risk-taking behaviors. She explains the huge increase in vaping (e-cigarettes) by young people. She explains why vaping nicotine and cannabis is particularly dangerous to the developing brain. We discuss the rise in vaping addiction, the unique social pressures and social media influences faced by youth that make quitting challenging, and interventions to aid them in quitting or reducing use. We also discuss the role of technology and social media. And, the use of alcohol, nicotine pouches, fentanyl, and other risky behaviors that adolescents face now. This episode should interest parents, teachers, coaches, teens, and families. It covers the current youth substance use landscape and also covers resources and ways to quit these addictive behaviors.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Use Ask Huberman Lab, our new AI-powered platform, for a summary, clips, and insights from this episode. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman  Mateina: https://drinkmateina.com/huberman  LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman  Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher (00:01:40) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, Mateina & LMNT  (00:05:38) Adolescence (00:09:19) Household Conflict, Parents; Smart Phones (00:12:35) Smart Phones & Social Media (00:18:25) Vaping, E-Cigarettes, Nicotine & Cannabis (00:23:46) Adolescent Nicotine Use: Marketing, Flavors (00:30:41) Sponsor: AG1 (00:32:13) Nicotine Initiation, Freebase vs. Salt-Based Nicotine, Concentration (00:41:35) Addiction & Withdrawal; E-Cigarette Access (00:48:48) Vaping Health Hazards, Aldehydes, Flavors (00:56:32) Sponsor: Waking Up (00:57:48) “Just Say No”, Adolescent Defiance (01:04:21) Cannabis & Potency, Blunts, E-Cigarette Combinations (01:10:30) Psychosis, THC & Adolescence (01:14:11) Quitting Nicotine & Cannabis; Physical & Social Withdrawal Symptoms (01:23:05) Social Pressures, Quitting Vaping, Environment Concerns (01:30:08) Teen Activities, Social Media, Autonomy (01:36:28) Risky Behaviors, Alcohol, Driving, Sexual Behavior (01:43:27) International E-Cigarette Use, Regulation (01:46:10) Nicotine Pouches, Health Risks; Tolerance (01:53:25) Tools: Vaping Interventions, Decision Making, Harm Reduction (02:02:37) Fentanyl, Drug Testing, Recreational Drug Use (02:13:45) Tool: Organic Conversations & Risky Behavior (02:17:20) Long-Term Goals & Teens; Vaping, Pornography & Teens (02:24:08) Mental Health Crisis & Substance Use (02:29:11) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer