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    The Science of Hearing, Balance & Accelerated Learning

    The Doppler effect helps us differentiate sound, identify speed and direction of objects. Bats use it for navigation in the dark. While contextual, tinnitus still highlights the importance of healthy sleep discussed in Human Lab Podcasts.

    enJuly 05, 2021

    About this Episode

    This episode I describe how our ears and nervous system decode sound waves and gravity to allow us to hear and make sense of sounds. I also describe protocols for rapid learning of sound and other types of information. I discuss sound localization, doppler effects (sound motion), pitch perception and how we isolate sounds in noisy environments. I also review the scientific findings on binaural beats and white noise and how they can improve learning. Other topics and protocols include tinnitus, sea sickness, ear movement, ear growth and the science-supported ways we can all accelerate learning using "gap effects". For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Overview of Topics (00:02:20) Protocol: New Data for Rapid Learning  (00:09:10) Introduction: Hearing & Balance  (00:09:30) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT (00:13:53) How We Perceive Sounds (00:21:56) Your Hearing Brain (Areas)   (00:23:48) Localizing Sounds (00:28:00) Ear Movement: What It Means  (00:33:00) Your Ears (Likely) Make Sounds: Role of Hormones, Sexual Orientation  (00:35:30) Binaural Beats: Do They Work?  (00:43:54) White Noise Can Enhance Learning & Dopamine (00:51:00) Headphones (00:55:51) White Noise During Development: Possibly Harmful (01:03:25) Remembering Information, & The Cocktail Party Effect (01:12:55) How to Learn Information You Hear (01:18:10) Doppler (01:22:43) Tinnitus: What Has Been Found To Help? (01:30:40) Aging: How Big Are Your Ears? (01:35:00) Balance: Semi-Circular Canals (01:40:35) A Vestibular Experiment (01:43:15) Improve Your Sense of Balance (01:48:55) Accelerating Balance (01:51:55) Self-Generated Forward Motion (01:56:25) Dizzy versus Light-Headed (01:58:38) Motion Sickness Solution (02:01:23) Synthesis Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer

    🔑 Key Takeaways

    • Injecting short rests during learning episodes, including naps or taking a break, can greatly enhance rates of learning and retention. By understanding the science behind hearing and balance, we can leverage these tools for improved learning outcomes.
    • Adding short periods of rest between repetitions can aid learning by utilizing the spacing effect. Taking a 20-minute nap or decompression period following a period of learning can further enhance knowledge retention. Understanding how our ears work can increase our appreciation of their biological capabilities.
    • The cochlea separates sound frequencies using tiny hair cells, with the more rigid end separating low-frequency sounds and the varying rigidity along its length encoding different frequencies for interpretation by the brain.
    • Our brain has various stations to identify the position of sounds and works with our ears and visual system. The ventriloquism effect can trick us, but our ears use the time difference between left and right ear to locate sounds.
    • Ears are not just an aesthetic feature but serve a mechanical role in capturing sound waves. While humans are not good at moving their ears, some can do it consciously, and ear movements have correlations with other aspects of our biology. Auto acoustic emissions are also an important aspect of hearing and ear function.
    • By understanding how our hearing apparatus functions and utilizing binaural beats with specific frequencies, we can enhance learning, creativity, and relaxation. Low-frequency Delta waves can aid in sleep while slightly higher theta rhythms induce a meditative state, allowing us to learn faster.
    • Different frequencies of binaural beats can induce either relaxation or focus and help enhance cognitive functions while treating anxiety or chronic pain. Binaural beats can be effective in studying or learning by fostering focus in the midst of background noise. However, while proven to enhance cognitive functions in adults, white noise can be detrimental to auditory learning and development in infants.
    • White noise at a low volume level can activate motivation and improve learning by modulating brain activity. Keep the volume in the lower third and find the sweet spot that works for you. This knowledge can lead to better learning tools and protocols.
    • Listening to white noise at high volumes can damage your hearing, while low volumes can improve attention and motivation. Wear earplugs in loud environments to prevent hearing loss, and prioritize listening at a lower volume for better hearing health.
    • While occasional use of white noise won't harm children, excessive exposure to it during development can disrupt their auditory system and affect communication skills. Parents should consider alternatives to prioritize a healthy sleep environment and promote proper neuroplasticity.
    • White noise can hinder the auditory development of young children, but it can enhance learning and focus for adults. Adapting our auditory field of view can improve our attentional prowess and aid in better classroom education and conversations in noisy backgrounds.
    • Paying attention to the onset and offset of words can create a cone of auditory attention that helps the brain extract specific sounds, providing valuable information in noisy environments. However, it's important to use this mechanism selectively to avoid disrupting other learning processes.
    • By actively focusing on specific cues or frequencies in auditory learning, you can improve your attention, speed up learning, and activate neuroplasticity in the adult brain. Highlighting and focusing on particular words or notes allows for capturing more overall information.
    • The Doppler effect helps us differentiate sound, identify speed and direction of objects. Bats use it for navigation in the dark. While contextual, tinnitus still highlights the importance of healthy sleep discussed in Human Lab Podcasts.
    • Protecting one's hearing from loud noises is crucial to prevent hair cell damage leading to tinnitus. Certain non-prescription compounds may help reduce tinnitus, but it's important to remember they may not work for everyone. Gingko Bilboa may be helpful for age-related tinnitus.
    • Proper ear care is essential for maintaining our sense of balance and alleviating the disruptive effects of tinnitus. Regular visits to a doctor and protective measures can prevent hearing loss and minimize the negative impact on our overall well-being.
    • The semicircular canals of the vestibular system, in conjunction with the visual system, work to maintain our balance and spatial orientation. The stones in the canals deflect hair cells that send signals to the brain about head movement, but moving the head slowly can sometimes be uncomfortable. This system is essential for all animals with a jaw to navigate their environment.
    • Moving the head quickly and incorporating visual focus can enhance balance. To balance better, raise one leg and practice focusing on both short and far distances, incorporating the visual system into movements.
    • By combining changes in visual environment with a static posture, practicing unilateral movements, and exercising the vestibular system, we can enhance our balance and stimulate the cerebellum for improved skill learning and an overall feeling of well-being.
    • Incorporating forward or lateral acceleration while tilted can help improve physical balance, mood, and ability to learn. Roller coasters trigger positive feelings, but maintaining proper nutrition and electrolytes is important to avoid lightheadedness. Adding these modes of acceleration to your exercise routine can help improve balance and overall wellbeing.
    • Simple actions like adding sea salt to water, looking around instead of fixedly staring, and proprioceptive feedback from driving can all help us manage motion sickness. Understanding how our brain functions can help us improve our learning and productivity.

    📝 Podcast Summary

    Rest and Learning - The Importance of Sound and Balance

    The auditory system (hearing) and the vestibular system (balance) can be used effectively to learn things faster and retain information longer. Injecting short periods of rest within learning episodes can greatly enhance rates of learning and retention of skills. Taking a 20-minute nap or doing nothing after a period of learning has already been shown to enhance rates and depth of learning. Injecting shorter periods of rest, such as 10 seconds, during learning episodes has been found to significantly increase rates of learning and retention. This is because the brain is not completely offline during these rest periods and actually experiences micro, offline gains. Learning about the science behind hearing and balance can lead to improved learning and the ability to leverage different tools for enhanced learning.

    Enhancing learning through rest and understanding how we hear

    Injecting short periods of rest between repetitions can enhance learning by allowing the brain to continue rehearsing at 20 times the usual speed. This is known as the spacing effect, first proposed in 1885. The brain is willing to generate repetitions if given the rest it needs. After a period of learning, taking a 20 minute nap or decompression period can further enhance learning. Additionally, the shape of our ears, specifically the pinna, amplifies high-frequency sounds. Sound waves are fluctuations in air that get captured by our ears and are converted into signals that the brain can interpret. Understanding how our ears work can help us appreciate the incredible feat of biology that allows us to hear.

    How the Cochlea Separates Sound Frequencies

    The inner ear contains a little hammer attached to the eardrum that hammers on a little coiled thing called the cochlea. The cochlea at one end is more rigid than the other, allowing for the separation of low-frequency and high-frequency sounds by tiny hair cells. The fact that the cochlea is coiled is important as it varies in how rigid or flexible it is along its length, encoding different frequencies of sound. The brain then puts this information back together and makes sense of it. Understanding sound frequency is as simple as imagining ripples on a pond. Essentially, the cochlea acts as a prism, splitting up different sound frequencies for interpretation.

    How Our Brain Locates the Position of Sounds

    There are several stations in our brain that process auditory information before it reaches our conscious detection. The stations help us identify the position of sounds and determine how far it is. The shape of our ears plays a crucial role in determining the elevation of the sound- whether it is from above or below. Our auditory and visual system collaborate to help us locate the position of things in space. The ventriloquism effect is when we think that a sound is coming from a location it's not actually coming from. Our ears calculate the difference in time of arrival for those sound waves in our right versus our left ear to know where the sound is coming from.

    The Role of Ears in Hearing and Biological Correlations

    Ears serve a mechanical role besides being an aesthetic feature. They capture sound waves and funnel them to help us hear with a greater degree of accuracy. Humans are not good at moving their ears unlike other animals. However, about 60% of people can move their ears consciously with mental control. People who can raise one eyebrow easily can move their ears without touching them. The control of ear movement is the same as that of eyebrow movement. Our ears are similar to the ears of other primates like macaque monkeys and chimpanzees. Ear movements have correlations with other aspects of our biology. Auto acoustic emissions have interesting implications for our biology and are a different feature of our hearing and ears.

    The Science of Sound Waves and Our Brain

    70% of people make noises with their ears that they don't actually detect, and exposure to certain combinations of hormones during development shape the way that our hearing apparatus function throughout our lifetime. Binaural beats involve playing different frequencies to each ear to achieve an intermediate frequency that can place the brain into a better state for learning, creativity, or relaxation. Peer-reviewed studies show that certain low-frequency sounds like Delta waves can help with sleep, while slightly higher frequencies like theta rhythms can induce a meditative state. Understanding the science behind sound waves and how they affect our brain can help us leverage our auditory system to learn anything faster.

    Binaural Beats: A Brainwave Tool for Improved Cognitive Functioning.

    Different frequencies of binaural beats can bring the brain into relaxed or alert states, enhancing cognitive functions like attention, working memory, and creativity while reducing anxiety and chronic pain. Slow, low-frequency waves induce relaxation while high-frequency waves can bring about alertness and focus. Binaural beats are effective in treating anxiety, chronic pain, and may even aid in dental surgery. However, white noise, while proven to enhance cognitive function in adults, can be detrimental to auditory learning and even the development of the auditory system in infants. Binaural beats are a relatively inexpensive and accessible way to improve cognitive functions, and can especially aid in studying or learning by channeling focus in background noise.

    Enhancing Learning with White Noise

    White noise at a low volume level can enhance learning by modulating brain activity in the dopaminergic mid-brain regions and the substantia nigra. The release of dopamine from the substantia nigra can help activate our sense of motivation and aid in learning. The key is to find the right volume that is not interfering with our focus but enhancing it. A good rule of thumb is to keep it in the lower third of any volume dial and not make it too loud. Different people have different levels of auditory sensitivity, so it may vary from person to person. This knowledge can lead to the development of better tools and protocols for learning.

    The Danger of High-Volume White Noise and How to Protect Your Hearing

    Using headphones to listen to white noise can be dangerous if the volume is too high, as it can damage your hearing. It is recommended to keep the volume low to avoid hearing loss. White noise can tickle the neurons in the brain, raising the baseline level of dopamine released. This helps in increasing attention span and motivation, leading to better learning. As a precaution, it is recommended to use low profile earplugs in loud environments, like concerts or working at construction sites, to avoid hearing loss. Exposure to loud sounds can cause irreversible hearing loss by killing neurons. The longer you can listen to things at a lower volume, the better it is for your hearing.

    White noise machines and their impact on child development

    While good sleep is essential for physical and mental health, exposure to white noise during development can be detrimental to the auditory system. White noise contains no tone-atopic information and can disrupt the formation of tone-a-topic maps within the developing brain. This can lead to degraded interpretation of speech and affect communication skills. Though playing white noise occasionally won't cause any harm, excessive exposure to it can impact a child's neuroplasticity during sleep. Therefore, parents need to think twice before using a white noise machine throughout the night and consider other alternatives. It's crucial to prioritize a healthy environment for good sleep and family health while being mindful of the impact of external factors that can affect children's development.

    The Dual Effects of White Noise on Auditory Development and Learning in Different age groups

    White noise may have negative impacts on auditory development in young children, but can be beneficial for learning and focus in adults. The cocktail party effect, where the brain attends to certain sounds despite being bombarded with others, takes attentional effort and burns energy. Expanding and contracting our auditory field of view can help with this, and improving auditory learning can be valuable for classroom education and conversations in noisy environments.

    Using the Onset and Offset of Words for Selective Hearing in Noisy Environments.

    Paying attention to the onset and offset of words can help in selective hearing amidst background chatter. It creates a cone of auditory attention, enabling the brain to extract specific sounds. Disengaging the auditory system when not focusing on anything particular can help to relax amidst noise. Listening to the onset and offset of words can be beneficial to extract sound information, like notes or words spoken by someone else. It also helps in remembering people's names. However, paying attention to the onset and offset of every word can be disruptive to the learning process. So, it's better to use this mechanism for specific attention, like programming specific words while taking directions in an unknown city.

    The Power of Active Auditory Learning

    Paying attention is crucial when it comes to auditory learning. Studies show that actively encoding auditory information by focusing on particular cues or frequencies can lead to much faster learning and activate neuroplasticity in the adult brain, something that was previously thought to be challenging. This technique can even help overcome auditory learning disorders such as stuttering. When trying to learn, it's important to highlight and focus on particular words, scales, notes, or keys, rather than trying to remember everything at once. By doing this, you increase your level of attention, allowing you to capture more of the information overall. Remember, it's not necessarily what you focus on, but the fact that you are focusing that matters.

    Understanding the Doppler Effect and Tinnitus

    The Doppler effect is a way we experience sound and differentiate incoming signals. It helps us to identify the direction and speed of objects, allowing us to be safer on the road, for example. Bats use Doppler to send out sound waves and navigate their dark environments, which is why they appear to rely more on their auditory system. Tinnitus, also known as ringing in the ears, can vary in intensity and frequency according to stress levels, time of day, or age. While it is subject to contextual effects, it is still important to maximize healthy sleep, which was covered in the first four episodes of the Human Lab Podcasts.

    Understanding Tinnitus and Its Causes

    Tinnitus, a condition characterized by ringing in ears, may be caused by disruption or damage to hair cells. Even temporary exposure to loud noises can cause damage to hair cells, making it important to protect hearing. Melatonin, Gingko Bilboa, zinc, and magnesium are non-prescription compounds that have been shown to have modest yet statistically significant effects in reducing the severity of tinnitus. However, it's important to note that these substances may not work for everyone and it's up to individuals to decide if they are right for them. Age-related tinnitus may be helped by Kinko Bilboa. It's crucial to protect hearing and avoid loud environments as hair cells once damaged, cannot be replenished with current technology.

    The Importance of Ear Care for Balance and Tinnitus Relief

    Tinnitus can be extremely disruptive, but there are ways to alleviate it. Our sense of balance, which is controlled by our ears and elements of our spinal cord, can be improved and measured by ear circumference. As we age, our ears and noses continue to grow due to collagen synthesis, which also correlates with our biological age. The goodies that allow us to balance are mostly in our ears, as they contain the cochlea and semicircular canals. Hence, taking care of our ears is not only important for hearing but also for maintaining balance. It's crucial to talk to a doctor about any hearing concerns and to take measures to protect our ears.

    Understanding the Vestibular System and Maintaining Balance

    The vestibular system, which includes the semicircular canals, is responsible for balance and spatial orientation. The canals are like three hula hoops with stones that move when the head moves. These stones deflect hair cells that send signals to the brain about head movement. This system works in conjunction with the visual system to help us maintain balance and know where our head is in relation to our body. Moving the head slowly can be uncomfortable because the stones in the canals don't gain enough momentum to move and generate a signal to the brain. The system exists in all animals with a jaw and is integral to our ability to navigate and understand our surroundings.

    Balancing Visual and Vestibular System for Improved Balance

    Balancing your visual system and vestibular system is crucial for improving your balance. Visual information influences the vestibular system and helps to adjust postural muscles. Moving your head quickly instead of moving slowly is less disruptive to your visual system. To optimize your balance, raise one leg, and look at a short distance. Then step your visual focus out to a further distance and march it back in as far as you can see, incorporating your visual system into your movements. This training method sends robust information about the relationship between your visual world and your balance system that enhances your ability to balance.

    Tips for Improving Balance through Exercises

    To cultivate a better sense of balance, it is important to combine changes in visual environment with a static posture such as standing on one leg while shifting visual environment or a static visual view. Unilateral movements and generating some tilt or imbalance can also help. Additionally, to enhance balance in a dynamic way, the vestibular system, which cares about acceleration, needs to be exercised by tilting the head and body with respect to Earth's gravitational pole. Such exercises can stimulate the cerebellum, which is also involved in skill learning and generating timing of movements. The cerebellum's non-motor outputs release neuromodulators that make us feel good overall.

    The Positive Effects of Tilted Acceleration on our Physical and Mental Well-being.

    Exercising with forward or lateral acceleration while tilted has a positive effect on our physical balance, mood, and ability to learn information. Roller coasters trigger the release of neuromodulators that make us feel good due to the chemical relationship between acceleration, head tilt, and body tilt. It's important to distinguish between feeling dizzy and lightheaded. Maintaining proper nutrition and electrolyte levels can help reduce lightheadedness that some people experience. Whether you're a surfer, snowboarder, or cyclist, incorporating these modes of acceleration can help build up your skills in the realm of balance and improve physical and mental wellbeing.

    Tips for Managing Motion Sickness and Improving Brain Function

    Adding a little sea salt to water can help alleviate lightheadedness caused by low electrolytes. Focusing on a point on the horizon can worsen seasickness; instead, allow your visual and vestibular systems to work together by looking around. Being on your phone or reading in a moving vehicle can cause nausea by uncoupling your visual and vestibular information. Driving instead of being a passenger can help because of proprioceptive feedback that tells your vestibular system where you are in space. Learning about how we process sound and utilize brain rhythms can help us improve our ability to learn and function better.

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    Dr. Casey Means: Transform Your Health by Improving Metabolism, Hormone & Blood Sugar Regulation

    Dr. Casey Means: Transform Your Health by Improving Metabolism, Hormone & Blood Sugar Regulation
    In this episode, my guest is Dr. Casey Means, M.D., a physician trained at Stanford University School of Medicine, an expert on metabolic health and the author of the book, "Good Energy." We discuss how to leverage nutrition, exercise and environmental factors to enhance your metabolic health by improving mitochondrial function, hormone and blood sugar regulation.  We also explore how fasting, deliberate cold exposure and spending time in nature can impact metabolic health, how to control food cravings and how to assess your metabolic health using blood testing, continuous glucose monitors and other tools.  Metabolic dysfunction is a leading cause of chronic disease, obesity and reduced lifespan around the world. Conversely, improving your mitochondrial and metabolic health can positively affect your health span and longevity. Listeners of this episode will learn low- and zero-cost tools to improve their metabolic health, physical and mental well-being, body composition and target the root cause of various common diseases. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Maui Nui Venison: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman  Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman  AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman  InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps 00:00:00 Dr. Casey Means 00:02:18 Sponsors: Maui Nui, Eight Sleep & AeroPress 00:06:32 Metabolism, Metabolic Dysfunction, Medicinal Blindspot 00:14:17 Trifecta of Bad Energy 00:24:02 Western Living, United States, Specialization & Medicine 00:27:57 Insulin Resistance, Tool: Mitochondrial Capacity & Exercise 00:33:33 Sponsor: AG1 00:35:03 Tools: Walking & Glucose; Frequent Movement 00:44:25 Tools: Exercises to Improve Mitochondrial Capacity; Desk Treadmill 00:51:18 Soleus Push-Ups & Fidgeting, Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT) 00:57:14 Sponsor: InsideTracker 00:58:21 Tool: Blood Test Biomarkers, Vital Signs & Mitochondrial Function 01:11:16 Navigate Medical System & Blood Tests, Consumer Lab Testing 01:16:46 Tool: Environmental Factors; Food, Life as a Process 01:21:58 Tool: Ultra-Processed vs. Real Food, Obesity, Soil & Micronutrients 01:32:03 Ultra-Processed Foods: Brain & Cellular Confusion 01:39:10 Tools: Control Cravings, GLP-1 Production, Microbiome Support 01:51:42 Ozempic, GLP-1 Analogs; Root Cause & Medicine 02:00:54 Tool: Deliberate Cold & Heat Exposure, Brown Fat 02:07:27 Tool: Intermittent Fasting & Metabolic Flexibility; Insulin Sensitivity 02:17:03 Tool: Continuous Glucose Monitors (CGMs) & Awareness, Glucose Spikes 02:24:34 Tool: CGMs, Glycemic Variability, Dawn Effect, Individuality 02:33:10 Sleep; Continuous Monitoring & Biomarkers 02:37:39 Mindset & Safety, Stress & Cell Danger Response 02:44:04 Tool: Being in Nature, Sunlight, Fear 02:54:44 Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Improve Sleep to Boost Mood & Emotional Regulation

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Improve Sleep to Boost Mood & Emotional Regulation
    This is episode 5 of our 6-part special series on sleep with Dr. Matthew Walker, Ph.D., a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley and the host of The Matt Walker Podcast. In this episode, we explain the connection between sleep and mood, emotional regulation and mental well-being.  We explain the role of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in processing emotions and emotional memories and why sleep deprivation causes agitation, impulsivity and emotional reactivity.  We also discuss why sleep disruption is a hallmark feature of PTSD, anxiety, depression, suicidality, and other psychiatric conditions.  We explain protocols for improving REM sleep and other sleep phases in order to harness the therapeutic power of quality sleep to feel calmer and emotionally restored. This episode describes various actionable tools to improve sleep for those struggling with mental health or mood and those wanting to bolster their overall state and well-being.  The next episode in this special series explores dreams, including lucid dreaming, nightmares and dream interpretation. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Sleep & Mental Health (00:01:09) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, LMNT & BetterHelp (00:05:14) Emotions & Sleep, Amygdala (00:17:27) Emotional Memory & Sleep (00:25:48) “Overnight Therapy” & REM Sleep, Noradrenaline (00:29:13) Sponsor: AG1 (00:30:27) Sleep to “Remember & Forget”, Trauma; REM Sleep (00:38:27) Hinge Analogy; Motivation, Impulsivity & Addiction (00:47:08) Tool: Improve REM Sleep, Social Jet Lag, Alcohol & THC, Addiction (00:56:18) Sponsor: InsideTracker (00:57:23) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) & REM Sleep (01:06:53) Noradrenaline & REM Sleep, PTSD & Prazosin (01:09:40) Addiction, Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR); Liminal States (01:16:46) Anxiety & Sleep, Mood vs. Emotions (01:23:50) Deep Non-REM Sleep & Anxiety, Sleep Quality (01:28:51) Tool: Improve Deep Non-REM Sleep, Temperature; Alcohol (01:34:56) Suicidality & Sleep, Pattern Recognition; Nightmares (01:46:21) Depression, Anxiety & Time Context (01:51:24) Depression, Too Much Sleep?; REM Changes & Antidepressants (01:57:37) Sleep Deprivation & Depression (02:01:34) Tool: Circadian Misalignment & Mental Health, Chronotype (02:04:05) Tools: Daytime Light & Nighttime Darkness; “Junk Light” (02:13:04) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    AMA #17: Making Time for Fitness, Top Sleep Tools & Best Learning Strategies

    AMA #17: Making Time for Fitness, Top Sleep Tools & Best Learning Strategies
    Welcome to a preview of the 17th Ask Me Anything (AMA) episode, part of Huberman Lab Premium. Huberman Lab Premium was launched for two main reasons. First, it was launched in order to raise support for the main Huberman Lab podcast — which will continue to come out every Monday at zero-cost. Second, it was launched as a means to raise funds for important scientific research. A significant portion of proceeds from the Huberman Lab Premium subscription will fund human research (not animal models) selected by Dr. Huberman, with a dollar-for-dollar match from the Tiny Foundation. Read our Annual Letter 2023. If you're an existing Premium member, you can login to access the full episode. If you're not a member, you can join Huberman Lab Premium to enjoy exclusive content, including monthly Ask Me Anything (AMA) episodes, AMA transcripts, podcast episode transcripts, early access to live events and help advance human scientific research. Resources Foundational Fitness Protocol Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction to AMA #17 (00:00:14) Exciting Announcement (00:02:16) Diving Into the Foundational Fitness Protocol (00:09:37) Flexibility in Your Fitness Routine (00:17:12) Optimizing Workout Times & Prioritizing Health (00:23:31) Closing Thoughts & Huberman Lab Premium Benefits In the full AMA episode, we discuss: Periodization & the Philosophy of Fitness Unlocking the Secrets of Sleep: Insights & Tools Chronotypes and Personalized Sleep Strategies The QQRT Formula: Quantity, Quality, Regularity & Timing of Sleep Exploring Naps & Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) Effective Learning & Note-Taking Strategies The Power of Teaching & Self-Testing in Learning Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer

    Protocols to Strengthen & Pain Proof Your Back

    Protocols to Strengthen & Pain Proof Your Back
    In this episode, I explain how to strengthen and build a stable, pain-free back and how to reduce or eliminate existing back pain. I explain the anatomy and physiology of the spinal cord and vertebrae, intervertebral disks and nerve pathways, and the abdominal and back muscles that together can be leveraged to stabilize the back.  Then, I describe protocols: “McGill’s Big 3” exercises, a highly effective psoas stretch, abdominal stabilization, breathing techniques, and protocols to reinforce essential supports for the back, including the neck, pelvis, feet, and toes.  I also explain how you can reduce and potentially eliminate back pain and sciatica using a specific type of bar hang, “cobra push-ups,” medial-glute strengthening exercises, and more.  Back pain greatly impedes one’s ability to enjoy daily activities; this episode provides zero-cost, minimal time-investment protocols to improve your back strength and stability and allow you to move through life pain-free and with ease and mobility.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman Joovv: https://joovv.com/huberman Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman Plunge: https://plunge.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Back Health (00:03:47) Sponsors: AeroPress, Joovv & Waking Up (00:07:57) Back Anatomy: Spine, Vertebrae, Spinal Cord (00:12:07) Spinal Cord & Nerves; Herniated Discs (00:19:50) Build Strong Pain-Free Back; Bulging Discs (00:24:26) Back Pain & Professional Evaluation; Tool: Spine Self-Assessment  (00:34:58) Sponsor: AG1 (00:36:29) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Curl-Up (00:44:40) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Side Plank (00:53:13) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Bird Dog; Back Pain (01:04:10) Sponsor: Plunge (01:05:37) Tool: Back Pain & Oreo Analogy, Bar Hang (01:10:34) Time & Back Pain; Tool: Reversing Disc Herniation, Cobra Push-Ups  (01:21:28) Sciatica, Referred Pain, Herniated Disc (01:24:21) Tool: Improve Spine Stability, Strengthen Neck (01:29:23) Tools: Strengthen Feet, Toe Spreading (01:34:35) Tools: Belly Breathing; Stagger Stance (01:42:03) Tools: Relieve Low Back Pain, Medial Glute Activation; Rolled Towel (01:50:59) Tool: Psoas Stretching (01:57:00) Tool: Back Awareness; Strengthen & Pain-Proof Back (02:05:49) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Using Sleep to Improve Learning, Creativity & Memory

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Using Sleep to Improve Learning, Creativity & Memory
    This is episode 4 of a 6-part special series on sleep with Dr. Matthew Walker, Ph.D., a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, and author of the best-selling book "Why We Sleep." In this episode, we discuss the relationship between sleep, learning and creativity.  We explain why and how sleep before and after a learning bout can improve memory and performance for both cognitive tasks and physical skills. We also discuss how to use time learning and sleep, how to use naps, non-sleep deep rest states, and caffeine to optimize learning, and the mechanisms for sleep and memory consolidation.  We also explain the critical role that sleep plays in creativity and one's ability to discover novel solutions to challenges and problems.  This episode is filled with actionable information on using sleep to enhance skill learning and improve memory and creativity.  The next episode in this guest series explains how sleep benefits emotional regulation and mental health.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman  WHOOP: https://join.whoop.com/huberman  Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman  InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Sleep & Learning (00:00:59) Sponsors: Helix Sleep, Whoop & Waking Up (00:05:48) Learning, Memory & Sleep (00:09:32) Memory & Sleep, “All-Nighters”, Hippocampus (00:13:46) Naps & Learning Capacity (00:16:59) Early School Start Times, Performance & Accidents (00:26:38) Medical Residency & Sleep Deprivation (00:29:35) Sponsor: AG1 (00:30:49) Tool: Sleep Before Learning; Cramming Effect (00:35:09) Tools: Caffeine; Timing Peak Learning; “Second Wind” (00:44:25) Memory Consolidation in Sleep (00:55:07) Sleepwalking & Talking; REM-Sleep Behavioral Disorder (01:00:16) REM Sleep Paralysis, Alcohol, Stress (01:07:41) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:08:46) Skills, Motor Learning & Sleep (01:17:03) Tool: Timing Sleep & Learning, Skill Enhancement (01:20:00) Naps; Specificity & Memory Consolidation, Sleep Spindles (01:27:21) Sleep, Motor Learning & Athletes; Automaticity (01:34:10) Can Learning Improve Sleep? (01:39:13) Tool: Exercise to Improve Sleep; Performance, Injury & Motivation (01:44:38) Pillars of Health; Dieting & Sleep Deprivation (01:49:35) Performance & Poor Sleep, Belief Effects, “Orthosomnia” (01:57:03) “Overnight Alchemy”, Sleep & Novel Memory Linking (02:05:58) Sleep & Creativity (02:11:09) Tools: Waking & Technology; Naps; “Sleep on a Problem” (02:20:51) Creative Insight & Sleep (02:26:18) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher: Vaping, Alcohol Use & Other Risky Youth Behaviors

    Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher: Vaping, Alcohol Use & Other Risky Youth Behaviors
    In this episode, my guest is Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher, PhD, FSAHM. She is a professor of pediatrics and adolescent medicine and a developmental psychologist at Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Halpern-Felsher is a world expert in adolescent decision-making and risk-taking behaviors. She explains the huge increase in vaping (e-cigarettes) by young people. She explains why vaping nicotine and cannabis is particularly dangerous to the developing brain. We discuss the rise in vaping addiction, the unique social pressures and social media influences faced by youth that make quitting challenging, and interventions to aid them in quitting or reducing use. We also discuss the role of technology and social media. And, the use of alcohol, nicotine pouches, fentanyl, and other risky behaviors that adolescents face now. This episode should interest parents, teachers, coaches, teens, and families. It covers the current youth substance use landscape and also covers resources and ways to quit these addictive behaviors.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Use Ask Huberman Lab, our new AI-powered platform, for a summary, clips, and insights from this episode. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman  Mateina: https://drinkmateina.com/huberman  LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman  Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher (00:01:40) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, Mateina & LMNT  (00:05:38) Adolescence (00:09:19) Household Conflict, Parents; Smart Phones (00:12:35) Smart Phones & Social Media (00:18:25) Vaping, E-Cigarettes, Nicotine & Cannabis (00:23:46) Adolescent Nicotine Use: Marketing, Flavors (00:30:41) Sponsor: AG1 (00:32:13) Nicotine Initiation, Freebase vs. Salt-Based Nicotine, Concentration (00:41:35) Addiction & Withdrawal; E-Cigarette Access (00:48:48) Vaping Health Hazards, Aldehydes, Flavors (00:56:32) Sponsor: Waking Up (00:57:48) “Just Say No”, Adolescent Defiance (01:04:21) Cannabis & Potency, Blunts, E-Cigarette Combinations (01:10:30) Psychosis, THC & Adolescence (01:14:11) Quitting Nicotine & Cannabis; Physical & Social Withdrawal Symptoms (01:23:05) Social Pressures, Quitting Vaping, Environment Concerns (01:30:08) Teen Activities, Social Media, Autonomy (01:36:28) Risky Behaviors, Alcohol, Driving, Sexual Behavior (01:43:27) International E-Cigarette Use, Regulation (01:46:10) Nicotine Pouches, Health Risks; Tolerance (01:53:25) Tools: Vaping Interventions, Decision Making, Harm Reduction (02:02:37) Fentanyl, Drug Testing, Recreational Drug Use (02:13:45) Tool: Organic Conversations & Risky Behavior (02:17:20) Long-Term Goals & Teens; Vaping, Pornography & Teens (02:24:08) Mental Health Crisis & Substance Use (02:29:11) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer