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    Dr. Justin Sonnenburg: How to Build, Maintain & Repair Gut Health

    enMarch 07, 2022

    Podcast Summary

    • Understanding and Optimizing Your Gut Microbiome for Overall HealthThe trillions of microorganisms in our gut microbiome can significantly impact our health, and can be supported by consuming fermented foods and fiber. Our behaviors, nutrition, mood, and internal reactions also play a role in optimizing our gut microbiome.

      The gut microbiome is a community of trillions of microorganisms in our entire digestive tract, which also exists in our nose and any other location where our body interfaces with the outside world. While it may seem intrusive, these little microorganisms can immensely benefit our health, including our hormonal health, brain health, and immune system function. The microbiome is organized spatially with little caves within our digestive tract called crips and niches, where certain microbiota take up residence and support our health. Recent studies have indicated the important role of fermented foods and fiber in supporting a healthy gut microbiome. The microbiome can be modified by our behaviors, nutritional interactions, mood, and internal reactions to the outside world. It's essential to understand and optimize the microbiome for our overall health and wellbeing.

    • The Complex Community of Gut Microbes and their Vital Roles in Human Health.The gut microbiota consist of trillions of microbial cells and hundreds to thousands of species that play essential roles in digestion and immune response, and their diversity varies by region.

      The gut contains an incredibly dense and complex microbial community consisting of trillions of microbial cells and hundreds to thousands of species interacting in concert. The microbiota are present throughout the digestive tract, with distinct communities in each region. Oral microbiota are different than those in the colon, and stomach communities rely upon nutrients derived from the host. The colon contains the most densely packed and metabolically active community, and is the best studied due to the ease of obtaining stool samples. The microbiota are thought to have coevolved with humans, and play vital roles in digestion and immune response.

    • Factors Affecting Gut Microbiota Assembly in InfantsThe first few years of a newborn's life comprise a crucial phase in microbiota assembly that can shape their immune system and metabolism. Factors, like mode of birth, feeding, and environmental exposure, determine their overall microbial identity.

      The gut microbiota of infants goes through a complex process of microbiota assembly over the first few years of life, which can be affected by various factors including mode of birth, feeding, and exposure to antibiotics, pets and other environmental factors. These factors can change the developmental trajectory of an organism's immune system, metabolism and other parts of their biology. While infants do acquire some microbes from their mother, a large number are acquired from other people and surfaces including pets. Therefore, the microbes that an individual is colonized with early in life can greatly influence their overall microbial identity and developmental trajectory.

    • Understanding the Complexity of Defining a Healthy MicrobiomeA healthy microbiome is subjective and context-dependent, and there is no one-size-fits-all definition. The microbiome is adaptable and varies between individuals and populations, making it difficult to draw conclusions.

      Defining a healthy microbiome is a complex topic and context matters a lot. What's healthy for one person or population may not be healthy for another person or population. The microbiota is malleable and can accommodate a variety of configurations of gut microbiota. There's no single answer to what a healthy microbiome is, but there are important considerations. The inception of the human microbiome project was to define what a healthy microbiome is versus a diseased microbiome in different contexts. These studies showed that there is tremendous individuality in the gut microbiome, making it hard to start drawing conclusions. Traditional populations' microbiomes are representative of the microbiome that we evolved with that potentially shaped our human genome.

    • Reprogramming the Microbiome for HealthProper conditions and exercise can help reprogram the microbiome towards a more stable and diverse state, improving health outcomes. A healthy diet with high fiber intake is crucial for maintaining microbiome diversity and preventing degradation over time.

      The human microbiome has undergone changes due to industrialization, antibiotics, and the Western diet, which has led to an increase in inflammatory and metabolic diseases. However, there is hope for reprogramming the microbiome through proper conditions and exercise, as microbiomes tend towards stable states that resist change. It is important to carefully consider restructuring the microbiome to achieve a new stable state that will resist the microbial community from reverting to the original state. A healthy diet with dietary fiber is crucial for maintaining microbiome diversity. Long-term exposure to low fiber, high-fat diets can lead to a progressive deterioration of the gut microbiome over generations, but recovery is possible if access to the lost microbes is available.

    • Building a healthy microbiota after antibiotic useMaintaining a healthy microbiota after taking antibiotics requires nourishing the right microbes with a proper diet and creating healthy microbial cocktails. The gut has regional differences that allow different microbiota to thrive, and the immune system plays a role in keeping microbes in their correct locations. Fermentation in the colon and pH levels contribute to microbiota diversity, and retention depends on the gradient from host surface to the middle of the gut.

      Maintaining a healthy microbiota after taking antibiotics is a combination of having access to the right microbes and nourishing those microbes with the proper diet. Companies are working on creating healthy microbial cocktails, which may help with establishing new stable states of the microbiota. The gut has regional differences in acidity, nutrients, and chemical environment that allow different microbiota to thrive in specific locations. The immune system plays a significant role in ensuring that microbes stay in their correct locations and aren't expelled from the body. Fermentation in the colon leads to a drop in pH, which also contributes to the diversity of the microbiota. The retention of the microbiota in the gut depends on the gradient from the host surface epithelium out to the middle of the gut.

    • The Importance of Gut Mucus and Fasting/CleansesThe gut's mucus lining keeps microbes in check, but some can still form communities in crevices. While fasting and cleanses lack conclusive data, they may help with metabolic syndrome and diet adherence, and a plant-based diet is generally healthy.

      The mucus lining in the gut plays a vital role in keeping microbes in the right spot and allowing nutrients and water to be absorbed. Some microbes can penetrate past the mucus and form communities in invaginations known as Crips. Fasting and cleanses have not been studied in-depth to conclude their impact on health but may have benefits in the context of metabolic syndrome and people battling with a bad diet. Adherence to diets can be easier when entire categories of food are eliminated, and a plant-based diet is well accepted as a healthy diet for most people.

    • The Simple Rule for Gut Health: High-Fiber Plant-Based DietMaintaining good gut health is simple with a high-fiber plant-based diet. Fasting and cleanses can harm the gut microbiota, while elimination diets may not address the root problem. Evidence-based methods and a healthy diet are important for gut health.

      A high-fiber plant-based diet is a simple and effective rule for maintaining good gut health. Other dietary rules are unnecessary if this rule is followed. Fasting and cleanses may have short-term benefits but can disturb the gut microbiota and cause inflammation. Instead, a gradual reconstitution of the microbiota by consuming a healthy diet is recommended. Elimination diets can be effective for identifying specific food sensitivities but may not address the root problem of the gut microbiota. Evidence-based methods are important for dealing with gut problems and should be used in conjunction with simple dietary rules for maintaining good gut health.

    • The Role of Diet and Microbiome in Our HealthA primarily plant-based diet with limited meat intake and consumption of microbiota-accessible complex carbs is recommended. Human genetic adaptation and gut microbiome adaptation play significant roles in choosing a diet that suits an individual. Different groups may benefit from different diets, and some gut microbiomes have adapted to cultural differences in diet.

      Consuming primarily plant-based diet with some meat, not too much, is recommended. Complex carbohydrates that are microbiota accessible are good for our health, while simple starches and table sugars are bad in high quantity. Human genetic adaptation to diet and gut microbiota adaptation to diet both play a significant role in deciding which diet is better for a particular group based on their genes and the microbiome. There are examples of humans adapting to specific diets in a short period of time, indicating that different groups may have different diets that are better for them. Some gut microbiomes have adapted to cultural differences in diet, like seaweed degradation.

    • The Importance of a Whole Plant-Based Diet for Optimal Microbiome HealthAvoid processed foods and consume a high-fiber, whole plant-based diet for optimal microbiome health. Learn from indigenous communities' insight into human biology, while respecting their research partnership and vulnerability. Human genetic and microbiome adaptations based on location and culture play a crucial role in metabolism.

      Consumption of processed foods is harmful for the microbiome and avoiding them is paramount. A high-fiber, whole plant-based diet is preferable, and plant consumption was a major part of hunter-gatherer diets. Indigenous communities provide important insight into human biology, but their research partnership and vulnerability must be respected. Human genetic adaptations and microbiome adaptations based on location and culture have contributed to the metabolism of porphyrin through specific gene transfer events. Southeast Asians who consume seaweed have gut microbes capable of metabolizing porphyrin, and the Hadza hunter-gatherers in Africa consume 7 to 10 times the fiber of the typical American diet.

    • The Impact of Plant-Based Dietary Fiber on Gut Health and Metabolism.Consuming whole plant-based dietary fiber can feed gut microbiota, produce short chain fatty acids, and protect against heart disease. Avoid processed foods with artificial sweeteners that negatively impact gut biology and opt for non-caloric plant-based sweeteners.

      Eating a whole plant-based dietary fiber can help feed gut microbiota and produce short chain fatty acids that play an essential role in regulating our metabolism, immune system, inflammation, and protecting against heart disease. Processed foods with artificial sweeteners, weird fats, and simple nutrients can have a negative impact on our gut biology and microbiota, leading to metabolic syndrome. The neurons in the gut can distinguish between artificial and true sweet sugar, and the brain circuitry seems to be strongly impacted. Further studies need to be done on non-caloric plant-based and low-caloric sweeteners. Therefore, it is better to consume more whole plant-based dietary fiber for tremendous health benefits.

    • Gradual Changes and Informed Choices for Long-Term Dietary SuccessPrioritize fiber and avoid processed foods, sugars, and emulsifiers in a gradual way. While artificial sweeteners should be avoided, moderation is key. Retrain the palate over time and make informed choices to avoid risky microbial disruptions.

      Gradual changes lead to long-term success in changing dietary habits. It's important to avoid processed foods, sugars, and emulsifiers, and prioritize fiber. Artificial sweeteners are best avoided, but moderation is key. Strict guidelines are not necessary, and everyone's microbiome is unique. The efficacy of fasting and cleansing on repopulating the gut microbiome is unclear, and more research is needed to inform best practices. Breaking ingrained behavior and addictions to sweet foods can be difficult, but retraining the palate is possible over time. Changes in diet should be done in an informed way, as wiping out the microbial community without proper knowledge can be risky.

    • The Future of Microbiome-Based Precision HealthUnderstanding the impact of lifestyle and dietary changes on the gut microbiome is crucial for improving human health. Nourishing the gut microbiome through a healthy diet and avoiding antibiotics can prevent inflammatory chronic diseases and maintain overall health.

      Dr. Sonnenburg discusses the potential of microbiome-based precision health in the future, where gut bacteria can be reprogrammed to improve human health. He emphasizes the importance of understanding how dietary interventions and lifestyle changes impact the microbiome, which has a significant impact on human biology. The gut microbiome is critical to modulating the immune system, and changing it can have a fundamental impact on the development of inflammatory chronic diseases. Therefore, nourishing the gut microbiome through a healthy diet and avoiding antibiotics is important to maintain overall health.

    • Using diet to reconfigure the human microbiome and reduce inflammation.By monitoring the immune system and studying the human microbiome, we can use diet to reduce inflammation and improve overall health. Simple instructions on increasing fiber and fermented foods can have a big impact.

      The industrialized world's microbiome may set our immune system at a set point and lead to inflammatory diseases. With the help of studying human microbiomes and immune systems, we may learn how to use diet to reconfigure the function and composition of our gut microbiome and reduce inflammation that causes diseases. Stanford's Human Immune Monitoring Center allows us to monitor hundreds to thousands of different parameters in the immune system, longitudinally in people from a blood draw, which is critical for human studies. The flagship study supported by philanthropy is focused on increasing plant-based fiber and fermented foods, which are known to be beneficial. Providing simple instructions on diet could have a tremendous impact on our microbiome and overall health.

    • The Benefits and Pitfalls of Consuming Fermented FoodsChoose naturally fermented foods with live microbes and avoid added sugar and artificial flavoring. Making your own sauerkraut or kombucha is easy and cost-effective. Look for naturally fermented beer to reap microbial benefits.

      Consuming fermented foods that contain live microbes have numerous benefits and are available in the refrigerated section. Canned fermented foods like sauerkrauts are not naturally fermented and lack live microbes. Avoid fermented foods with added sugar and artificial flavoring. It may take time to adjust to the sour taste of fermented foods because most manufacturers add sugar to mask it. Food with live microbes can be expensive; one can make their own sauerkraut or kombucha easily. Consuming naturally fermented beer may have beneficial properties to the microbial communities. However, most beer available in the market is canned and filtered, lacking live microbes.

    • Fermented Foods: Improving Immune Function and Reducing InflammationAdding fermented foods to your diet can lead to increased gut microbiota diversity, which can improve your immune system function and reduce inflammation in your body, providing significant health benefits. Experiment with different diets to see what works best for you.

      Consuming fermented foods can lead to increased gut microbiota diversity, which can improve immune system function and reduce inflammation in the body. Eating as much fermented food as possible, within recommended doses, is recommended. In a study, the group consuming high levels of fermented foods saw the most significant health benefits, including an increase in microbiota diversity and a reduction in inflammatory markers. While a high fiber diet was still beneficial, it did not produce the same level of biological signal as fermented foods. Personalized responses to the diet were observed, so it is recommended to try different diets to find what works best for each individual.

    • Gradual Consumption of Fermented Foods and Fiber for Gut HealthTake a ramp-up phase when consuming fermented foods or gut shots, and go at your own pace to avoid bloating and discomfort. Making homemade kombucha or sauerkraut is a cost-effective alternative. Studies require cross-over methods to maintain precise results when testing dietary interventions.

      Gradual ramping is important while consuming fermented foods and fiber to mitigate bloating and other kinds of digestive discomfort that can happen when your microbiome reconfigures and starts fermenting more. If something seems to be going wrong, level off, stay there, and take the ramp at your own pace. Gut shots, sold as a drink, can be very expensive, but making your own kombucha or homemade sauerkraut can provide the same benefits. It is important to do a ramp up phase instead of consuming a large serving of fermented foods or gut shots. A recent study has shown that dietary interventions like ketogenic versus Mediterranean diet need to be cross over studies to gain precise results. The study indicates that eating a certain way can have metabolic effects, and complete control over what the subjects eat should be maintained while conducting the study.

    • The Importance of a Fiber-Fermented Diet for Long-Term Health.Eating fiber-fermented foods improves bowel movements, boosts the immune system, and may improve energy, thinking, and sleep. A diverse microbiota is key to reaping the benefits of a fiber-rich diet.

      Maintaining a diet with fiber-fermented food is crucial for long-term health as it leads to better bowel movements and less constipation. Also, it improves the immune system response by decreasing inflammation. Individuals with a diverse microbiota respond more positively to a fiber-rich diet. Although the study did not show significant results in terms of cognition and mood, people who consume fermented foods or probiotics claim to have more energy, clearer thinking, and better sleep. This can be attributed to the positive effects of microbiota on inflammation, cognitive function, and skin health. The gut-brain access and its effects on human health is of increasing interest to researchers.

    • The Impact of a Depleted Microbiome on Our HealthA high fiber diet may not be enough if our gut microbiome is depleted. Re-introduction of fiber degrading microbes may be necessary. Exposure to diverse microbes from the environment can educate our immune system. Fermented foods can safely provide similar pathways. A diverse microbiome can impact our overall health through signaling molecules and direct recognition at the body level.

      Our microbiome may be so depleted that even if we eat a high fiber diet, we might not have the right gut microbes to degrade it. This loss of diversity in our gut microbiome can result from immigrants coming to the US, and may be irrecoverable without deliberate re-introduction of fiber degrading microbes. While hand washing is important, the proper balance of exposure to microbes from the environment is likely important for educating our immune system. Fermented foods may be a way to tap into those same pathways of environmental exposure to microbes safely. Signals from a diverse microbiome can thrive conveyed to the rest of the body through signaling molecules downstream making good or bad things happen, or direct recognition at the body level.

    • The Multifaceted Functions of the GutThe gut plays a crucial role in immune system education, inflammatory response, and even mental health. Maintaining a healthy gut microbiome may improve outcomes for psychiatric and developmental disorders.

      The gut plays an important role in our health, with the immune system monitoring the microbes and molecules in our gut. Specialized structures like Pyre pyres patches take up microbes in a controlled way and educate the immune cells about them. The cells that line the gut have specialized proteins that perceive the molecular patterns that microbes make, and they can stimulate an inflammatory response if perceived in the wrong place. The enteric nervous system sends signals to the brain, dictating motility and other interactions. Molecules produced by the microbiota can enter the bloodstream directly and bind to different receptors throughout our body, triggering signaling cascades. There is emerging evidence that improving the gut microbiome can improve outcomes in psychiatric and developmental disorders.

    • The Dangers of Probiotics for Mental Fog and the Risks of Unregulated SupplementsWhen buying probiotic supplements, caution is advised due to the largely unregulated market and the potential risks of mental fog. Look for well-known brands with validated quality, but experiment to find what works for you.

      The metabolites from gut microbes can accumulate in the bloodstream and lead to mental fog, especially in people with kidney diseases. Pill form probiotics can also cause brain fog, and many over-the-counter products don't match what's on the label. The probiotic supplement market is largely unregulated, so it's important to be cautious when buying these products. Companies can validate their product quality through independent sources, and well-known brands may be more reliable. However, the data on the impact of probiotics on gut microbiota is not overwhelmingly positive, and people should experiment to find what works for them.

    • The importance of diverse fiber and probiotic use for a healthy microbiota.Including a variety of plants and fiber in your diet, finding a specific probiotic for your medical condition, and avoiding processed foods, sugars, and emulsifiers can improve your gut health and prevent disease.

      Consuming a broad variety of plants and diverse fiber that comes with that is probably better in fostering diversity in your microbiota than purified fibers. Studies suggest that finding a specific probiotic that has successfully improved the specific medical condition and sticking with it is really the best starting point for probiotic usage. Fermented foods have fiber and thus, have a synergistic effect on increasing microbiota diversity when combined with high fiber diets. Rapidly fermentable fibers on top of a Western diet may cause weird metabolism and potentially hepatocellular carcinoma. Lastly, avoiding processed foods, highly palatable foods, hidden sugars and emulsifiers is recommended.

    • Improving Your Health with a Healthy Gut MicrobiomeUnderstanding how personal dietary changes affect gut microbiome can improve overall health and prevent diseases. The Good Gut book and Center for Human Microbiome Studies at Stanford offer accessible resources for those interested in making similar changes.

      Personal dietary changes can positively impact gut microbiome and prevent diseases. A lack of information in the field leads to uninformed individuals not making similar dietary changes. To make the field accessible, Dr. Justin Sonnenburg, along with Eric and his wife, wrote a book called the Good Gut. The book explains their personal journey, the science in the field, and lays a foundation for individuals interested in making similar changes. Additionally, interested individuals can participate in their studies through the Center for Human Microbiome Studies at Stanford or by visiting their lab website for more information.

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    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: The Science of Dreams, Nightmares & Lucid Dreaming

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: The Science of Dreams, Nightmares & Lucid Dreaming
    This is episode 6 of a 6-part special series on sleep with Dr. Matthew Walker, Ph.D., a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley and a leading public educator on sleep for mental and physical health, learning and human performance. In this episode, we discuss dreaming, including the biological mechanism of dreams, what dreams mean and their role in daytime life.  We explore how dreams can enhance our creativity and emotional well-being and help us resolve various challenges and dilemmas. We discuss how to remember and interpret your dreams and the abstractions/symbols frequently present in dreams. We also discuss nightmares and therapies to treat reoccurring nightmares. We explain what lucid dreaming is and if there are benefits or drawbacks to this type of dreaming. Dr. Walker also answers frequently asked audience questions and discusses snoring, body position, sleep supplements, sleep challenges due to aging, menopause, stopping racing thoughts, and how to fall back asleep if you wake in the middle of the night.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman WHOOP: https://www.join.whoop.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps 00:00:00 Dreaming 00:01:13 Sponsors: BetterHelp, LMNT & Helix Sleep 00:05:06 Dreams & REM Sleep 00:12:20 Evolution of REM Sleep, Humans 00:17:13 REM Sleep & PGO Waves; Dreams & Brain Activity 00:24:26 Dreams, Images & Brain Activity; Sleepwalking & Sleep Talking 00:30:51 Sponsor: AG1 00:32:04 Dream Benefits, Creativity & Emotional Regulation; Challenge Resolution 00:41:27 Daily Experience vs. Dreaming, Emotions 00:45:08 Dream Interpretation & Freud, Dream Relevance 00:52:59 Abstractions, Symbols, Experience & Dreams; “Fuzzy Logic” 01:00:28 Sponsor: Whoop 01:01:36 Nightmares; Recurring Nightmares & Therapy 01:11:08 Targeted Memory Reactivation, Sounds & Nightmares 01:15:38 Odor, Paired Associations, Learning & Sleep 01:18:53 Fear Extinction, Memory & Sleep; Tool: Remembering Dreams 01:25:38 Lucid Dreaming, REM Sleep, Paralysis 01:32:33 Lucid Dreaming: Benefits? Unrestorative Sleep? 01:44:07 Improve Lucid Dreaming 01:49:30 Tool: Negative Rumination & Falling Asleep 01:53:41 Tools: Body Position, Snoring & Sleep Apnea; Mid-Night Waking & Alarm Clock 01:58:43 Sleep Banking?; Tool: Falling Back Asleep, Rest 02:05:53 Tool: Older Adults & Early Waking; Sleep Medications 02:11:25 Tool: Menopause & Sleep Disruption, Hot Flashes 02:15:06 Remembering Dreams & Impacts Sleep Quality? 02:18:32 Tool: Sleep Supplements 02:26:48 Tool: Most Important Tip for Sleep 02:30:56 Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    Dr. Casey Means: Transform Your Health by Improving Metabolism, Hormone & Blood Sugar Regulation

    Dr. Casey Means: Transform Your Health by Improving Metabolism, Hormone & Blood Sugar Regulation
    In this episode, my guest is Dr. Casey Means, M.D., a physician trained at Stanford University School of Medicine, an expert on metabolic health and the author of the book, "Good Energy." We discuss how to leverage nutrition, exercise and environmental factors to enhance your metabolic health by improving mitochondrial function, hormone and blood sugar regulation.  We also explore how fasting, deliberate cold exposure and spending time in nature can impact metabolic health, how to control food cravings and how to assess your metabolic health using blood testing, continuous glucose monitors and other tools.  Metabolic dysfunction is a leading cause of chronic disease, obesity and reduced lifespan around the world. Conversely, improving your mitochondrial and metabolic health can positively affect your health span and longevity. Listeners of this episode will learn low- and zero-cost tools to improve their metabolic health, physical and mental well-being, body composition and target the root cause of various common diseases. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Maui Nui Venison: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman  Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman  AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman  InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps 00:00:00 Dr. Casey Means 00:02:18 Sponsors: Maui Nui, Eight Sleep & AeroPress 00:06:32 Metabolism, Metabolic Dysfunction, Medicinal Blindspot 00:14:17 Trifecta of Bad Energy 00:24:02 Western Living, United States, Specialization & Medicine 00:27:57 Insulin Resistance, Tool: Mitochondrial Capacity & Exercise 00:33:33 Sponsor: AG1 00:35:03 Tools: Walking & Glucose; Frequent Movement 00:44:25 Tools: Exercises to Improve Mitochondrial Capacity; Desk Treadmill 00:51:18 Soleus Push-Ups & Fidgeting, Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT) 00:57:14 Sponsor: InsideTracker 00:58:21 Tool: Blood Test Biomarkers, Vital Signs & Mitochondrial Function 01:11:16 Navigate Medical System & Blood Tests, Consumer Lab Testing 01:16:46 Tool: Environmental Factors; Food, Life as a Process 01:21:58 Tool: Ultra-Processed vs. Real Food, Obesity, Soil & Micronutrients 01:32:03 Ultra-Processed Foods: Brain & Cellular Confusion 01:39:10 Tools: Control Cravings, GLP-1 Production, Microbiome Support 01:51:42 Ozempic, GLP-1 Analogs; Root Cause & Medicine 02:00:54 Tool: Deliberate Cold & Heat Exposure, Brown Fat 02:07:27 Tool: Intermittent Fasting & Metabolic Flexibility; Insulin Sensitivity 02:17:03 Tool: Continuous Glucose Monitors (CGMs) & Awareness, Glucose Spikes 02:24:34 Tool: CGMs, Glycemic Variability, Dawn Effect, Individuality 02:33:10 Sleep; Continuous Monitoring & Biomarkers 02:37:39 Mindset & Safety, Stress & Cell Danger Response 02:44:04 Tool: Being in Nature, Sunlight, Fear 02:54:44 Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Improve Sleep to Boost Mood & Emotional Regulation

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Improve Sleep to Boost Mood & Emotional Regulation
    This is episode 5 of our 6-part special series on sleep with Dr. Matthew Walker, Ph.D., a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley and the host of The Matt Walker Podcast. In this episode, we explain the connection between sleep and mood, emotional regulation and mental well-being.  We explain the role of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in processing emotions and emotional memories and why sleep deprivation causes agitation, impulsivity and emotional reactivity.  We also discuss why sleep disruption is a hallmark feature of PTSD, anxiety, depression, suicidality, and other psychiatric conditions.  We explain protocols for improving REM sleep and other sleep phases in order to harness the therapeutic power of quality sleep to feel calmer and emotionally restored. This episode describes various actionable tools to improve sleep for those struggling with mental health or mood and those wanting to bolster their overall state and well-being.  The next episode in this special series explores dreams, including lucid dreaming, nightmares and dream interpretation. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Sleep & Mental Health (00:01:09) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, LMNT & BetterHelp (00:05:14) Emotions & Sleep, Amygdala (00:17:27) Emotional Memory & Sleep (00:25:48) “Overnight Therapy” & REM Sleep, Noradrenaline (00:29:13) Sponsor: AG1 (00:30:27) Sleep to “Remember & Forget”, Trauma; REM Sleep (00:38:27) Hinge Analogy; Motivation, Impulsivity & Addiction (00:47:08) Tool: Improve REM Sleep, Social Jet Lag, Alcohol & THC, Addiction (00:56:18) Sponsor: InsideTracker (00:57:23) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) & REM Sleep (01:06:53) Noradrenaline & REM Sleep, PTSD & Prazosin (01:09:40) Addiction, Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR); Liminal States (01:16:46) Anxiety & Sleep, Mood vs. Emotions (01:23:50) Deep Non-REM Sleep & Anxiety, Sleep Quality (01:28:51) Tool: Improve Deep Non-REM Sleep, Temperature; Alcohol (01:34:56) Suicidality & Sleep, Pattern Recognition; Nightmares (01:46:21) Depression, Anxiety & Time Context (01:51:24) Depression, Too Much Sleep?; REM Changes & Antidepressants (01:57:37) Sleep Deprivation & Depression (02:01:34) Tool: Circadian Misalignment & Mental Health, Chronotype (02:04:05) Tools: Daytime Light & Nighttime Darkness; “Junk Light” (02:13:04) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    AMA #17: Making Time for Fitness, Top Sleep Tools & Best Learning Strategies

    AMA #17: Making Time for Fitness, Top Sleep Tools & Best Learning Strategies
    Welcome to a preview of the 17th Ask Me Anything (AMA) episode, part of Huberman Lab Premium. Huberman Lab Premium was launched for two main reasons. First, it was launched in order to raise support for the main Huberman Lab podcast — which will continue to come out every Monday at zero-cost. Second, it was launched as a means to raise funds for important scientific research. A significant portion of proceeds from the Huberman Lab Premium subscription will fund human research (not animal models) selected by Dr. Huberman, with a dollar-for-dollar match from the Tiny Foundation. Read our Annual Letter 2023. If you're an existing Premium member, you can login to access the full episode. If you're not a member, you can join Huberman Lab Premium to enjoy exclusive content, including monthly Ask Me Anything (AMA) episodes, AMA transcripts, podcast episode transcripts, early access to live events and help advance human scientific research. Resources Foundational Fitness Protocol Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction to AMA #17 (00:00:14) Exciting Announcement (00:02:16) Diving Into the Foundational Fitness Protocol (00:09:37) Flexibility in Your Fitness Routine (00:17:12) Optimizing Workout Times & Prioritizing Health (00:23:31) Closing Thoughts & Huberman Lab Premium Benefits In the full AMA episode, we discuss: Periodization & the Philosophy of Fitness Unlocking the Secrets of Sleep: Insights & Tools Chronotypes and Personalized Sleep Strategies The QQRT Formula: Quantity, Quality, Regularity & Timing of Sleep Exploring Naps & Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) Effective Learning & Note-Taking Strategies The Power of Teaching & Self-Testing in Learning Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer

    Protocols to Strengthen & Pain Proof Your Back

    Protocols to Strengthen & Pain Proof Your Back
    In this episode, I explain how to strengthen and build a stable, pain-free back and how to reduce or eliminate existing back pain. I explain the anatomy and physiology of the spinal cord and vertebrae, intervertebral disks and nerve pathways, and the abdominal and back muscles that together can be leveraged to stabilize the back.  Then, I describe protocols: “McGill’s Big 3” exercises, a highly effective psoas stretch, abdominal stabilization, breathing techniques, and protocols to reinforce essential supports for the back, including the neck, pelvis, feet, and toes.  I also explain how you can reduce and potentially eliminate back pain and sciatica using a specific type of bar hang, “cobra push-ups,” medial-glute strengthening exercises, and more.  Back pain greatly impedes one’s ability to enjoy daily activities; this episode provides zero-cost, minimal time-investment protocols to improve your back strength and stability and allow you to move through life pain-free and with ease and mobility.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman Joovv: https://joovv.com/huberman Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman Plunge: https://plunge.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Back Health (00:03:47) Sponsors: AeroPress, Joovv & Waking Up (00:07:57) Back Anatomy: Spine, Vertebrae, Spinal Cord (00:12:07) Spinal Cord & Nerves; Herniated Discs (00:19:50) Build Strong Pain-Free Back; Bulging Discs (00:24:26) Back Pain & Professional Evaluation; Tool: Spine Self-Assessment  (00:34:58) Sponsor: AG1 (00:36:29) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Curl-Up (00:44:40) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Side Plank (00:53:13) Tool: McGill Big 3 Exercises, Bird Dog; Back Pain (01:04:10) Sponsor: Plunge (01:05:37) Tool: Back Pain & Oreo Analogy, Bar Hang (01:10:34) Time & Back Pain; Tool: Reversing Disc Herniation, Cobra Push-Ups  (01:21:28) Sciatica, Referred Pain, Herniated Disc (01:24:21) Tool: Improve Spine Stability, Strengthen Neck (01:29:23) Tools: Strengthen Feet, Toe Spreading (01:34:35) Tools: Belly Breathing; Stagger Stance (01:42:03) Tools: Relieve Low Back Pain, Medial Glute Activation; Rolled Towel (01:50:59) Tool: Psoas Stretching (01:57:00) Tool: Back Awareness; Strengthen & Pain-Proof Back (02:05:49) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Using Sleep to Improve Learning, Creativity & Memory

    GUEST SERIES | Dr. Matt Walker: Using Sleep to Improve Learning, Creativity & Memory
    This is episode 4 of a 6-part special series on sleep with Dr. Matthew Walker, Ph.D., a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, and author of the best-selling book "Why We Sleep." In this episode, we discuss the relationship between sleep, learning and creativity.  We explain why and how sleep before and after a learning bout can improve memory and performance for both cognitive tasks and physical skills. We also discuss how to use time learning and sleep, how to use naps, non-sleep deep rest states, and caffeine to optimize learning, and the mechanisms for sleep and memory consolidation.  We also explain the critical role that sleep plays in creativity and one's ability to discover novel solutions to challenges and problems.  This episode is filled with actionable information on using sleep to enhance skill learning and improve memory and creativity.  The next episode in this guest series explains how sleep benefits emotional regulation and mental health.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman  WHOOP: https://join.whoop.com/huberman  Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman  InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Sleep & Learning (00:00:59) Sponsors: Helix Sleep, Whoop & Waking Up (00:05:48) Learning, Memory & Sleep (00:09:32) Memory & Sleep, “All-Nighters”, Hippocampus (00:13:46) Naps & Learning Capacity (00:16:59) Early School Start Times, Performance & Accidents (00:26:38) Medical Residency & Sleep Deprivation (00:29:35) Sponsor: AG1 (00:30:49) Tool: Sleep Before Learning; Cramming Effect (00:35:09) Tools: Caffeine; Timing Peak Learning; “Second Wind” (00:44:25) Memory Consolidation in Sleep (00:55:07) Sleepwalking & Talking; REM-Sleep Behavioral Disorder (01:00:16) REM Sleep Paralysis, Alcohol, Stress (01:07:41) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:08:46) Skills, Motor Learning & Sleep (01:17:03) Tool: Timing Sleep & Learning, Skill Enhancement (01:20:00) Naps; Specificity & Memory Consolidation, Sleep Spindles (01:27:21) Sleep, Motor Learning & Athletes; Automaticity (01:34:10) Can Learning Improve Sleep? (01:39:13) Tool: Exercise to Improve Sleep; Performance, Injury & Motivation (01:44:38) Pillars of Health; Dieting & Sleep Deprivation (01:49:35) Performance & Poor Sleep, Belief Effects, “Orthosomnia” (01:57:03) “Overnight Alchemy”, Sleep & Novel Memory Linking (02:05:58) Sleep & Creativity (02:11:09) Tools: Waking & Technology; Naps; “Sleep on a Problem” (02:20:51) Creative Insight & Sleep (02:26:18) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer