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    #317 – John Vervaeke: Meaning Crisis, Atheism, Religion & the Search for Wisdom

    The act of asking questions is a reaching towards understanding our place in the universe.

    enSeptember 04, 2022

    About this Episode

    John Vervaeke is a psychologist and cognitive scientist at University of Toronto. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Mizzen+Main: https://mizzenandmain.com and use code LEX to get $35 off - InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/lex to get 20% off - Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - Athletic Greens: https://athleticgreens.com/lex to get 1 month of fish oil - Onnit: https://lexfridman.com/onnit to get up to 10% off EPISODE LINKS: John's YouTube: https://youtube.com/johnvervaeke John's Twitter: https://twitter.com/vervaeke_john John's Facebook: https://facebook.com/VervaekeJohn John's Website: https://johnvervaeke.com Books mentioned: Flow: https://amzn.to/3cQDby9 On Bullshit: https://amzn.to/3PZDvYW The Denial of Death: https://amzn.to/3KsIctp PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:03) - Meaning (27:17) - Consciousness (36:17) - Relevance realization (47:40) - Wisdom (54:54) - Truth (59:38) - Reality (1:11:59) - Meaning crisis (1:35:27) - Religion (1:43:17) - Nontheism (1:58:26) - Distributed cognition (2:16:37) - Flow (2:36:35) - Psychedelics (2:45:03) - Marxism and Nazism (2:57:08) - Evil (3:01:19) - Powerful ideas (3:08:10) - Advice for young people

    🔑 Key Takeaways

    • Finding meaning in life can be achieved by connecting to something that has an existence independent of ourselves, such as having a child, to counter the suffering caused by the meaning crisis.
    • Appreciate the moments we have and strive to live in balance, neither trying to escape the fact of death nor longing to live forever.
    • Recognize our mortality and strive to make the most of our lives by being mindful of our desires and seeking peace of mind.
    • While complex organisms can be intelligent, they cannot be attributed with consciousness yet.
    • Framing our attention towards the salient aspects of our environment is an important part of achieving wisdom and self-transcending rationality.
    • Natural selection is an essential process for understanding the relevance of objects and ideas and allowing us to interact with them optimally.
    • Understanding the relevance of a situation and avoiding self-deception is a key part of being wise.
    • Question your beliefs and use moments of insight and self-transcendence to gain a better understanding of reality to pursue truth.
    • Partial knowledge is real knowledge, and it is the way to reconcile the paradox of reality being an illusion and having the ability to know reality.
    • Leveraging the power of science and technology can help us understand our cognition and reveal the illusions of our existence.
    • The act of asking questions is a reaching towards understanding our place in the universe.
    • Taking time to reflect on the big picture can help us to find relevance and meaning in our daily life experiences.
    • We need to incorporate practices from religions and secularism into our scientific and technological worldviews to combat modern-day self-deception and foster true connectedness.
    • Participating in the process of knowing is itself a form of knowing, creating an identity and a sense of belonging.
    • By combining the best of cognitive science and philosophical and religious traditions, we can create an ecology of psycho technologies to help us develop our cognitive capabilities and live meaningful lives.
    • By embracing collective ideas and practices such as movement and play, we can find a deeper understanding of meaning and truth without subscribing to religious beliefs.
    • Experiencing sacredness is a personal journey of meaning and discovery.
    • Finding meaning in life is an individual journey that should be respected.
    • Dialogue and discussion can help us gain insights, understanding, and knowledge, and can even lead to a flow state, connecting us to ourselves, others, and the world.
    • Breaking down boundaries between the private and the public, as well as between writing and oral speech, is essential to unlocking collective wisdom through conversations and entering a flow state.
    • Mindful practices can help us become more aware of our frames, enabling us to recognize when an inappropriate frame is used and how to create a new one.
    • To cultivate wisdom, we must learn to befriend our mind with a gentle attitude and practice meditation and contemplation.
    • Challenging ourselves with tasks that require us to push our skills can lead to a heightened state of performance and new possibilities through flow state.
    • Creating an environment of flow with clear information, coupled with respect for error can help us to identify meaningful causal patterns and foster meaningful lives.
    • We must be aware of the consequences of social media and be willing to challenge our own beliefs in order to make positive changes in our lives.
    • Exploring states of consciousness can help us break out of overfitting and lead to balance and flexibility in our interactions with others, but should be done with a sacred framework of self-transcendence, meaning, and wisdom.
    • Transformative experiences can lead to increased openness, improved relationships, and reduced anxiety and depression.
    • The utopian promise of Marxism is attractive, but its Promethian spirit of believing humans can become like gods is dangerous and has led to many atrocities.
    • We should take the time to consider our commitments and how we are expressing love in order to avoid disconnecting ourselves from reality.
    • To make the best decisions in life, we must think deeply and consider our ultimate concern.
    • Find an ecology of practices and a community that supports you and prioritize wisdom and virtue in yourself and your relationships.
    • Love is the key to help us move away from our egocentric perspectives and understand what is real.

    📝 Podcast Summary

    Connecting to Life's Meaning Through Connections

    We all search for meaning in life, as it provides us with a sense of connectedness, to ourselves, others and the world.This connectedness makes our lives worth living, even through the suffering that we endure.Having a child is one way of achieving this meaning, as it connects us to something that has an existence independent of ourselves.This is why when meaning is lacking, people tend to suffer from depression, mental illness and addiction.This is known as the meaning crisis, which is an intersection of the perennial problems of life, and the historical forces that make it more difficult for people to deal with.Ultimately, our mortality is the ultimate problematic aspect of the human condition.We can however, find meaning through connecting to things that have a value and existence independent of ourselves.

    Embracing Life's Unexpected Events in the Face of Death

    Life is full of unexpected events and we are all subject to the whims of the universe, which doesn't care about our plans.We experience little deaths when our projects and plans come up against the indifference of nature.It's important to remember that death isn't just a far-off event, but something that is always with us.Fear of death is natural and can be a motivator, but it is also important to appreciate the moments we have and to live in balance, neither trying to escape the fact that the ride ends nor longing to live forever.

    Embrace Life, Cherish Every Moment, and Live Mindfully

    Life is finite and precious, and we should cherish every moment.The Stoics recommended not worrying about extending the duration of our lives, but to make the moments we do have as satisfying and meaningful as possible.This way, when death comes, it will not feel like a calamity.As we age, we start to live towards our death, rather than from our birth.It is important to recognize our mortality and to make the most of our lives - to be mindful of our desires and to strive for peace of mind.When our life ends, so too will our mind and consciousness, but that doesn't take away from the beauty and value of that life.We are all connected, and together we form a collective intelligence that is more than the sum of its parts.Let us strive to make the most of our time here on Earth.

    Unlocking the Mystery of Consciousness

    Bacteria are complex organisms with the capability of making decisions, but they cannot be attributed with consciousness.Consciousness is something that can be attributed to us humans, since we possess the ability to introspect and be self-aware.It is possible that collective intelligence could create a form of consciousness if we were to link our brains and create a certain density, speed and bandwidth.Philosophers agree that this is possible, but it is not yet achievable.To understand consciousness we must consider what it is and what it does, as they are interlinked.We can learn from this that while complex organisms can be intelligent, they can not yet be attributed with consciousness.

    Jumping from Rationality to Rationality for Optimal Coordination

    We all have a certain level of intelligence which helps us interact with the environment and solve problems.This same intelligence can also be a source of self-deception and self-destructive behavior.To have wisdom is to have the ability to optimally coordinate multiple rationalities, so as to overcome the problems of self-deception.Wisdom is a kind of self-transcending rationality which is achieved by a process of jumping from rationality to rationality.Framing is an important part of this process and involves shaping our attention to the salient aspects of the environment.In this way, we are able to recognize and interact with the world in an intelligent and meaningful way.

    Unveiling The Relevance Realization Through Natural Selection

    Relevance realization is the process of understanding how something matters to us and how we interact with it.We use natural selection to choose which ideas are relevant to us.This is done through our sensory-motor loop, autonomic nervous system and attention networks.They constantly evolve, allowing us to get the optimal grip on the world and make sense of why something matters.For example, when we see an object, our categorization of it is an optimal grip because it is balanced between similarity within our category and difference between others.This allows us to properly interact with and understand the object.

    Realizing Relevance to Master Bullshitting and Become Wise

    Understanding wisdom and avoiding foolishness is a key part of being wise.Relevance realization is an important part of understanding this, as it passes through a higher filter of working memory and can be globally accessible.When a person is faced with a novel or complex situation, they need to engage their working memory and zero in on what is relevant.This can help them shape themselves and intervene appropriately.Self-deception is different from lying as it does not depend on one's commitment to the truth, but rather is the result of the person trying to make something salient to themselves in order to modify their behaviour.This is known as ‘bullshitting’ and is an important skill to master in order to become wise.

    Unlocking the Power of Insight to Pursue Truth

    We are all capable of understanding truth, but our outlook can be clouded by misleading information.When we look at something that appears to be true, it's important to take a step back and ask ourselves if it is really true or not.It's easy to be drawn in by the power of salience, but we must have the courage to question and examine our beliefs.We can never get to an absolute, objective truth, but moments of insight and self-transcendence can help us gain a better understanding of reality.We can never be completely sure if something is true or false, but the pursuit of truth is still worthwhile.

    Reconciling the Paradox of Illusionary Reality

    Our understanding of reality is based on our experience, our reason and our knowledge.Donald Hoffman believes that reality is an illusion, but others argue that our knowledge of reality must be partial, because only with partial knowledge can we recognize it when we find it.Evolution and cognition are two aspects of reality that seem to contradict this idea.Evolution is a process by which complex organisms arise from simple ones, and cognition is the transfer of information from one generation to the next.However, evolution and cognition are also intertwined, as understanding evolution depends on knowledge of Darwinian theory, genetics and plate tectonics.Thus, partial knowledge is real knowledge, and this is the way to reconcile the paradox of reality being an illusion and having the ability to know reality.

    Unraveling the Illusions of Cognition with Evolution and Artificial Intelligence

    Our cognition is an illusion, and this one of the main theories of science that's evolution is part of the solution to understanding it.We can use science, like evolution, to explore our cognition and understand how it works.We can also use Artificial Intelligence to explore the same and make it more dynamic and self-correcting.All of this helps us discover how much of this existence could be an illusion and make our lives more meaningful.

    Exploring the Binding Relationship Between Subjective and Objective

    Trying to understand the meaning of life is like trying to grasp a cup.It is not in the cup itself or in ourselves, but a binding relationship between the subjective and the objective.We can never fully understand the relevance of the big bang to the feeling of love, but the act of asking the question is in itself a reaching for it.Meaning of life is an attempt to understand our place in the universe, through the relationships between us and the things around us.

    Uncover the Magic and Joys of Life Through Reflection

    Sometimes, it is easy to get caught up in day-to-day mundane tasks and forget about the big picture.Asking the question of "What is the meaning of life?" can be a powerful reminder to pause and reflect on the joys, beauty, and magic that life has to offer.It can help us to be mindful of how our lives are connected to something much larger.By contemplating the bigger picture, we can find relevance and meaning in our daily life experiences.

    Reclaiming Our Wisdom and Finding Connectedness

    The search for wisdom is a timeless pursuit, but in modern times we are facing a wisdom famine.We have adapted to be intelligent, but this has left us open to self-deception and destruction.To combat this, our ancestors created ecologies of practices to help ameliorate self-deception and foster connectedness.These practices are found in religions, but also in secularism.We need to find ways to incorporate these practices into our scientific and technological worldviews, to make them legitimate.Without them, we are left with a sense of anxiety, despair, and absurdity.It is time to reclaim our wisdom and find true connectedness.

    Exploring the Multiple Ways of Knowing and Criteria for Realness

    John has put forward the idea that there are multiple ways of knowing, such as propositional, procedural, perspectival, participatory and more.Each way of knowing is stored in a different type of memory, such as semantic, procedural or episodic memory.Furthermore, there are different criteria for realness for each type of knowing—verisimilitude is not always necessary.Finally, participating in the process of knowing is itself a form of knowing.This can be seen in the example of walking, where the relationship between the agent and arena creates an identity and a sense of belonging.

    Unlocking Wisdom Through Cognitive Science and Philosophy

    Religion has been a powerful tool to help humans to shape their cognitive capabilities and create meaningful lives.It has provided us with meaningful rituals and non-propositional practices which have enabled us to connect with the world in a meaningful way.But then, Nietzsche's nihilistic philosophy caused a disruption and we were no longer able to rely on religion for our existential needs.We now need to look for alternative methods to develop our cognitive capabilities and create meaningful lives.We can use the best of cognitive science and borrow from the best of philosophical and religious traditions to create an ecology of psycho technologies which will provide us with the functionality we need to be wise and live meaningful lives.

    Unraveling the Meaning of Life Beyond Religion

    Buddhism offers a unique perspective on how to find meaning in life without subscribing to established religious beliefs.Stoicism, for example, emerged during a time of great uncertainty and disruption in the ancient world, when people were displaced and surrounded by unfamiliar customs and beliefs.It provided a way to make sense of the world without relying on religious dogma.Today, we are still faced with a meaning crisis, but instead of relying on religion, we are creating communities and institutions that are based on collective ideas, which are sources of meaning.Practices such as movement and play can be integrated into our lives to make us more connected to ourselves and the world around us.By rejecting the shared presuppositions of theism and atheism, we can come to a new understanding of meaning and truth.

    Finding Sacredness in Mundane Moments

    Non-theistic religious traditions reject the idea that sacredness is found in a personal being, as theists and atheists often presuppose.Instead, sacredness is found in meaning which is created and discovered through personal experience and experimentation.This idea of "participating in meaning" is a concept that is difficult to understand, but can be appreciated by recognizing the beauty found in mundane moments.This is an example of how non-theists approach sacredness differently than theists and atheists.

    Exploring Unique Paths to Meaningful Fulfillment

    The search for meaning can often be found in the everyday world around us.Whether it's through meditation and sensory experiences, or through religious beliefs, we can find a source of deep fulfillment.Different people have different ways of finding meaning, and it's important to be open to exploring these different paths.Myths can be seen as stories that help us understand patterns in life and bring awareness to our lives.They can be read at different levels, from literal to allegorical, symbolical and spiritual.Ultimately, each person's journey of finding meaning is unique and should be respected.

    Unlocking the Power of Dialogue and Discussion

    Dialogue and discussion is an important part of understanding our lives and the world around us.Through conversations, we can gain insights and understanding that can take us in directions we never thought of.Even if we don’t agree with someone, it doesn’t mean our insights are invalid.We can also tap into a flow state, connecting us to ourselves, others, and the world.This form of distributed cognition is a powerful way to gain understanding and knowledge.Taking inspiration from Socrates and Plato, dialogue can be an important part of learning and growing.

    Unlocking Collective Wisdom Through Conversations and Flow State

    In order to cultivate collective wisdom, it is important to engage in collective intelligence and distributed cognition.This can be done through conversations or dialogues that can be in the form of audio, like podcasts and audio books.These conversations can be made even more immersive and engaging by entering a flow state with the speaker.This flow state makes the dialogue even more meaningful and can result in collective wisdom.To achieve this, it is important to break down boundaries between the private and the public and between writing and oral speech.Furthermore, an ecology of mindfulness practices is necessary as it creates a system of checks and balances.

    Unlocking Self-Awareness and Self-Regulation Through Mindful Practices

    Mindfulness is an important practice that helps to improve our insight and self-regulation.To practice mindfulness, one should take part in meditative practices, contemplative practices, and mindful moving practices.Meditative practice, such as the practice of focusing on one's sensations rather than the world, can help to improve mindfulness.Contemplative practice is about stepping back from looking through one's frame and looking at it.Mindful moving practices, such as those conducive to the flow state, can help to complete the cycle by providing a balance between meditation and contemplation.With the right practices, we can become more aware of our frames, making it easier to recognize when an inappropriate frame is used and how to make a new frame.

    Befriending the Mind and Cultivating Wisdom Through Flow

    The mind is like a monkey, jumping from branch to branch and chattering.If we try to control it with anger, it will fight us.Instead, we must befriend it with a gentle attitude and practice meditation and contemplation, such as the Metta practice, a Neoplatonic contemplation, or the Stoic view from above.By imagining ourselves in a wider and wider context, our sense of self and what is important to us will change.These practices are available on John Vervaeke's YouTube channel, as well as his daily course "Meditating with John Vervaeke".Through understanding and confronting the concept of flow, we can learn to flow wisely and cultivate our wisdom.

    Unlocking Optimal Performance Through Flow State

    Flow state is an optimal experience for people when the demand of the situation is slightly beyond their skills.It is a state of grace, with a sense of at-one-ment with the environment, and a loss of self-consciousness.It is characterized by tightly coupled feedback between the environment and the person's actions, and failure matters.Flow state can be induced by insight and implicit learning processes, which allows us to track complex variables without having to think about them consciously.When we challenge ourselves with tasks that require us to push our skills, it can lead to a state of optimal experience.We experience a sense of grace, connection to the environment and a loss of self-consciousness.This state is characterized by tight coupling between our actions and the environment, and failure should be taken into account.Flow state can be induced by insight and implicit learning processes that allow us to track complex variables without conscious thought.Through this, we can experience a heightened state of performance and discover new possibilities.

    Unlocking Intuition Through Flow and Respect for Error

    Implicit learning is an incredibly powerful tool for picking up on complex patterns and intuitions in our environment.However, it tends to pick up both causal and correlational patterns, and so we need to be careful that our intuitions are in line with reality.We can do this by creating an environment that is conducive to flow, with clear information, tightly coupled feedback, and a respect for error.This is how we can ensure that our intuitions are based on real causal patterns and will lead to meaningful lives.

    Understanding the Consequences of Social Media and Challenging Our Own Beliefs

    Educational learnings from the section can be summed up in the following way - it is important to challenge our own beliefs and not to take anything at face value.There is a possibility of failure when trying to transfer from one activity to another, such as from playing video games to engaging in physical activities.There is evidence to suggest that increased use of social media is linked to depression, self-destructive behavior and other negative outcomes.However, it is important to look for the underlying causes and to identify the mechanisms at play.Finally, learning how to laugh at ourselves and recognize the artificial nature of social media can be beneficial in terms of its effect on our psyche.

    Exploring States of Consciousness with Psychedelics and Mindful Practices

    Tai Chi and other mindful practices can lead to balance and flexibility in our interactions with others.Psychedelics and neural networks can both be used to break out of overfitting and explore new states.However, this exploration can lead to risks if done without a sacred framework of self-transcendence, meaning, and wisdom.Psychedelics are part of a continuum of states, from insight to flow to mind-revealing experiences.All of these states can be explored to further our consciousness.

    Unlocking the Power of Transformative Experiences

    The power of transformative experiences can be seen through the example of a lab that gave people psilocybin.While only a certain proportion of people had a mystical experience, the results were significant and lasting.People had increased openness and had their personality traits become more malleable.Such experiences can be helpful, but it is just as important to ensure that one has the tools to discern and integrate the new learnings into everyday life.This is what is known as a transformative experience that has been shown to improve relationships, self-perception, anxiety and depression.It is a powerful reminder of how our actions can lead to a better future.

    The Utopian Promise of Marxism and the Dangers of Promethianism

    Marxism offers people something that could only be found in religion; the hope of creating a new world and new human beings.The scientific legitimacy of this promise was intoxicating and the notion of ending suffering and creating a utopian society appealed to many.However, the Promethian spirit of believing humans could become like gods, with the power to do anything, was dangerous.Human nature and history are too complex and unknowable for this to work and this is shown in the atrocities committed by Stalin, Pol Pot and the Kimra Rouge.Nazi-ism is also an example of this spirit gone wrong, as it too promised an utopia but twisted Gnostic themes to do so.

    Acquiring Meaning Through Nazi-ism: A Deeper Look

    Nazi-ism was a political movement and religion at the same time.It was a kind of Gnosticism and it was seen as a way to fill a meaning crisis.Hitler was a very charismatic leader and became symbolic to the people.Nazis believed in a master race and had rituals and symbols.Sin is a failure to love wisely and can be a way of disconnecting oneself from reality.We should all consider our commitments and whether we are loving wisely.

    Uncovering The Power of Ultimate Concerns

    We all have to make difficult decisions in life and consider if there is a greater good that can be done.Philosophers throughout history have proposed deep ideas about understanding faith as an ultimate concern, rather than a set of propositions.These ideas can be found in the works of Heidegger, Corbin, Carl Young, and Barfield.One powerful concept is Heidegger's critique of the attempt to understand being in terms of a Supreme being, and how that disconnects us from reality.Freud and Young have differing models of the psyche, and their theories of the subconscious mind are also different.Ultimately, therapy is about making the unconscious conscious.We must think deeply and consider our ultimate concern, so that we can make the best decisions in life.

    Unveiling the Complex Motivations of Human Nature and Prioritizing Wisdom and Virtue

    Young's mythos is about bringing consciousness to unconsciousness and entering into proper dialogical relationship with the self-organizing system of the unconscious mind.The motivations of humans are complex, involving sex and power according to Plato, Freud and Nietzsche.John Vervaeke's advice to young people is to find an ecology of practices and a community that supports them without contravening science, and to prioritize wisdom and virtue in themselves and their relationships.He suggests avoiding glorification of people or ideas, and finding trustworthy people who are trying to create real deal logos flow and collective intelligence.Finally, he stresses the importance of self-correcting vetting systems.

    Finding Meaning and Love through Egocentrism

    John struggled with finding meaning and understanding how to love wisely.He tried meditation, Tai Chi, and philosophy, but still felt lost.He felt isolated and anxious.He shared his story with his students and saw that they had similar experiences.Through conversation and research, he realized that many people struggle with meaning and love in their own ways.Ultimately, John learned that love is key to bring reason out of egocentrism and to really see what is real.John was able to take his struggles and use them to help and encourage others.

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    #427 – Neil Adams: Judo, Olympics, Winning, Losing, and the Champion Mindset

    #427 – Neil Adams: Judo, Olympics, Winning, Losing, and the Champion Mindset
    Neil Adams is a judo world champion, 2-time Olympic silver medalist, 5-time European champion, and often referred to as the Voice of Judo. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ZipRecruiter: https://ziprecruiter.com/lex - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/neil-adams-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Neil's Instagram: https://instagram.com/naefighting Neil's YouTube: https://youtube.com/NAEffectiveFighting Neil's TikTok: https://tiktok.com/@neiladamsmbe Neil's Facebook: https://facebook.com/NeilAdamsJudo Neil's X: https://x.com/NeilAdamsJudo Neil's Website: https://naeffectivefighting.com Neil's Podcast: https://naeffectivefighting.com/podcasts/the-dojo-collective-podcast A Life in Judo (book): https://amzn.to/4d3DtfB A Game of Throws (audiobook): https://amzn.to/4aA2WeJ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (09:13) - 1980 Olympics (26:35) - Judo explained (34:40) - Winning (52:54) - 1984 Olympics (1:01:55) - Lessons from losing (1:17:37) - Teddy Riner (1:37:12) - Training in Japan (1:52:51) - Jiu jitsu (2:03:59) - Training (2:27:18) - Advice for beginners

    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs

    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs
    Edward Gibson is a psycholinguistics professor at MIT and heads the MIT Language Lab. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Yahoo Finance: https://yahoofinance.com - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/edward-gibson-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Edward's X: https://x.com/LanguageMIT TedLab: https://tedlab.mit.edu/ Edward's Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=4FsWE64AAAAJ TedLab's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@Tedlab-MIT PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (10:53) - Human language (14:59) - Generalizations in language (20:46) - Dependency grammar (30:45) - Morphology (39:20) - Evolution of languages (42:40) - Noam Chomsky (1:26:46) - Thinking and language (1:40:16) - LLMs (1:53:14) - Center embedding (2:19:42) - Learning a new language (2:23:34) - Nature vs nurture (2:30:10) - Culture and language (2:44:38) - Universal language (2:49:01) - Language translation (2:52:16) - Animal communication

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones
    Andrew Callaghan is the host of Channel 5 on YouTube, where he does street interviews with fascinating humans at the edges of society, the so-called vagrants, vagabonds, runaways, outlaws, from QAnon adherents to Phish heads to O Block residents and much more. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ShipStation: https://shipstation.com/lex and use code LEX to get 60-day free trial - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/andrew-callaghan-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Channel 5 with Andrew Callaghan: https://www.youtube.com/channel5YouTube Andrew's Instagram: https://instagram.com/andreww.me Andrew's Website: https://andrew-callaghan.com/ Andrew's Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/channel5 This Place Rules: https://www.hbo.com/movies/this-place-rules Books Mentioned: On the Road: https://amzn.to/4aLPLHi Siddhartha: https://amzn.to/49rthKz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (08:53) - Walmart (10:24) - Early life (29:14) - Hitchhiking (40:49) - Couch surfing (49:50) - Quarter Confessions (1:07:33) - Burning Man (1:22:44) - Protests (1:28:17) - Jon Stewart (1:31:13) - Fame (1:44:31) - Jan 6 (1:48:15) - QAnon (1:54:00) - Alex Jones (2:10:52) - Politics (2:20:29) - Response to allegations (2:37:28) - Channel 5 (2:43:04) - Rap (2:44:51) - O Block (2:48:47) - Crip Mac (2:51:59) - Aliens

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame
    Bassem Youssef is an Egyptian-American comedian & satirist, referred to as the Jon Stewart of the Arab World. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/bassem-youssef-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Bassem's X: https://x.com/Byoussef Bassem's Instagram: https://instagram.com/bassem Bassem's Facebook: https://facebook.com/bassemyousseftv Bassem's Website: https://bassemyoussef.xyz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:30) - Oct 7 (36:59) - Two-state solution (52:37) - Holocaust (1:00:24) - 1948 (1:09:17) - Egypt (1:23:39) - Jon Stewart (1:25:51) - Going viral during the Arab Spring (1:49:55) - Arabic vs English (2:02:18) - Sam Harris and Jihad (2:07:25) - Religion (2:26:37) - TikTok (2:31:10) - Joe Rogan (2:33:07) - Joe Biden (2:37:33) - Putin (2:39:21) - War (2:44:17) - Hope

    #423 – Tulsi Gabbard: War, Politics, and the Military Industrial Complex

    #423 – Tulsi Gabbard: War, Politics, and the Military Industrial Complex
    Tulsi Gabbard is a politician, veteran, and author of For Love of Country. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Riverside: https://creators.riverside.fm/LEX and use code LEX to get 30% off - ExpressVPN: https://expressvpn.com/lexpod to get 3 months free - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour - Notion: https://notion.com/lex Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/tulsi-gabbard-transcript EPISODE LINKS: For Love of Country (book): https://amzn.to/3VLlofM Tulsi's X: https://x.com/tulsigabbard Tulsi's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@TulsiGabbard Tulsi's Podcast: https://youtube.com/@TheTulsiGabbardShow Tulsi's Instagram: https://instagram.com/tulsigabbard Tulsi's Facebook: https://facebook.com/TulsiGabbard Tulsi's Website: https://tulsigabbard.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:14) - War in Iraq (15:00) - Battle injuries and PTSD (22:10) - War on terrorism (30:51) - War in Gaza (34:52) - War in Ukraine (38:38) - Syria (46:20) - Warmongers (55:40) - Nuclear war (1:11:08) - TikTok ban (1:23:13) - Bernie Sanders (1:28:08) - Politics (1:46:59) - Personal attacks (1:49:07) - God

    #422 – Mark Cuban: Shark Tank, DEI & Wokeism Debate, Elon Musk, Politics & Drugs

    #422 – Mark Cuban: Shark Tank, DEI & Wokeism Debate, Elon Musk, Politics & Drugs
    Mark Cuban is a businessman, investor, star of TV series Shark Tank, long-time principal owner of Dallas Mavericks, and founder of Cost Plus Drugs. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Cloaked: https://cloaked.com/lex and use code LexPod to get 25% off - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/mark-cuban-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Mark's X: https://twitter.com/mcuban Mark's Instagram: https://instagram.com/mcuban Cost Plus Drugs: https://costplusdrugs.com Shark Tank: https://abc.com/shows/shark-tank Dallas Mavericks: https://www.mavs.com PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (11:10) - Entrepreneurship (26:03) - Shark Tank (36:29) - How Mark made first billion (1:02:39) - Dallas Mavericks (1:08:05) - DEI debate (1:43:58) - Trump vs Biden (1:46:20) - Immigration (1:55:53) - Drugs and Big Pharma (2:11:53) - AI (2:16:05) - Advice for young people

    #421 – Dana White: UFC, Fighting, Khabib, Conor, Tyson, Ali, Rogan, Elon & Zuck

    #421 – Dana White: UFC, Fighting, Khabib, Conor, Tyson, Ali, Rogan, Elon & Zuck
    Dana White is the CEO and president of the UFC. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/lex to get 20% off Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/dana-white-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Dana's X: https://x.com/danawhite Dana's Instagram: https://instagram.com/danawhite Dana's Facebook: https://facebook.com/danawhite UFC's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@UFC UFC's Website: https://ufc.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:31) - Mike Tyson and early days of fighting (17:10) - Jiu jitsu (23:14) - Origin of UFC (37:25) - Joe Rogan (43:31) - Lorenzo Fertitta (45:58) - Great fighters (49:55) - Khabib vs Conor (53:01) - Jon Jones (56:03) - Conor McGregor (1:01:05) - Trump (1:06:44) - Elon vs Zuck (1:08:04) - Mike Tyson vs Jake Paul (1:10:52) - Forrest Griffin vs Stephan Bonnar (1:18:06) - Gambling (1:33:08) - Mortality

    #420 – Annie Jacobsen: Nuclear War, CIA, KGB, Aliens, Area 51, Roswell & Secrecy

    #420 – Annie Jacobsen: Nuclear War, CIA, KGB, Aliens, Area 51, Roswell & Secrecy
    Annie Jacobsen is an investigative journalist and author of "Nuclear War: A Scenario" and many other books on war, weapons, government secrecy, and national security. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - HiddenLayer: https://hiddenlayer.com/lex - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/annie-jacobsen-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Nuclear War: A Scenario (book): https://amzn.to/3THZHfr Annie's Twitter: https://twitter.com/anniejacobsen Annie's Website: https://anniejacobsen.com/ Annie's Books: https://amzn.to/3TGWyMJ Annie's Books (audio): https://adbl.co/49ZnI7c PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:37) - Nuclear war (12:21) - Launch procedure (18:00) - Deterrence (21:34) - Tactical nukes (30:59) - Nuclear submarines (33:59) - Nuclear missiles (41:10) - Nuclear football (50:17) - Missile interceptor system (54:34) - North Korea (1:01:10) - Nuclear war scenarios (1:10:02) - Warmongers (1:14:31) - President's cognitive ability (1:20:43) - Refusing orders (1:28:41) - Russia and Putin (1:33:48) - Cyberattack (1:35:09) - Ground zero of nuclear war (1:39:48) - Surviving nuclear war (1:44:06) - Nuclear winter (1:54:29) - Alien civilizations (2:00:04) - Extrasensory perception (2:13:50) - Area 51 (2:17:48) - UFOs and aliens (2:28:15) - Roswell incident (2:34:55) - CIA assassinations (2:53:47) - Navalny (2:56:12) - KGB (3:02:48) - Hitler and the atomic bomb (3:06:52) - War and human nature (3:10:17) - Hope