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    • Streamline your hiring process with IndeedFind quality candidates quickly and save time with Indeed's matching engine and large visitor base. Manage subscriptions to save money using Rocket Money.

      For efficient and effective hiring, using a platform like Indeed can be a game-changer. Instead of actively searching for candidates, Indeed's matching engine and large visitor base can help you find quality candidates quickly. With features like scheduling, screening, and messaging, you can save time and connect with candidates faster. Plus, Indeed is trusted by 93% of employers for delivering high-quality matches compared to other job sites. Another valuable takeaway is the importance of managing subscriptions to save money. With the help of a personal finance app like Rocket Money, you can easily identify and cancel unwanted subscriptions, monitor your spending, and even lower your bills. Rocket Money has already helped its members save an average of $720 a year with over 500,000,000 in canceled subscriptions. Lastly, for those looking for reliable and efficient delivery services, FedEx offers fast delivery, simple returns, weekend home delivery, and picture proof of delivery to ensure peace of mind for businesses.

    • Discussions on the universe's nature and our understanding of itDespite theories like the simulation hypothesis and many worlds interpretation, there's no causal connection or memory between instances of identical beings. Intuition and values play a role in scientific theorizing, but it's crucial to test and falsify hypotheses and consider alternative explanations.

      Even if the universe repeats or if we're living in a simulation, there's no causal connection or memory between instances of identical beings. Linus Melberg's discussion about the simulation hypothesis and the many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics illustrates this point. Tucker Hyatt's question about the regularity and persistence of the laws of physics adds to the conversation, highlighting the limitations of our understanding and the role of intuition and values in scientific theorizing. Aaron Perrin's idea about the universe as an optimization process, similar to a Markov decision process, adds another layer to the discussion. However, to take this intuition beyond the crackpot stage, it's essential to conduct a literature review, devise a way to test and falsify the hypothesis, and consider potential criticisms and alternative explanations. Overall, these discussions emphasize the importance of questioning our assumptions and the limitations of our current knowledge.

    • Master the basics of physics to be taken seriouslyTo make your ideas respected in physics community, master the basics and understand their language and concerns

      If you have an idea about the fundamental laws of physics but are not a professional physicist, the first step is to learn and comprehend the existing physics knowledge. This means mastering the basics of classical mechanics, electricity and magnetism, statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics, and possibly quantum field theory. Only then will others take your ideas seriously. The universe may be seen as an optimization system, but this is a mathematical fact rather than a substantive insight. To make your ideas understood and respected in the physics community, you must first understand their language and the concerns they have. This requires a significant investment of time and effort, but thousands of physics students have done it before you.

    • Discovering Baby Universes and Observing Black HolesAlthough the existence of baby universes through quantum fluctuations is highly unlikely, it does not contradict fundamental physics. Black holes appear as growing black regions to observers, with the rest of the universe appearing distorted due to gravitational lensing.

      When discussing the possibility of baby universes forming through quantum fluctuations, while the calculation may not be accurate and the actual occurrence being extremely unlikely, it does not violate the fundamental principles of physics such as the Schrodinger equation. When it comes to observing black holes, an observer would not see anything extraordinary before or after crossing the event horizon, only a black region growing in size until it takes up more than half of their view, with the rest of the universe appearing distorted due to gravitational lensing.

    • The Firewall Paradox in Physics: A Challenge to Classical General RelativityThe Firewall Paradox in Physics suggests that classical general relativity may not be valid at black hole event horizons due to quantum entanglement issues. Researchers propose a firewall, but most physicists disagree, and an alternative perspective is that the black hole's wave function doesn't include firewalls.

      The firewall paradox in physics suggests that classical general relativity may be incorrect at the event horizon of a black hole. According to this paradox, there's no apparent barrier or sensation when crossing the event horizon, making it seem like empty space, or the Minkowski vacuum. However, the vacuum has a specific entanglement structure, and the outgoing radiation from the black hole must be entangled with both the ingoing radiation and radiation emitted at different times, which is not allowed by quantum mechanics. Researchers Almeri, Marolf, Polchinski, and Sully proposed the existence of a firewall at the event horizon to resolve this issue. However, most physicists don't believe in the firewall's existence. An alternative perspective is that the wave function of the universe and the wave function of the black hole are not the same, and the apparent firewall is a statement about what observers see, not the wave function of the universe. By expressing the black hole's wave function without firewalls, the paradox can be avoided. Ultimately, this discussion highlights the complexities and ongoing debates in understanding the nature of black holes and the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics.

    • Understanding complex systems: Firewalls, language learning, and physicsExploring firewalls, language learning apps, and quantum mechanics challenges our understanding of complex systems and the importance of reconciliation.

      Firewalls and language learning may seem unrelated, but they both involve understanding complex systems. Firewalls are a crucial aspect of cybersecurity, but their exact mechanism for disappearing is not fully understood. Similarly, learning a new language with an app like Babbel requires a deep understanding of the language's rules and structure, which can be quite different from one's native language. In the realm of physics, the incompatibility of quantum mechanics and general relativity is a major challenge. These two theories describe the fundamental nature of reality in fundamentally different ways, making it difficult to reconcile them. The idea of living in a simulation also raises intriguing philosophical questions about the nature of reality and the laws of physics. If we do live in a simulation, it would mean that the laws of physics are not inherent to the universe but rather created by the simulators. This raises questions about the implications of many-worlds theory and the nature of reality itself. Overall, these discussions highlight the importance of understanding complex systems, whether they are related to cybersecurity, language learning, or physics, and the ongoing quest to reconcile seemingly incompatible theories.

    • Exploring the boundaries of reality: Simulation theory, the arrow of time, and large language modelsSimulation theory challenges our understanding of reality, the arrow of time may not apply to closed systems, and large language models can mimic human-like language and understanding but their relationship to the world is debated.

      The definition and implications of simulation theory, the arrow of time, and the capabilities of large language models remain subjects of ongoing debate and exploration. Regarding simulation theory, the rules and expectations are unclear, and it might be indistinguishable from our base reality. Some argue that no differences would exist, while others expect distinct outcomes. Ultimately, the universe we observe may not align with our expectations if we live in a simulation. As for the arrow of time, it is not always applicable within closed systems, like a sealed box of gas. While it may seem counterintuitive, there is no arrow of time within such systems if they are not observed or interacted with. However, the arrow of time becomes relevant when external interactions occur. Lastly, the capabilities of large language models, such as LLMs, continue to be a topic of discussion. Some argue that they do not truly model the world, while others believe they do in some way. The definition of modeling the world may need to be reconsidered, as LLMs can mimic human-like language and understanding through their vast training corpus. In conclusion, these complex theories and technologies require continued exploration and refinement to fully understand their implications and potential differences from our everyday reality.

    • Understanding the Limits of Large Language ModelsLarge language models can generate human-like text but their ability to understand the world is debated. They can make mistakes that suggest a lack of underlying understanding, but it's unclear if they have an implicit model of the world.

      The ability of large language models to generate human-like text raises intriguing questions about their understanding of the world. While they can produce convincing responses, it's crucial to distinguish between mistakes made due to a lack of understanding and those that would be unlikely if they had a model of the world. For instance, a language model might correctly summarize Aristotle's views on physics but fail to identify a famous philosopher whose name starts with 'm.' This kind of mistake suggests a lack of underlying understanding. However, it's also possible that these models have implicitly developed a model of the world, enabling them to make human-like errors. The debate continues in the technical literature, and while some argue that these models don't have a model of the world, others suggest otherwise. Additionally, the concept of God, with its ideas of omniscience, omnipotence, and omnibenevolence, is not well-defined and raises questions about the meaning of perfection and purpose. Ultimately, the limitations and capabilities of large language models continue to be a topic of ongoing research and debate.

    • Moral inconsistency in multiple worldsThe number of moral branches isn't the only factor, their weights matter too. From a personal view, branches' number is irrelevant, but from a God's eye view, their weights matter.

      The concept of morality in multiple worlds, as discussed in the text, can be inconsistent if we only consider the number of branches and not their weights. The author argues that the utility of a branch should be weighted by its size, not just counted by its number. From a personal perspective, the weight and number of universes are irrelevant, but from a God's eye view, the weights are crucial. It's essential to be consistent in which perspective we choose when making moral judgments. Additionally, cosmic strings, a theoretical artifact from the early universe, could generate various phenomena if they exist, including gravitational fields and electromagnetic radiation. However, their existence is still a hypothesis, and we don't yet know if the fundamental laws of physics predict their presence.

    • Cosmic strings' role in large scale structure reconsideredCurrent data from the cosmic microwave background challenges the idea that cosmic strings caused the early universe's large scale structure. Instead, primordial fluctuations from inflation are a more plausible explanation.

      The early universe's large scale structure may not have been caused by cosmic strings as initially thought, based on current data from the cosmic microwave background. Instead, primordial fluctuations from inflation are a more likely explanation. Cosmic strings, which are hypothetical one-dimensional defects in spacetime, could still exist but would have a lesser impact on large scale structure and be harder to detect. Regarding superdeterminism, a theory suggesting that the wave function of the universe determines what measurements physicists make, some find it intriguing, while others consider it implausible or unscientific. Personally, I find it uninteresting due to its complexity and the belief that quantum mechanics' nonlocal correlations are a fundamental aspect of the universe.

    • Many Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics and Bayesian InferenceThe Many Worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics is preferred by the speaker, despite not having full confidence in it. Priors are significant in Bayesian inference but can converge as more evidence is gathered. Even broad priors could theoretically lead to specific scientific conclusions, but this process is not computationally feasible.

      The speaker is deeply invested in the Many Worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics and is not interested in exploring other theories, such as superdeterminism. He believes that the foundations of quantum mechanics lie in Many Worlds, despite not having a 100% credence in this interpretation. He also expressed his preference for using the social media platform Blue Sky over Mastodon, finding it easier to use and with a better vibe. Another interesting point raised in the discussion was the role of priors in Bayesian inference. The speaker acknowledged that priors are significant in the initial stages of data collection, but as more evidence is gathered, the credences of individuals with differing priors can converge. The speaker suggested that even an absurdly broad set of priors could eventually converge on specific scientific conclusions, such as the reliability of perception and the existence of electrons. However, the speaker also acknowledged that this process would not be computationally feasible. The speaker did not provide a definitive answer on whether the credences arrived at through this holistic Bayesian process would match with what is generally accepted in science. He emphasized the importance of defining exactly how small and how big the initial credences and the subsequent likelihoods are to determine the final answer.

    • Theoretical possibility of changing beliefs based on evidenceDespite starting with different assumptions, the effectiveness of gathering evidence and using Bayes' theorem can lead to scientific consensus. However, it's unclear if this would hold true for all scenarios or if current principles are robust enough for very different reasoners to converge.

      In a theoretical sense, no matter how small your initial beliefs or credences are, there is an amount of evidence that can be collected to change them significantly. However, this may not be practical or feasible in reality. The concept of converging on the same scientific consensus despite starting with different assumptions is a well-known fact among Bayesians. But, it's not clear if this would hold true for all possible scenarios or if the currently accepted scientific principles are robust enough for very different sets of reasoners to converge. The success of science is due to both the effectiveness of gathering evidence and using Bayes' theorem, as well as the fact that people's priors are not completely incompatible with each other. Regarding the discussion on AI values, it was acknowledged that AI may have revealed preferences, but it was argued that this is not a sufficient definition of values. Values are more than just revealed preferences, and it's an ongoing debate among researchers and philosophers. In summary, the discussion touched on the theoretical possibility of changing beliefs based on evidence, the robustness of scientific consensus, and the definition of values in the context of AI.

    • Understanding Human Beings, Rocks, and AI DifferencesHuman beings have values and goals beyond current actions, while rocks follow nature's laws. AI doesn't possess biology, an arrow of time, or dissipation, making it hard to attribute values or goals. Dyson spheres might be hard to detect due to their departure from thermal equilibrium, but could still stand out as hot spots.

      While a rock may reveal its preference to be at the bottom of a hill through its actions, human beings have values and goals that extend beyond their current actions. Human beings have a complex understanding of counterfactual statements and their behaviors are not solely determined by their current circumstances. AI, on the other hand, does not possess biology, an arrow of time, or dissipation, making it difficult to attribute values or goals to it in the same way as human beings. Regarding Dyson spheres, the idea that they might be difficult to detect is based on the fact that they would represent a significant departure from thermal equilibrium, much like the sun does for life on Earth. If a Dyson sphere were to radiate at a much higher temperature than the background cosmic microwave radiation, it would still stand out as a hot spot in a cold sky, making it potentially detectable. These are the key distinctions between human beings, rocks, and AI, and the challenges of detecting Dyson spheres.

    • Exploring the Universe's Energy Sources and FieldsOngoing research debates the universe's energy sources and behavior of fields like quintessence. Dyson spheres might still provide energy access, and their temperature could be detectable. The fate of the universe's acceleration and general relativity's emergence in quantum gravity remain unclear.

      The universe's energy sources and the behavior of certain fields, like quintessence, continue to be subjects of ongoing research and debate in physics. Regarding the Dyson sphere, it's possible that civilizations outside the sphere could still access its energy, even if it's not as much as the original star would have provided. The temperature of the Dyson sphere might be detectable as a bright spot on the cosmic microwave background map. As for the quintessence field, it could create positive vacuum energy, but there's still a possibility of a negative cosmological constant that could be overpowered by it. The answer isn't clear, and it's an open question whether the universe will continue to accelerate forever or if it will eventually recollapse. Lastly, the status of general relativity as an emergent theory in a quantum description of gravity remains uncertain. While general relativity is a fundamental theory in string theory, there are also theories like holography where gravity emerges from quantum entanglement in a lower-dimensional theory. Researchers are exploring the possibility that general relativity emerges from entanglement in our three-plus-one dimensional spacetime, but it would only be valid in the weak field limit.

    • The universe's fundamental nature might not be space and time but the evolving wave functionThe speaker proposes a philosophical perspective that challenges our understanding of the universe's fundamental nature, suggesting it may not be space and time but rather the evolving wave function. This perspective could potentially make general relativity emergent.

      According to the speaker, the fundamental nature of the universe may not be space and time, but rather the evolving wave function. This perspective is compatible with holography and could potentially make general relativity emergent. The speaker, Nathan, shares his philosophical stance on death, admitting his fear but also acceptance, and emphasizes the importance of focusing on the present and making a positive impact while alive. A different question was raised about the physical mechanism behind radioactive decay and half-life. The speaker suggested understanding each nucleus as having a superposition of decayed and not decayed states according to quantum mechanics. This discussion highlights the complexities of understanding the fundamental nature of the universe and our place in it, as well as the importance of acceptance and focus on the present.

    • Independent decay in nuclear physics and content creationIn nuclear physics, the probability of decay for individual nuclei is independent, leading to predictable decay patterns for large groups. In content creation, self-teaching and experimentation can lead to valuable skills and unique content, even if one eventually collaborates with professionals.

      In nuclear decay, the probability of any given nucleus decaying is independent of the other nuclei. This means that while some nuclei may decay early, others may not decay until much later. When observing a large number of nuclei, the time it takes for half of them to decay becomes more predictable. In the realm of content creation, Kyle Cabasares started out producing podcasts and videos entirely on his own, learning the necessary skills as he went along. While the quality improved over time, he encourages others to explore the basics of recording and editing audio or video, even if they eventually choose to work with professionals. Regarding his podcast, Cabasares has not had the same guest on multiple times, but he remains open to the idea, though he currently sees no plans for it. This approach allows him to bring new perspectives to each episode and keeps the content fresh. In summary, in nuclear physics, the probability of decay for individual nuclei is independent, leading to a predictable decay pattern for large groups. In content creation, self-teaching and experimentation can lead to valuable skills and unique content, even if one eventually collaborates with professionals.

    • Exploring New Ideas in Science and PodcastingContinually inviting new guests and learning new concepts keeps podcasting and scientific research exciting. The existence or lack of fossil fuels in ancient civilizations is uncertain, and the many-worlds interpretation suggests that every conscious entity believes it is still alive.

      Curiosity and a desire to explore new ideas keeps both scientific research and podcast hosting exciting and fresh. The speaker expressed a desire to continue inviting new and interesting guests, rather than falling into a rut of repeating past guests. Similarly, in science, the challenge of learning new concepts and techniques as a graduate student eventually leads to a level of expertise where one can continue to discover new things. The speaker also discussed the idea of a potential ancient advanced civilization on Earth and the implications of the existence or lack thereof of fossil fuels. While acknowledging that the lack of fossil fuels might decrease the likelihood of such a civilization, the speaker also pointed out that it's uncertain if they would have used the same technology as us and that plate tectonics might have brought fossil fuels to the surface. Lastly, the speaker discussed the quantum immortality thought experiment and argued that every conscious entity believes it is still alive, regardless of the many-worlds interpretation.

    • Exploring the many worlds of physics and the universe's expansionMax Tegmark's many worlds concept leaves most branches without observers, dark energy is a property of space-time, not substance or mass, quantum cosmology's participatory universe idea is controversial, and the universe's expansion is accelerating with a mostly constant rate

      The concept of many worlds in physics, as proposed by Max Tegmark, leaves the majority of branches without a living observer, and one should not be complacent about this fact before conducting the experiment. In other news, dark energy, a form of energy that permeates the universe, does not have substance or mass like dark matter. Instead, it's a property of space-time itself, and cannot be pushed or resisted. Regarding quantum cosmology, some physicists, including Thomas Hertog, are trying to legitimize the concept of a participatory universe, but this idea remains controversial and vague to many. Lastly, the expansion of the universe is accelerating, and the acceleration rate is mostly constant, although it's not yet definitively known if it varies in different places. The concept of the universe having a velocity is not applicable, as the universe does not have a velocity in the same way an object does. Instead, the scale factor, which represents the relative distance between galaxies as a function of time, is used to describe the expansion.

    • The expanding universe: acceleration vs. velocityThe universe's expansion rate is increasing, not necessarily the galaxies' velocities, causing confusion in understanding acceleration in cosmology.

      The concept of the universe's acceleration is not a straightforward idea, as it's based on the relative change of the scale factor between galaxies over time. The idea of an increasing Hubble constant, which is a measure of the expansion rate of the universe, doesn't necessarily mean the universe is accelerating in the conventional sense of increasing velocity. Instead, it means the rate of expansion is increasing. The confusion arises due to the use of velocity and acceleration vocabulary to describe the expansion of the universe, even though they may not be entirely accurate. Regarding locality in quantum mechanics, the recent Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery of Bell equality violations doesn't necessarily mean that local realism, which is the belief that physical processes can be described by local hidden variables, is disproven. The experiments simply confirm the predictions of quantum mechanics, and realists who already believed in the theory wouldn't change their minds based on these results. In my book "Something Deeply Hidden," I discussed locality in quantum mechanics and how it challenges our classical understanding of the world. Since then, I haven't expanded significantly on my ideas, but I continue to believe that quantum mechanics challenges our intuition about the nature of reality and locality. The ongoing debate about local realism underscores the importance of continuing to explore the fundamental nature of our universe.

    • Recent Nobel Prize experiments did not bring new insights to quantum mechanicsThe debate on locality in quantum mechanics continues, and the origin of complexity in the universe remains a mystery, while particles can only become entangled when in close proximity to each other.

      The recent Nobel Prize-winning experiments on quantum mechanics did not bring anything new, as the Bell inequalities have already been factored into current understandings of quantum mechanics. The debate around locality in quantum mechanics persists, with some believing that non-locality only appears during measurements, while others argue that the fundamental starting point of a vector in Hilbert space has no inherent notion of space or locality. The origin of complexity in the universe, including the emergence of molecules and life, remains a mystery, and the necessary ingredients for such complexity are still being explored. Lastly, while particles can become entangled when they are in close proximity to each other, the opposite is not true - particles cannot become entangled at a distance without a physical interaction.

    • Entanglement in Quantum Mechanics and a Stray Cat's StoryEntanglement in quantum mechanics is a correlation between particles, while a stray cat's story shows how coaxing an animal can bring them closer. The Many Worlds Interpretation suggests multiple universes, but entanglement and probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics remain constant.

      Entanglement in quantum mechanics occurs when particles are close to each other and interact, leading to correlations during measurements. Meanwhile, in a different topic, we shared the story of Puck, a stray cat we took care of. Puck, a likely male cat, was initially worried about during the winter, so we coaxed him into our basement using food and a cat door. He now visits our basement for food while continuing to live mostly outdoors. Regarding quantum mechanics, the Many Worlds Interpretation suggests that all possible outcomes of quantum events exist in separate universes. Knowing the answer to quantum gravity might affect our understanding of how and when these universes split, but the fundamental nature of entanglement and the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics would remain unchanged.

    • Our understanding of reality is socially constructedEmbrace a nuanced perspective on labels and understand that they are tools for understanding, not reality itself.

      Our understanding of reality, including concepts like neurodivergence, is socially constructed and can be adjusted as we gather more data and refine our definitions. Ariel the cat, who once enjoyed morning showers, now drinks from the sink, illustrates the unpredictability of feline behavior. In the realm of quantum physics, the speaker suspects that insights into quantum gravity may come from taking the many worlds interpretation seriously due to its unique ontology. It's crucial to remember that labels, like neurodivergent, should not be mistaken for reality, but rather serve as tools to help us understand the world. The speaker encourages a more nuanced perspective on these categories, emphasizing the importance of considering the full range of human experiences rather than labeling them as typical or divergent.

    • Avoid labeling things as typical or normalContinuous learning is essential, and the joy of acquiring knowledge fuels personal growth and a better understanding of the world.

      It's essential to be cautious about labeling things as typical or normal, as some individuals and phenomena may not represent the majority and can skew our understanding of human psychology or other fields. For instance, in psychology, focusing on extreme cases instead of the average can lead to a distorted perspective. Another key takeaway is the importance of continuous learning and the joy of acquiring knowledge for its own sake. Whether it's complex systems theory, fundamental physics, or philosophy, individuals can benefit from deepening their understanding, even if they don't aim to become experts. Lastly, the conversation touched on the idea that self-motivation and enjoyment play a significant role in driving individuals to share their knowledge with others, ultimately contributing to a more informed and curious population. So, in essence, the enjoyment of learning and sharing knowledge is a powerful force that can lead to personal growth and a better understanding of the world around us.

    • The Importance of Multiple Publications and Diverse Experiences in AcademiaHaving multiple publications and diverse experiences can increase the chances of getting a faculty job in academia. Being proactive in shaping education and considering all possibilities as equally real can lead to unique research and ideas.

      Having multiple publications and experiences, such as giving talks and interviews, can increase the chances of getting a faculty job in academia. Caliban, a character from "The Tempest," represents a present-oriented mindset, while Ariel embodies the ability to contemplate different possibilities and imagine future scenarios. This ability is crucial for writing physics papers and considering various research topics. Paul Hess advised his younger self to be more proactive in shaping education to pursue true interests, even if it meant taking a less conventional path. This could have led to more unique research and ideas, rather than just taking the opportunities readily available. A thought experiment involving Satan offering two options, flipping a coin or measuring an electron's spin, highlights the importance of treating all possibilities as equally real in Everettian quantum mechanics. By being true to this belief, one should act as if they will experience the actual outcomes, not just the apparent probabilities.

    • Equal Probability in Quantum DecisionsIn quantum mechanics, treating all outcomes equally, even if one leads to Earth's destruction, is the rational choice due to the many-worlds interpretation's long-term consequences and potential for survival in other branches.

      Our intuitions may not serve us well when it comes to making decisions in the context of quantum mechanics and the many-worlds interpretation. In this thought experiment, treating the branches of the wave function with equal probability, even if one leads to the destruction of all life on Earth, is the most rational approach. However, our intuitions may lead us to believe that one outcome is preferable to another based on the apparent differences between the scenarios. But when we consider the long-term consequences and the fact that there is a real chance of survival in the other branch, treating both branches equally becomes the more logical choice. This may be a difficult concept to accept, but it's important to remember that our intuitions may not always align with the principles of rationality, especially in extreme circumstances. Additionally, some philosophical principles, such as risk aversion, may influence our decision-making in these situations. Ultimately, it's essential to consider all factors and make informed decisions based on a thorough understanding of the situation, rather than relying solely on our intuitions.

    • The science behind music keys and the origin story of The FlashExploring the scientific basis of music keys and the challenges of explaining The Flash's ability to move at superhuman speeds

      The relationship between major and minor keys in music is not just a matter of sounding cheerful or sad, but is rooted in the mathematical composition of notes in major and minor scales. This is a question that has not been fully answered in literature, and it stems from a scientific curiosity. In the realm of physics, creating a plausible explanation for the origin story of a superhero like The Flash poses a significant challenge. While flying can be somewhat explained through the idea of having stronger leg muscles, the concept of moving extremely fast is less straightforward. It may require imagining a different kind of world where moving fast is not just a matter of leg strength. The fine-tuning argument for the existence of God, while acknowledged as the best available argument, is also considered a weak one due to the lack of a well-defined notion of God and the uncertainty about the extent of fine-tuning in the universe for the existence of life. Furthermore, the apparent fine-tuning might even argue against the existence of God, as an omnipotent God could create life in any universe, regardless of its initial conditions.

    • The argument for God's existence based on fine-tuning may be misguidedIn a God-less universe, the need for finely-tuned physics arises. Technological advancements should be used responsibly, with safeguards in place. Aspiring physicists need a well-rounded education and strong academic performance.

      The argument for God's existence based on the fine-tuning of physics may be misguided. If God exists, the possibility of individual neutrons being alive or even space and time existing without matter or photons is plausible. The need for finely-tuned physics only arises when considering a God-less universe. Regarding technological advancements, we should be cautious and responsible, but it's inevitable that new technologies will be used. It's essential to establish safeguards to prevent harm while still allowing for innovation. For aspiring theoretical physicists, focusing on physics and math courses is crucial, but a well-rounded education including humanities and social sciences is also important. Academic performance is significant as well, as it will be considered during graduate school applications.

    • Balancing academic advancement and personal interests in physicsSuccess in physics requires a strong academic foundation, but also self-directed learning and engagement with the scientific community. Consider exploring advanced topics and attending talks to broaden knowledge.

      Becoming a successful physicist involves a balance between academic advancement and personal interests. While it's important to attend a good graduate school and eventually secure a job, individuals should also strive to learn as much physics as they can on their own time. This can include topics like quantum field theory or theoretical physics research, which may be more accessible earlier in one's academic career through online resources or experimental projects. Additionally, attending talks and immersing oneself in the scientific community can help in the long run, despite initial discomfort or confusion. As for specific scientific findings, such as the latest results from the Dark Energy Survey suggesting a time-varying dark energy equation of state, it's essential to consider error margins and compatibility with established theories before making significant conclusions. In the block universe, where the present does not hold a privileged status over the past and future, the apparent experience of the present moment is simply the perspective of the current configuration of particles. Finally, the principle of equivalence in Einstein's theory of relativity implies that a fully charged battery has a slightly greater mass due to its energy content, but the real world's complexity can complicate this relationship.

    • Quantum mechanics doesn't set an arrow of time, but the universe doesQuantum mechanics is time-symmetric, but the universe's past hypothesis limits possibilities, and Bayesian reasoning can update probabilities based on new evidence.

      The Schrodinger equation in quantum mechanics does not have an inherent arrow of time, meaning it can be applied to evolve a system equally well in both forward and backward directions. However, the universe as a whole has a past hypothesis, which results in a narrowing of possibilities over time. Regarding quantum random number generators, they do not have the ability to influence the outcome of real-world events, such as the stability of democracy. Everettian quantum mechanics is considered a complete theory, but understanding its implications for the world we see requires significant work in both physics and philosophy. When dealing with friends or family who hold beliefs that contradict scientific consensus, it's essential to approach the situation with respect and open-mindedness, engaging in dialogue only if both parties are willing to listen and consider each other's perspectives. Bayesian reasoning can indeed account for confidence by updating probabilities based on new evidence and personal beliefs.

    • Understanding Evidence Quality and Relevance, AI Limitations, and Quantum MechanicsThe quality and relevance of evidence, limitations of current AI models, and nature of quantum mechanics are crucial to consider in decision-making and scientific inquiry.

      The difference between assigning 50% credence to a hypothesis due to a lack of evidence versus having lots of contradictory evidence is significant. New evidence should have less impact in the latter case if the evidence is deemed to be of poor quality. However, this should be accounted for in the likelihood function of a Bayesian analysis. The idea of rapid exponential self-improvement in AI is not given much credence due to the limitations of current large language models, which primarily rely on human speech and writing for training and will eventually run out of data to improve from. Concerning the recent discovery of gigantic structures in the universe, it is unlikely that the cosmological principle is broken or our understanding of baryon acoustic oscillations is incorrect based on the available information. The many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests that the different worlds are not exactly perpendicular to each other, but very close. This means that when quantum superposition decoheres and a measurement outcome appears, it is likely but not guaranteed to resemble a collapse. In summary, the importance of understanding the quality and relevance of evidence, the limitations of current AI models, and the nature of quantum mechanics are key takeaways from the discussion.

    • The improbabilities in quantum mechanics don't matter in practical situationsWhile quantum mechanics offers intriguing possibilities, its improbabilities aren't significant in everyday life due to factors like quantum decoherence and the impracticality of experiencing quantum mechanics or relativity at a human scale.

      While it's important to consider the possibilities in quantum mechanics, the probabilities are often so small that they don't need to be taken seriously in practical situations. For instance, just as it's unlikely that spaghetti and sauce will jump back into a pot after falling on the floor, quantum decoherence is enormous and makes ordinary quantum mechanics the more likely outcome. Another key point is that scaling up to experience quantum mechanics or relativity at a human level isn't feasible due to the relationship between mass and wavelength in quantum mechanics. Furthermore, the idea that something is made better by existing or existing more perfectly as a concept doesn't hold up in quantum mechanics or other abstract contexts. Lastly, the unexpected discovery of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider was due to advances in knowledge beyond just the standard model of particle physics. Expectations were relative to the available information at the time.

    • Updating our understanding through new data and evidenceStay open to new data, communicate clearly, and focus on the substance of arguments for a productive scientific process

      The scientific process involves constantly updating our understanding based on new data and evidence. This was exemplified in the discussion about the Higgs boson mass, where the expected location based on theoretical principles was revised in light of experimental data. This principle was further illustrated through the hypothetical scenario of being called to testify in a court case, emphasizing the importance of being truthful and clear about one's beliefs, even when under pressure. Another important topic touched upon was the testability of theories. The Many Worlds Interpretation of quantum mechanics was highlighted as a testable theory, despite some perceived challenges. The theory's implications for the development of better theories of emergent space-time and quantum gravity were also mentioned. Lastly, the importance of understanding the definitions of terms was discussed, with the consensus being that arguments based on semantic differences can be frustrating but ultimately unproductive. Instead, a focus on the substance of the arguments and the evidence supporting them was encouraged. In conclusion, the conversation emphasized the importance of being open to new data, clear in communication, and focused on the substance of arguments in the scientific process.

    • Understanding the Ambiguity of 'Superintelligent' AIs and the Need for Clearer DefinitionsFocusing on mitigating short-term risks and learning more about advanced AI technologies may be more effective than debating existential risks. The term 'superintelligent' is ambiguous and requires clearer definitions to inform discussions and policy.

      The definition of words, including complex concepts like "superintelligent AIs," is not fixed and objective, but rather a subjective choice that can greatly impact discussions and arguments. The process of defining and understanding such concepts involves considering the relevant variables and identifying the macroscopic structures or emergent properties that matter most. Regarding the existence and potential dangers of superintelligent AIs, the discussion highlighted the ambiguity of the term "superintelligent" and the need for a clearer understanding of what we mean by intelligence in this context. It was also suggested that focusing on mitigating short-term risks and learning more about the actual nature and implications of advanced AI technologies may be a more effective approach than engaging in speculative existential risk debates. The Bletchley Declaration and government regulatory approaches to AI were acknowledged as complex issues requiring expertise and a nuanced understanding of the technological, policy, and ethical dimensions involved.

    • The importance of regulation in technology, especially AIRegulation is crucial to prevent harm and ensure ethical use of technology, but it should be quick, nimble, and adaptable to changing technology to avoid regulatory capture.

      While innovation is important, proper regulation is necessary to prevent potential harm and ensure ethical use of technology, especially in the field of AI. Regulatory capture is a concern, but some regulation is essential, and it should be quick, nimble, and adaptable to changing technology. The concept of entropy and thermodynamics not applying at a fundamental level of particle physics is a standard idea in physics, and it's about the emergence of concepts like entropy, temperature, and pressure when dealing with large numbers of particles. Brandon, considering a career change to chemistry or material science, should pursue it if passionate about these fields, as they can lead to fulfilling careers, both inside and outside of academia. Online learning, including podcasts, has significantly impacted Pete's life by contributing to a healthier lifestyle and deepening his understanding of quantum physics and cosmology. However, no single innovation has triggered a profound positive change in my life that I can recall.

    • Impact of the Internet and Physics ResearchThe Internet enhances life for some but harms others, particularly young people and handheld users. In physics, researchers debate theories about the universe's origins and symmetry, with contrasting proposals for a bouncing universe and an eternal one.

      While the Internet has significantly improved the quality of life for some individuals, it has also negatively impacted others, particularly young people and those using handheld devices. In the realm of physics, researchers are exploring different theories about the universe's origins and symmetry, with Neil Turok proposing a bounce theory centered on CPT symmetry. However, the specific conditions required for this theory to hold are highly specific and finely tuned, contrasting with Jenny Chen and Rhee's proposal of an eternal universe with an unbounded entropy concept. Regarding immortality, there is no known way to manipulate the universe to prevent thermal equilibrium, making it an unlikely possibility. Homeschooling can lead to a valuable education, but it depends on the parents' capabilities and their children's social development. Lastly, in gauge field theories, spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs due to the field's tendency to roll down to its lowest energy state, with entropy playing a role in this process.

    • Physics and City LifeIn physics, entropy increases when a system transitions to a lower energy state. In city life, affordability and convenience can coexist with poverty and harsh weather.

      Entropy, in the context of physics, increases when a system transitions to a lower energy state and the energy previously held is converted into higher entropy forms. Sid Huff, a resident of Baltimore, shares his experiences of living there, highlighting the city's affordable real estate and convenient location as major advantages. However, he acknowledges the presence of poverty and the unbearable summers as drawbacks. In the realm of quantum mechanics, Bob Ritchie discusses Carlo Rovelli's perspective on the many-worlds interpretation, which fails to explain the emergence of position and momentum from the wave function. Ritchie encourages effort and innovation to address this issue, and Emmett Francis emphasizes the unexpected and clever aspects of mathematical physics research.

    • Unexpected Motivation in MathematicsSkills in math don't guarantee enjoyment or motivation. Unexpected connections and new challenges can spark interest.

      Even if someone excels at a particular type of mathematics, they may not necessarily enjoy or be drawn to it. The speaker, for instance, was exceptionally skilled in complex mathematical concepts during their graduate studies but found it dry and unappealing. However, when they encountered new mathematical challenges in their complex quantum mechanics research, they were motivated to learn and apply these concepts. Additionally, unexpected connections between seemingly unrelated mathematical concepts can lead to significant discoveries, as demonstrated by the speaker's work on time machines and 2+1 dimensional gravity. This discovery was made possible by a casual comment during a talk, highlighting the importance of staying curious and open to new ideas.

    • Visualizing 2+1 Dimensional Lorentz Group in Anti-de Sitter SpaceThe discovery of the Lorentz group's geometry in anti-de Sitter space enables us to visualize complex mathematical concepts, shedding light on important results.

      The discovery of the Lorentz group in 2+1 dimensions having the geometry of anti-de Sitter space allows for the drawing of a space-time diagram to prove certain results, demonstrating the power of visualization in mathematics. Another key point discussed was the significance of the early universe's low entropy state, which requires any explanation to account for, making it a focus for scientific inquiry. Lastly, while quiet contemplation can lead to scientific breakthroughs, the speaker personally struggles with practicing it due to a preference for engaging with external stimuli.

    Recent Episodes from Sean Carroll's Mindscape: Science, Society, Philosophy, Culture, Arts, and Ideas

    276 | Gavin Schmidt on Measuring, Predicting, and Protecting Our Climate

    276 | Gavin Schmidt on Measuring, Predicting, and Protecting Our Climate

    The Earth's climate keeps changing, largely due to the effects of human activity, and we haven't been doing enough to slow things down. Indeed, over the past year, global temperatures have been higher than ever, and higher than most climate models have predicted. Many of you have probably seen plots like this. Today's guest, Gavin Schmidt, has been a leader in measuring the variations in Earth's climate, modeling its likely future trajectory, and working to get the word out. We talk about the current state of the art, and what to expect for the future.

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    Blog post with transcript: https://www.preposterousuniverse.com/podcast/2024/05/20/276-gavin-schmidt-on-measuring-predicting-and-protecting-our-climate/

    Gavin Schmidt received his Ph.D. in applied mathematics from University College London. He is currently Director of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, and an affiliate of the Center for Climate Systems Research at Columbia University. His research involves both measuring and modeling climate variability. Among his awards are the inaugural Climate Communications Prize of the American Geophysical Union. He is a cofounder of the RealClimate blog.


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    275 | Solo: Quantum Fields, Particles, Forces, and Symmetries

    275 | Solo: Quantum Fields, Particles, Forces, and Symmetries

    Publication week! Say hello to Quanta and Fields, the second volume of the planned three-volume series The Biggest Ideas in the Universe. This volume covers quantum physics generally, but focuses especially on the wonders of quantum field theory. To celebrate, this solo podcast talks about some of the big ideas that make QFT so compelling: how quantized fields produce particles, how gauge symmetries lead to forces of nature, and how those forces can manifest in different phases, including Higgs and confinement.

    Blog post with transcript: https://www.preposterousuniverse.com/podcast/2024/05/13/275-solo-quantum-fields-particles-forces-and-symmetries/

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    AMA | May 2024

    AMA | May 2024

    Welcome to the May 2024 Ask Me Anything episode of Mindscape! These monthly excursions are funded by Patreon supporters (who are also the ones asking the questions). We take questions asked by Patreons, whittle them down to a more manageable number -- based primarily on whether I have anything interesting to say about them, not whether the questions themselves are good -- and sometimes group them together if they are about a similar topic. Enjoy!

    Blog post with questions and transcript: https://www.preposterousuniverse.com/podcast/2024/05/06/ama-may-2024/

    Support Mindscape on Patreon.

    Here is the memorial to Dan Dennett at Ars Technica.

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    274 | Gizem Gumuskaya on Building Robots from Human Cells

    274 | Gizem Gumuskaya on Building Robots from Human Cells

    Modern biology is advancing by leaps and bounds, not only in understanding how organisms work, but in learning how to modify them in interesting ways. One exciting frontier is the study of tiny "robots" created from living molecules and cells, rather than metal and plastic. Gizem Gumuskaya, who works with previous guest Michael Levin, has created anthrobots, a new kind of structure made from living human cells. We talk about how that works, what they can do, and what future developments might bring.

    Blog post with transcript: https://www.preposterousuniverse.com/podcast/2024/04/29/274-gizem-gumuskaya-on-building-robots-from-human-cells/

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    Gimez Gumuskaya received her Ph.D. from Tufts University and the Harvard Wyss Institute for Biologically-Inspired Engineering. She is currently a postdoctoral researcher at Tufts University. She previously received a dual master's degree in Architecture and Synthetic Biology from MIT.

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    273 | Stefanos Geroulanos on the Invention of Prehistory

    273 | Stefanos Geroulanos on the Invention of Prehistory

    Humanity itself might be the hardest thing for scientists to study fairly and accurately. Not only do we come to the subject with certain inevitable preconceptions, but it's hard to resist the temptation to find scientific justifications for the stories we'd like to tell about ourselves. In his new book, The Invention of Prehistory, Stefanos Geroulanos looks at the ways that we have used -- and continue to use -- supposedly-scientific tales of prehistoric humanity to bolster whatever cultural, social, and political purposes we have at the moment.

    Blog post with transcript: https://www.preposterousuniverse.com/podcast/2024/04/22/273-stefanos-geroulanos-on-the-invention-of-prehistory/

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    Stefanos Geroulanos received his Ph.D. in humanities from Johns Hopkins. He is currently director of the Remarque Institute and a professor of history at New York University. He is the author and editor of a number of books on European intellectual history. He serves as a Co-Executive Editor of the Journal of the History of Ideas.


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    272 | Leslie Valiant on Learning and Educability in Computers and People

    272 | Leslie Valiant on Learning and Educability in Computers and People

    Science is enabled by the fact that the natural world exhibits predictability and regularity, at least to some extent. Scientists collect data about what happens in the world, then try to suggest "laws" that capture many phenomena in simple rules. A small irony is that, while we are looking for nice compact rules, there aren't really nice compact rules about how to go about doing that. Today's guest, Leslie Valiant, has been a pioneer in understanding how computers can and do learn things about the world. And in his new book, The Importance of Being Educable, he pinpoints this ability to learn new things as the crucial feature that distinguishes us as human beings. We talk about where that capability came from and what its role is as artificial intelligence becomes ever more prevalent.

    Blog post with transcript: https://www.preposterousuniverse.com/podcast/2024/04/15/272-leslie-valiant-on-learning-and-educability-in-computers-and-people/

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    Leslie Valiant received his Ph.D. in computer science from Warwick University. He is currently the T. Jefferson Coolidge Professor of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics at Harvard University. He has been awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship, the Knuth Prize, and the Turing Award, and he is a member of the National Academy of Sciences as well as a Fellow of the Royal Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is the pioneer of "Probably Approximately Correct" learning, which he wrote about in a book of the same name.

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    AMA | April 2024

    AMA | April 2024

    Welcome to the April 2024 Ask Me Anything episode of Mindscape! These monthly excursions are funded by Patreon supporters (who are also the ones asking the questions). We take questions asked by Patreons, whittle them down to a more manageable number -- based primarily on whether I have anything interesting to say about them, not whether the questions themselves are good -- and sometimes group them together if they are about a similar topic. Enjoy!

    Blog post with questions and transcript: https://www.preposterousuniverse.com/podcast/2024/04/08/ama-april-2024/

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    271 | Claudia de Rham on Modifying General Relativity

    271 | Claudia de Rham on Modifying General Relativity

    Einstein's theory of general relativity has been our best understanding of gravity for over a century, withstanding a variety of experimental challenges of ever-increasing precision. But we have to be open to the possibility that general relativity -- even at the classical level, aside from any questions of quantum gravity -- isn't the right theory of gravity. Such speculation is motivated by cosmology, where we have a good model of the universe but one with a number of loose ends. Claudia de Rham has been a leader in exploring how gravity could be modified in cosmologically interesting ways, and we discuss the current state of the art as well as future prospects.

    Blog post with transcript: https://www.preposterousuniverse.com/podcast/2024/04/01/271-claudia-de-rham-on-modifying-general-relativity/

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    Claudia de Rham received her Ph.D. in physics from the University of Cambridge. She is currently a professor of physics and deputy department head at Imperial College, London. She is a Simons Foundation Investigator, winner of the Blavatnik Award, and a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Her new book is The Beauty of Falling: A Life in Pursuit of Gravity.


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    270 | Solo: The Coming Transition in How Humanity Lives

    270 | Solo: The Coming Transition in How Humanity Lives

    Technology is changing the world, in good and bad ways. Artificial intelligence, internet connectivity, biological engineering, and climate change are dramatically altering the parameters of human life. What can we say about how this will extend into the future? Will the pace of change level off, or smoothly continue, or hit a singularity in a finite time? In this informal solo episode, I think through what I believe will be some of the major forces shaping how human life will change over the decades to come, exploring the very real possibility that we will experience a dramatic phase transition into a new kind of equilibrium.

    Blog post with transcript and links to additional resources: https://www.preposterousuniverse.com/podcast/2024/03/25/270-solo-the-coming-transition-in-how-humanity-lives/

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    269 | Sahar Heydari Fard on Complexity, Justice, and Social Dynamics

    269 | Sahar Heydari Fard on Complexity, Justice, and Social Dynamics

    When it comes to social change, two questions immediately present themselves: What kind of change do we want to see happen? And, how do we bring it about? These questions are distinct but related; there's not much point in spending all of our time wanting change that won't possibly happen, or working for change that wouldn't actually be good. Addressing such issues lies at the intersection of philosophy, political science, and social dynamics. Sahar Heydari Fard looks at all of these issues through the lens of complex systems theory, to better understand how the world works and how it might be improved.

    Blog post with transcript: https://www.preposterousuniverse.com/podcast/2024/03/18/269-sahar-heydari-fard-on-complexity-justice-and-social-dynamics/

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    Sahar Heydari Fard received a Masters in applied economics and a Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Cincinnati. She is currently an assistant professor in philosophy at the Ohio State University. Her research lies at the intersection of social and behavioral sciences, social and political philosophy, and ethics, using tools from complex systems theory.


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    Related Episodes

    43 | Matthew Luczy on the Pleasures of Wine

    43 | Matthew Luczy on the Pleasures of Wine
    Some people never drink wine; for others, it’s an indispensable part of an enjoyable meal. Whatever your personal feelings might be, wine seems to exhibit a degree of complexity and nuance that can be intimidating to the non-expert. Where does that complexity come from, and how can we best approach wine? To answer these questions, we talk to Matthew Luczy, sommelier and wine director at Mélisse, one of the top fine-dining restaurants in the Los Angeles area. Matthew insisted that we actually drink wine rather than just talking about it, so drink we do. Therefore, in a Mindscape first, I recruited a third party to join us and add her own impressions of the tasting: science writer Jennifer Ouellette, who I knew would be available because we’re married to each other. We talk about what makes different wines distinct, the effects of aging, and what’s the right bottle to have with pizza. You are free to drink along at home, with exactly these wines or some other choices, but I think the podcast will be enjoyable whether you do or not. Support Mindscape on Patreon or Paypal. Mattew Luczy is a Certified Sommelier as judged by the Court of Master Sommeliers. He currently works as the Wine Director at Mélisse in Santa Monica, California. He is also active in photography and music. Mélisse home page Personal/photography page Instagram Ask a Somm: When Should I Decant Wine? See Privacy Policy at https://art19.com/privacy and California Privacy Notice at https://art19.com/privacy#do-not-sell-my-info.

    25 | David Chalmers on Consciousness, the Hard Problem, and Living in a Simulation

    25 | David Chalmers on Consciousness, the Hard Problem, and Living in a Simulation
    The "Easy Problems" of consciousness have to do with how the brain takes in information, thinks about it, and turns it into action. The "Hard Problem," on the other hand, is the task of explaining our individual, subjective, first-person experiences of the world. What is it like to be me, rather than someone else? Everyone agrees that the Easy Problems are hard; some people think the Hard Problem is almost impossible, while others think it's pretty easy. Today's guest, David Chalmers, is arguably the leading philosopher of consciousness working today, and the one who coined the phrase "the Hard Problem," as well as proposing the philosophical zombie thought experiment. Recently he has been taking seriously the notion of panpsychism. We talk about these knotty issues (about which we deeply disagree), but also spend some time on the possibility that we live in a computer simulation. Would simulated lives be "real"? (There we agree -- yes they would.) David Chalmers got his Ph.D. from Indiana University working under Douglas Hoftstadter. He is currently University Professor of Philosophy and Neural Science at New York University and co-director of the Center for Mind, Brain, and Consciousness. He is a fellow of the Australian Academy of Humanities, the Academy of Social Sciences in Australia, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Among his books are The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory, The Character of Consciousness, and Constructing the World. He and David Bourget founded the PhilPapers project. Web site NYU Faculty page Wikipedia page PhilPapers page Amazon author page NYU Center for Mind, Brain, and Consciousness TED talk: How do you explain consciousness? See Privacy Policy at https://art19.com/privacy and California Privacy Notice at https://art19.com/privacy#do-not-sell-my-info.

    18 | Clifford Johnson on What's So Great About Superstring Theory

    18 | Clifford Johnson on What's So Great About Superstring Theory
    String theory is a speculative and highly technical proposal for uniting the known forces of nature, including gravity, under a single quantum-mechanical framework. This doesn't seem like a recipe for creating a lightning rod of controversy, but somehow string theory has become just that. To get to the bottom of why anyone (indeed, a substantial majority of experts in the field) would think that replacing particles with little loops of string was a promising way forward for theoretical physics, I spoke with expert string theorist Clifford Johnson. We talk about the road string theory has taken from a tentative proposal dealing with the strong interactions, through a number of revolutions, to the point it's at today. Also, where all those extra dimensions might have gone. At the end we touch on Clifford's latest project, a graphic novel that he wrote and illustrated about how science is done. Clifford Johnson is a Professor of Physics at the University of Southern California. He received his Ph.D. in mathematics and physics from the University of Southampton. His research area is theoretical physics, focusing on string theory and quantum field theory. He was awarded the Maxwell Medal from the Institute of Physics. Johnson is the author of the technical monograph D-Branes, as well as the graphic novel The Dialogues. Home page Wikipedia page Publications A talk on The Dialogues Asymptotia blog Twitter See Privacy Policy at https://art19.com/privacy and California Privacy Notice at https://art19.com/privacy#do-not-sell-my-info.

    AMA | November 2021

    AMA | November 2021

    Welcome to the November 2021 Ask Me Anything episode of Mindscape! These monthly excursions are funded by Patreon supporters (who are also the ones asking the questions). I take the large number of questions asked by Patreons, whittle them down to a more manageable size — based primarily on whether I have anything interesting to say about them, not whether the questions themselves are good — and sometimes group them together if they are about a similar topic. Enjoy!

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    AMA | March 2024

    AMA | March 2024

    Welcome to the March 2024 Ask Me Anything episode of Mindscape! These monthly excursions are funded by Patreon supporters (who are also the ones asking the questions). We take questions asked by Patreons, whittle them down to a more manageable number -- based primarily on whether I have anything interesting to say about them, not whether the questions themselves are good -- and sometimes group them together if they are about a similar topic.

    Big congrats this month to Ryan Funakoshi, winner of this year's Mindscape Big Picture Scholarship! And enormous, heartfelt thanks to everyone who contributed. We're going to keep doing this in years to come.

    Blog post with questions and transcript: https://www.preposterousuniverse.com/podcast/2024/03/11/ama-march-2024/

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