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    #308 – Ryan Graves: UFOs, Fighter Jets, and Aliens

    Even the best of us can make mistakes when attempting a complex task such as landing on an aircraft carrier.

    enAugust 01, 2022

    About this Episode

    Lt. Ryan Graves is a former Navy fighter pilot, who has worked on advanced research and development programs for DARPA, Office of Naval Research, and Air Force Research Labs on topics of multi-agent collaborative autonomy, AI-assisted air-to-air combat, and manned-unmanned teaming technologies. Ryan and people in his squadron detected and engaged with UFOs on multiple occasions, and he has been one of the few people willing to speak publicly about these experiences. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - GiveWell: https://www.givewell.org/ and use code LEX - Notion: https://notion.com/startups to get up to $1000 off team plan - Magic Spoon: https://magicspoon.com/lex and use code LEX to get $5 off - ExpressVPN: https://expressvpn.com/lexpod to get 3 months free EPISODE LINKS: Ryan's Twitter: https://twitter.com/uncertainvector Ryan's Website: https://uncertainvector.com DoD Statement: https://defense.gov/News/Releases/Release/Article/2165713/statement-by-the-department-of-defense-on-the-release-of-historical-navy-videos/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:28) - Top Gun analysis (19:33) - Fighter jets (1:07:00) - UFO sightings (1:33:28) - Congressional hearing (1:41:29) - Tic Tac UFO & Gimbal UFO (1:55:55) - Alien life (2:09:17) - Autonomous weapon systems (2:26:24) - Advice for young people (2:34:40) - Meaning of life

    🔑 Key Takeaways

    • Low-level flight requires a delicate balance of strategy, tactics and aggression to successfully navigate the terrain and stay hidden from detection.
    • Autonomy and machine learning can provide a tactical advantage in uncertain environments by introducing a stochastic level of randomness to the enemy's environment.
    • Having knowledge and the right technology can be more beneficial than just having a powerful aircraft.
    • The F 35 fighter jet is a powerful aircraft capable of hypersonic flight, but it is important to understand the kill chain concept in order to effectively use the weapon.
    • In order to avoid a bird strike, pilots must be aware of the bird conditions around the airport and be trained to react quickly.
    • With a Navy pilot career comes an exciting opportunity to learn and explore different aircraft and their capabilities.
    • Ejection is a necessary safety measure, but can be a terrifying experience, so it is important to understand the physics behind it.
    • Staying in formation while flying in a fighter jet requires intense focus and precision, as well as reliance on instruments and sensors to help navigate and maintain formation.
    • Trusting your aircraft's instruments and combining human intuition and automation is the best way to maintain tight formation and adapt quickly to changing conditions.
    • Through challenging experiences, we can discover new ways to push humanity's reach beyond our imagination.
    • Even the best of us can make mistakes when attempting a complex task such as landing on an aircraft carrier.
    • Communication between the pilot and the LSO is essential for a successful landing in difficult weather conditions.
    • Stay prepared for the unexpected and appreciate the beauty of the journey.
    • Upgraded radar can provide pilots with a better understanding of their environment and mission, improving safety in the air.
    • Radar is a powerful tool that provides aircraft with the information they need to understand and react to their surroundings.
    • Military operations must be vigilantly monitored and protected against potential threats to ensure the safety of classified information.
    • Paying close attention to your environment and understanding potential dangers is essential for a safe flight.
    • It is important to consider all possibilities when trying to solve a mystery.
    • With the right resources and data, we can gain a better understanding of the unknown mysteries of the universe.
    • Open communication and research can help to break through the stigma surrounding UAPs and open up a dialogue about the topic.
    • Advanced technology is necessary to traverse between different domains and improve safety and tactical capabilities to investigate anomalies.
    • Pilots witnessed a phenomenon that was not seen before; an object that seemed to climb during a turn instead of normal turning, a behavior which is not typical to humans.
    • We need to take a skeptical approach to analyzing evidence and trust but verify, while still taking the time to appreciate the beauty of anomalous events.
    • By utilizing advanced technology such as quantum computing, we can open up a pathway to discovering new levels of understanding and intelligence.
    • Investing in difficult projects can lead to discoveries that have both known and unknown impacts on everyday life.
    • By understanding the strengths and limitations of both humans and machines, we can create a more efficient and effective system.
    • Governments must exercise responsible leadership and create safeguards to protect against the weaponization of commercial technology for warfare.
    • We must strive to find ways to peacefully coexist, while recognizing our common humanity in times of conflict.
    • Don't be afraid to take on new things and have a beginner's mind attitude, as it can help you find strength and resilience to make it to a better place.
    • Accepting the beauty and cruelty of nature can help provide perspective in life's difficult transitions.
    • Appreciate the unique gifts and talents within yourself and use them to make a lasting impact on the world.

    📝 Podcast Summary

    Navigating the Terrain of Low-Level Flight

    The mission at hand was a challenging one: to fly low, undetected by surface to air missiles and integrated air defense systems.It required a great deal of skill and knowledge to navigate the terrain and stay hidden from detection.Ryan Graves, a former Navy fighter pilot, described this "chess game" as a delicate balance of strategy, tactics and aggression.He explained how the aircraft must fly low to avoid detection and how the radar systems and distributed communication networks can mask the aircraft.It requires a lot of skill to be able to fly in this kind of environment, and Ryan provided a valuable insight into the complexity of the mission.

    Unleashing Autonomy and Machine Learning on the Chessboard of War

    Flying a mission in an uncertain environment requires preparation, strategy and skill.It is a chess game against physics, the enemy, time and mother nature.The pilot must stay alive, while the weapons systems officer is responsible for radar manipulation, communications and weapons deployment.To increase tactical advantage, autonomy and machine learning can be used to create a stochastic level of randomness in the enemy's environment, making it appear random but still very deadly.

    Harnessing the Power of Technology for Military Success

    In the military, knowledge and using the right technology is essential for success.AI and machine learning are being used to generate randomness, making it hard for human operators to anticipate and respond.Dogfights are less common now due to the range and accuracy of weapon systems.The F-35 is an example of an aircraft which is not the best dogfighter, but it has the strengths of mission command and electronic warfare.It shows that having knowledge and the right technology can be more beneficial than just having a powerful aircraft.

    Achieving Hypersonic Flight Through the Kill Chain

    The F 35 fighter jet is one of the most expensive aircrafts in the world due to its advanced technology.It is designed to help with warfare at the front line, as it stands behind the F 20 twos and F eighteens.It is important to be aware of the speed and acceleration of the aircraft, as it can be dangerous to eject at super sonic speeds.The violent deceleration experienced when dropping from afterburner to full power can be compared to a reverse car crash.Hypersonic flight is not yet in use tactically, however, hypersonic weapons pose a challenge for defences due to the speed of the attack.The kill chain is an important concept to understand, which involves locating, identifying and destroying a target in a short period of time.

    Overcoming the High-Risk of Bird Strikes in Aviation

    In the world of aviation, there are many challenges that pilots must face.One of the most serious threats that pilots face is bird strikes.Bird strikes can be deadly and cause serious damage to airplanes.Pilots must be aware of the bird conditions around the airport, and even use radar systems to stay informed.In addition to being aware, pilots must be trained to react quickly in order to avoid a bird strike.They need to be able to make decisions quickly and know to go over rather than under the bird.Although these threats are low probability, they are still very real and must be taken into account when flying an aircraft.

    Exploring the Incredible Journey of a Navy Pilot

    A Navy pilot's career is an exciting one.It involves training on various aircraft and learning to operate them with care.Ryan Graves was lucky enough to be assigned a tailhook upon joining the Navy, which meant he'd be trained to fly aircrafts that land on aircraft carriers.In his initial training he was fortunate to get a jet slot and was assigned to fly the T45 Goshawk.This aircraft is used for training purposes and has a difference of 15,000 horsepower from the previous plane he flew.It was a huge jump in power and performance, and a unique experience.All together, a Navy pilot's career is an incredible journey of learning and exploration.

    A Fascinating Physics Lesson: Understanding the Dangers of Ejection

    Flying a Jet is a huge jump from smaller aircraft.On his first flight, Ryan Graves was in awe of seeing aircraft up close for the first time.Even though the landing gear wouldn't come down, he was focused on helping the crew, and not fearful.Unfortunately, on a similar flight, a student ended up ejecting the aircraft.It is more common than people think.Ejection is instantaneous and can be a terrifying experience.It is a fascinating physics lesson of how to eject safely.Early testing was done on a rocket sled to determine how much the body could take.It was a dangerous but necessary process that has saved many lives.

    Navigating Complex Air Dynamics: The Art of Flying in Formation

    Flying in a fighter jet requires intense focus and precision.Staying in formation with other jets is a tricky task, as the air dynamics change and the wingman become more distant.To maintain formation, pilots must learn to focus on visual checkpoints that form an equal triangle to understand their relative position.This requires hours of dedicated practice, and can be difficult to master.It's a stressful task that requires intense concentration, as any changes in air dynamics can have an effect on the jet's precision.Pilots must learn to rely on their instruments and sensors to help them navigate and stay in formation.

    The Benefits of Human-AI Collaboration in Formation Flying

    The importance of trusting your aircraft's instruments cannot be overstated, especially when flying in formation.Pilots must stay alert and aware of their flight lead, as the lead's movements are the reference for the pilot's situational awareness.While automation and AI can help in some situations, it is not always the best choice.In the case of formation flying, the best option is to use a combination of human intuition and automation.This way, the flight crew can maintain tight formation and still have the flexibility to randomly adjust their position when needed.This kind of human-AI collaboration can be beneficial in many situations, including fast-paced and safety-critical ones.

    Unlocking Humanity's Technological Revolution

    Humans have an amazing capacity to learn and understand complex concepts.Ryan Graves found this out when he was first exposed to the world of flying fighter jets.He was drawn to the challenge of mastering the machines and the technology that comes with it, and he found a passion for it.Through his experience Ryan now believes that we are on the brink of a technological revolution and that humanity's reach will extend far beyond what we can imagine today.This could lead to the discovery of new physics and unlock answers to questions we didn't even know we had.

    Perfectly Landing on an Aircraft Carrier: A Stressful Challenge

    Exploring the universe can be done in many different ways, some of which involve incredibly advanced technologies.One example is landing and taking off from an aircraft carrier, a task that requires a complex checklist and many people involved.The pilot has to fly precisely enough to fit within a one foot by one foot box, which is very difficult and even if done perfectly, can still result in failure.The landing signal officer is responsible for the success, and the pilot must adjust the power levels and angles to maintain the same level of descent.Doing this is extremely stressful and even the best of us can make mistakes.

    Uniting Pilot & Landing Signal Officer in Challenging Weather Conditions

    In aviation, pilots must always be mindful of the changing conditions in order to make a safe landing.In difficult weather conditions, pilots must compensate for the wind dropping, known as the verbal, which can cause a sudden decrease in the rate of descent.A landing signal officer, who has a radio and can communicate directly with the pilot, becomes invaluable in these situations.The pilot must then listen to the LSO's instructions in order to adjust their power and descent rate accordingly, while also turning on the taxi lights in order to help the LSO spot them.This communication between the pilot and the LSO is crucial, as the pilot may not be able to see the landing area and the LSO may not be able to see the aircraft.If done correctly, the pilot can safely land the aircraft, even in harsh weather conditions.

    An Unexpected Adventure of Focus and Training

    Flying can be a challenging, yet rewarding experience.You may not always know what lies ahead, but you must strive to stay focused and prepared.Training is essential to success, as it prepares you for unexpected circumstances.This includes night landings, which require extra vigilance and focus.Being able to appreciate the beauty and majesty of the stars, while flying over the ocean, can also be a special moment of awe and humility.All of these experiences combine to make flying a unique and memorable adventure.

    An Unexpected Magnitude Jump: Unlocking the Potential of Upgraded Radar

    Ryan and several other pilots in his squadron were given the opportunity to upgrade their radar on their F-18 aircrafts.This upgrade enabled them to detect objects on their radar that weren't previously visible with the older model.Ryan, being a relatively new pilot, was fascinated by this upgrade, as it brought a "magnitude jump" in capabilities from the analog to the digital radar.The pilots were able to view their data in both first-person and a "God's eye view" from the situational awareness page.With the new radar, Ryan and the other pilots were able to detect objects that weren't previously visible.This enabled them to gain a better understanding of their environment and mission.The upgraded radar undoubtedly made their job easier and improved their safety in the air.

    Unlocking the Power of Radar to Track Objects in the Sky

    Radar is a powerful tool used to track objects in the sky.With radar, the target aspect indicator shows the direction the object is going.This is useful information for aircraft, as it helps them understand what is going on around them.For example, if an aircraft is stationary against the wind at high altitudes, the radar can detect that.It can also detect the patterns and speeds of the object, such as racetrack patterns, circular patterns, and even supersonic speeds.This is especially useful off the coast of Virginia Beach, where radar can detect objects up to 300 miles away.With this knowledge, aircraft can better understand their surroundings and react accordingly.

    Unpredictable & Erratic: Investigating Military Operations in the Unknown

    Military operations must be monitored and protected carefully.Knowing that foreign nations could be observing military operations, Ryan Graves, a U.S.Navy pilot, and his squadron had to be vigilant.Reports of strange objects on radar were taken seriously, and the squadron began to investigate.They found objects emitting infrared energy and when they flew close, they saw the objects were erratic, not like a computer-controlled plane.80-90% of the squadron had seen one of these objects, but had no idea what it was.It could have been a balloon, drone, or a potential intelligence gathering mission, so they had to be careful.They had to defend against any potential threats, and protect the classified information they were using.The object's characteristics are still unknown.All that's known is that the objects were unpredictable and erratic.

    Unidentified Hazard: A Cautionary Tale for Pilots

    The pilots noticed an object that was not on their radar, but appeared at the same altitude and location as the entry to their working area.It took the form of a dark gray or black cube inside a clear translucent sphere, and the cube was touching the inside of the sphere.They cancelled the flight and reported the sighting as a hazard to the Naval aviation safety communication network, so that something could be done.The pilots did not think it was a direct threat, but they were worried that it could be a part of an unknown classified program and that it could potentially be dangerous.They wanted to alert the responsible parties of the potential danger and take necessary steps to protect the pilots.This incident was a reminder of the importance of paying close attention to the environment and understanding potential dangers.

    Exploring the Mysterious Phenomenon Off the East Coast

    Ryan was discussing a mysterious phenomenon seen off the east coast and the potential for the phenomenon to be the result of a foreign power, a non-government entity or even a natural phenomena.He explained that it could be beneficial for someone in a power struggle to be aggressive with the development of different types of technology and that it is important to consider all possibilities.He also mentioned the possibility of illusions caused by conditions such as nighttime flying and false horizons.The conclusion is that the phenomenon could be the result of a number of different possibilities and must be explored more thoroughly.Ryan's discussion is an important reminder that all possibilities should be considered when trying to solve a mystery.

    Exploring the Unknown: Unveiling the Mysteries of the Universe

    In this world, full of unknown mysteries and phenomena, it is important to investigate and understand them thoroughly.To do this, we need to understand the conditions and environment under which these mysteries take place.We need to learn how they interact with the environment and other objects.To ensure accuracy, data from multiple sources need to be collected, analyzed and evaluated.With the Pentagon's new office for investigating UFOs, we can expect more rigor and seriousness towards this task.This could be a step towards understanding these phenomena and improving our knowledge.

    Breaking Through the Stigma of Unidentified Aerial Phenomena

    Ryan's experience shows that the public can play an important role in pushing for more transparency when it comes to UAPs.It is evident that the politicians and leaders in the Pentagon are cautious about discussing this topic due to the stigma attached to it.However, with the help of open communication and research, society can break through this wall and make progress.Ryan himself has taken a risk to talk about UAPs, which can be seen as an effort to alleviate the stigma and create an open dialogue.

    Bridging the Gap Between Intercellular and Underwater Spaces Through Advanced Technologies

    The topic being discussed is the use of advanced technologies to operate in intercellular and underwater spaces.It is evident that this is an issue which has been passed down through generations.There are reporting mechanisms to investigate safety and tactical issues, but there is no way to communicate about this.The DOD has released videos on UFO sightings, which is an anomalous experience which cannot be easily explained.Ryan Graves talks about how aircrafts and submarines operate in different domains, which makes it hard to track something that is transitioning between these domains.He also talks about the ‘Go Fast’ and ‘GI’ videos and his experience with them.This highlights the need for advanced technology to traverse between different domains and the importance of cross domain tracking.This can help in improving safety and tactical capabilities to better understand and investigate anomalies.

    Unbelievable Unexplained Phenomenon Captured by Pilots

    The strange object that the pilots had spotted while flying was not something they were expecting to see.It was shaped like a gimble and had a funnel of IR energy at the top and the bottom.The object was moving in a path and there were no exhaust fumes coming out of it.In fact, the pilots noticed a formation of around 4 to 60 of these objects in a wedge formation.They were flying close to each other but not in formation.When they turned around, the object seemed to have climbed, instead of turning normally.This strange flight mechanic of climbing during a turn is not something humans usually do as it wastes fuel.This was one of the most impressive videos of such an unexplained phenomenon that the pilots had ever seen.

    Appreciating the Anomalous Beauty of Life

    As humans we often focus on busy, important tasks that fill our days, leaving no time to consider the truly beautiful and anomalous events that don't fit into our busy schedules.In the case of UFOs, the DOD released videos to acknowledge that they were out there.It is important to take a skeptical approach to analyzing the evidence and assign probabilities to the explanations, but it is also important to avoid driving towards a pre-determined conclusion.We need to trust but verify, and take the time to appreciate the truly beautiful and anomalous events that make life more interesting.

    Uncovering the Possibilities of Alien Intelligence Through Quantum Computing

    Ryan was discussing the possibility of intelligent life existing beyond Earth.He believes that we can only understand the possibilities of what it may be like by not limiting ourselves to how we perceive things.He also delved into how technology has advanced over the years and how quantum computing has the potential to manipulate matter at a level that would be considered alien.GenMatt is an example of this, which has the potential to reverse engineer and discover unique materials.This could be a gateway to a new level of understanding and intelligence.

    Unlocking the Potential of Science and Technology

    Learning from this conversation is that science and technology have the potential to transform the world.By investing in difficult projects, like space travel, for example, we can make discoveries that can be applied to everyday life.This could be anything from creating new technologies to finding new materials.It also suggests that governments may be hiding technology, which could be an unknown risk.It is important to consider the potential impacts of new discoveries while advancing science and technology.

    Harnessing the Power of Man and Machine

    Humans and machines working together can achieve greater results than either one alone.By understanding the advantages and limitations of both, we can work together to create a more efficient and effective system.For example, in combat, using randomness and advanced machine learning can make it harder for enemies to predict our actions, while humans can provide the overall mission objectives.Man and machine teaming allows us to allocate resources more effectively and build specialized systems for specific cases.By combining the strengths of both, we can create a powerful, unified force.

    Ethical and Moral Leadership: The Key to Technology's Role in Warfare

    Technology has made warfare more precise and efficient, enabling increased autonomy and reducing civilian casualties in times of war.With the advancement of technology, ethical and moral leadership of our government is essential to ensure technology is used for its intended purpose.Governments must also consider the potential misuse of technology and create safeguards to protect against weaponization of commercial technology, which can be easily accessible to anyone.With this, we can have greater confidence in the ethical use of technology in warfare and protect our freedom.

    Recognizing Our Common Humanity in Times of Conflict

    In times of conflict, it is essential to remember that those we are fighting are humans like us.We can never lose sight of this fundamental truth, no matter what the cause of the conflict may be.Although it may be necessary, war should never be our first resort.We must all strive to find other ways to resolve our differences without resorting to violence.Understanding that no matter what sides we are on, we are all human can help us to recognize our common humanity and hopefully find ways to peacefully coexist.

    Finding Strength Through Bravery and Understanding

    Having a purpose in life and finding something to apply love and care to is an invaluable lesson to learn.Don't be afraid of looking foolish or taking on new things, even later on in life.There have been times of darkness and hardship, but with bravery, understanding, and a beginner's mind, we can overcome these obstacles and make the world better in the process.Whether in the military or in a civilian life, no matter the age, we can find strength and resilience to make it to a better place.

    Finding Peace and Clarity in Nature After Leaving the Military

    Being in the military can be a life changing experience.It can provide a sense of purpose, camaraderie and a feeling of being part of something bigger.However, the transition to life after leaving the military can be difficult.It is important to respect this change and take it seriously.For Ryan, he found a place in nature that provided him with a sense of peace and clarity.He was able to combine the fastness of technology and the calm of nature to build his own sanctuary.Death is a part of life and an important part of evolution.It can be a difficult thing to come to terms with, but looking out into nature and understanding its beauty and cruelty can help to provide perspective.

    Uncovering the Limitless Possibilities of Life

    Having a human life is an incredible privilege.We are each unique and have the ability to think and create in ways that can never be replicated.This is our chance to be curious, explore and make a difference in the world.We can take this opportunity to ask bigger questions about the meaning of life and appreciate the beauty of nature.Ryan Graves was brave enough to discuss UFOs and is an inspiration for us to use our minds and talents to innovate, create and explore.We have the chance to make a lasting impact on the world and it all starts with a little bit of curiosity.

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    #427 – Neil Adams: Judo, Olympics, Winning, Losing, and the Champion Mindset

    #427 – Neil Adams: Judo, Olympics, Winning, Losing, and the Champion Mindset
    Neil Adams is a judo world champion, 2-time Olympic silver medalist, 5-time European champion, and often referred to as the Voice of Judo. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ZipRecruiter: https://ziprecruiter.com/lex - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/neil-adams-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Neil's Instagram: https://instagram.com/naefighting Neil's YouTube: https://youtube.com/NAEffectiveFighting Neil's TikTok: https://tiktok.com/@neiladamsmbe Neil's Facebook: https://facebook.com/NeilAdamsJudo Neil's X: https://x.com/NeilAdamsJudo Neil's Website: https://naeffectivefighting.com Neil's Podcast: https://naeffectivefighting.com/podcasts/the-dojo-collective-podcast A Life in Judo (book): https://amzn.to/4d3DtfB A Game of Throws (audiobook): https://amzn.to/4aA2WeJ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (09:13) - 1980 Olympics (26:35) - Judo explained (34:40) - Winning (52:54) - 1984 Olympics (1:01:55) - Lessons from losing (1:17:37) - Teddy Riner (1:37:12) - Training in Japan (1:52:51) - Jiu jitsu (2:03:59) - Training (2:27:18) - Advice for beginners

    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs

    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs
    Edward Gibson is a psycholinguistics professor at MIT and heads the MIT Language Lab. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Yahoo Finance: https://yahoofinance.com - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/edward-gibson-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Edward's X: https://x.com/LanguageMIT TedLab: https://tedlab.mit.edu/ Edward's Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=4FsWE64AAAAJ TedLab's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@Tedlab-MIT PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (10:53) - Human language (14:59) - Generalizations in language (20:46) - Dependency grammar (30:45) - Morphology (39:20) - Evolution of languages (42:40) - Noam Chomsky (1:26:46) - Thinking and language (1:40:16) - LLMs (1:53:14) - Center embedding (2:19:42) - Learning a new language (2:23:34) - Nature vs nurture (2:30:10) - Culture and language (2:44:38) - Universal language (2:49:01) - Language translation (2:52:16) - Animal communication

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones
    Andrew Callaghan is the host of Channel 5 on YouTube, where he does street interviews with fascinating humans at the edges of society, the so-called vagrants, vagabonds, runaways, outlaws, from QAnon adherents to Phish heads to O Block residents and much more. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ShipStation: https://shipstation.com/lex and use code LEX to get 60-day free trial - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/andrew-callaghan-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Channel 5 with Andrew Callaghan: https://www.youtube.com/channel5YouTube Andrew's Instagram: https://instagram.com/andreww.me Andrew's Website: https://andrew-callaghan.com/ Andrew's Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/channel5 This Place Rules: https://www.hbo.com/movies/this-place-rules Books Mentioned: On the Road: https://amzn.to/4aLPLHi Siddhartha: https://amzn.to/49rthKz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (08:53) - Walmart (10:24) - Early life (29:14) - Hitchhiking (40:49) - Couch surfing (49:50) - Quarter Confessions (1:07:33) - Burning Man (1:22:44) - Protests (1:28:17) - Jon Stewart (1:31:13) - Fame (1:44:31) - Jan 6 (1:48:15) - QAnon (1:54:00) - Alex Jones (2:10:52) - Politics (2:20:29) - Response to allegations (2:37:28) - Channel 5 (2:43:04) - Rap (2:44:51) - O Block (2:48:47) - Crip Mac (2:51:59) - Aliens

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame
    Bassem Youssef is an Egyptian-American comedian & satirist, referred to as the Jon Stewart of the Arab World. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/bassem-youssef-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Bassem's X: https://x.com/Byoussef Bassem's Instagram: https://instagram.com/bassem Bassem's Facebook: https://facebook.com/bassemyousseftv Bassem's Website: https://bassemyoussef.xyz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:30) - Oct 7 (36:59) - Two-state solution (52:37) - Holocaust (1:00:24) - 1948 (1:09:17) - Egypt (1:23:39) - Jon Stewart (1:25:51) - Going viral during the Arab Spring (1:49:55) - Arabic vs English (2:02:18) - Sam Harris and Jihad (2:07:25) - Religion (2:26:37) - TikTok (2:31:10) - Joe Rogan (2:33:07) - Joe Biden (2:37:33) - Putin (2:39:21) - War (2:44:17) - Hope

    #423 – Tulsi Gabbard: War, Politics, and the Military Industrial Complex

    #423 – Tulsi Gabbard: War, Politics, and the Military Industrial Complex
    Tulsi Gabbard is a politician, veteran, and author of For Love of Country. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Riverside: https://creators.riverside.fm/LEX and use code LEX to get 30% off - ExpressVPN: https://expressvpn.com/lexpod to get 3 months free - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour - Notion: https://notion.com/lex Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/tulsi-gabbard-transcript EPISODE LINKS: For Love of Country (book): https://amzn.to/3VLlofM Tulsi's X: https://x.com/tulsigabbard Tulsi's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@TulsiGabbard Tulsi's Podcast: https://youtube.com/@TheTulsiGabbardShow Tulsi's Instagram: https://instagram.com/tulsigabbard Tulsi's Facebook: https://facebook.com/TulsiGabbard Tulsi's Website: https://tulsigabbard.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:14) - War in Iraq (15:00) - Battle injuries and PTSD (22:10) - War on terrorism (30:51) - War in Gaza (34:52) - War in Ukraine (38:38) - Syria (46:20) - Warmongers (55:40) - Nuclear war (1:11:08) - TikTok ban (1:23:13) - Bernie Sanders (1:28:08) - Politics (1:46:59) - Personal attacks (1:49:07) - God

    #422 – Mark Cuban: Shark Tank, DEI & Wokeism Debate, Elon Musk, Politics & Drugs

    #422 – Mark Cuban: Shark Tank, DEI & Wokeism Debate, Elon Musk, Politics & Drugs
    Mark Cuban is a businessman, investor, star of TV series Shark Tank, long-time principal owner of Dallas Mavericks, and founder of Cost Plus Drugs. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Cloaked: https://cloaked.com/lex and use code LexPod to get 25% off - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/mark-cuban-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Mark's X: https://twitter.com/mcuban Mark's Instagram: https://instagram.com/mcuban Cost Plus Drugs: https://costplusdrugs.com Shark Tank: https://abc.com/shows/shark-tank Dallas Mavericks: https://www.mavs.com PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (11:10) - Entrepreneurship (26:03) - Shark Tank (36:29) - How Mark made first billion (1:02:39) - Dallas Mavericks (1:08:05) - DEI debate (1:43:58) - Trump vs Biden (1:46:20) - Immigration (1:55:53) - Drugs and Big Pharma (2:11:53) - AI (2:16:05) - Advice for young people

    #421 – Dana White: UFC, Fighting, Khabib, Conor, Tyson, Ali, Rogan, Elon & Zuck

    #421 – Dana White: UFC, Fighting, Khabib, Conor, Tyson, Ali, Rogan, Elon & Zuck
    Dana White is the CEO and president of the UFC. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/lex to get 20% off Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/dana-white-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Dana's X: https://x.com/danawhite Dana's Instagram: https://instagram.com/danawhite Dana's Facebook: https://facebook.com/danawhite UFC's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@UFC UFC's Website: https://ufc.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:31) - Mike Tyson and early days of fighting (17:10) - Jiu jitsu (23:14) - Origin of UFC (37:25) - Joe Rogan (43:31) - Lorenzo Fertitta (45:58) - Great fighters (49:55) - Khabib vs Conor (53:01) - Jon Jones (56:03) - Conor McGregor (1:01:05) - Trump (1:06:44) - Elon vs Zuck (1:08:04) - Mike Tyson vs Jake Paul (1:10:52) - Forrest Griffin vs Stephan Bonnar (1:18:06) - Gambling (1:33:08) - Mortality

    #420 – Annie Jacobsen: Nuclear War, CIA, KGB, Aliens, Area 51, Roswell & Secrecy

    #420 – Annie Jacobsen: Nuclear War, CIA, KGB, Aliens, Area 51, Roswell & Secrecy
    Annie Jacobsen is an investigative journalist and author of "Nuclear War: A Scenario" and many other books on war, weapons, government secrecy, and national security. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - HiddenLayer: https://hiddenlayer.com/lex - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/annie-jacobsen-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Nuclear War: A Scenario (book): https://amzn.to/3THZHfr Annie's Twitter: https://twitter.com/anniejacobsen Annie's Website: https://anniejacobsen.com/ Annie's Books: https://amzn.to/3TGWyMJ Annie's Books (audio): https://adbl.co/49ZnI7c PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:37) - Nuclear war (12:21) - Launch procedure (18:00) - Deterrence (21:34) - Tactical nukes (30:59) - Nuclear submarines (33:59) - Nuclear missiles (41:10) - Nuclear football (50:17) - Missile interceptor system (54:34) - North Korea (1:01:10) - Nuclear war scenarios (1:10:02) - Warmongers (1:14:31) - President's cognitive ability (1:20:43) - Refusing orders (1:28:41) - Russia and Putin (1:33:48) - Cyberattack (1:35:09) - Ground zero of nuclear war (1:39:48) - Surviving nuclear war (1:44:06) - Nuclear winter (1:54:29) - Alien civilizations (2:00:04) - Extrasensory perception (2:13:50) - Area 51 (2:17:48) - UFOs and aliens (2:28:15) - Roswell incident (2:34:55) - CIA assassinations (2:53:47) - Navalny (2:56:12) - KGB (3:02:48) - Hitler and the atomic bomb (3:06:52) - War and human nature (3:10:17) - Hope