Logo

    #283 – Chris Mason: Space Travel, Colonization, and Long-Term Survival in Space

    Astronauts experience physical changes in space, but the return to Earth can be even harder. The molecular echo of their time in space continues to affect their bodies, requiring extra effort to repair and cleanse at the molecular level.

    enMay 08, 2022

    About this Episode

    Chris Mason is a professor of genomics, physiology, and biophysics at Cornell, doing research on the long-term effects of space on the human body. He is the author of The Next 500 Years: Engineering Life to Reach New Worlds. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - Grammarly: https://grammarly.com/lex to get 20% off premium - Magic Spoon: https://magicspoon.com/lex - Blinkist: https://blinkist.com/lex - Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/lex EPISODE LINKS: Chris's Twitter: https://twitter.com/mason_lab Chris's Website: http://masonlab.net/ Chris's Company: https://onegevity.com/ The Next 500 Years (book): https://amzn.to/3k9ab4S Reasons and Persons (book): https://amzn.to/3Lrm6a5 PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (0:00) - Introduction (7:43) - Human extinction awareness (16:29) - Heat death of the universe (22:05) - Alone in the universe (25:41) - Aliens (33:50) - Entropy goggles (48:04) - Genetics (56:14) - Scott Kelly (1:02:12) - Adapting to space (1:12:13) - Sex in space (1:14:46) - Colonizing planets (1:21:25) - Culture on Mars (1:25:51) - Commercial space flights (1:33:09) - Podcast in space (1:40:43) - Axiom Space (1:42:59) - Designing space experiments (1:49:49) - Robots in space (1:52:30) - Space exploration (1:56:28) - War in space (2:00:05) - Launch toward the Second Sun (2:06:14) - Chlorohumans (2:11:50) - Extreme microbiome project (2:18:17) - Space travel breakthroughs (2:30:15) - Clones (2:36:08) - AI age prediction (2:41:38) - Advice for young people (2:47:56) - Dark times (2:52:19) - Mortality (2:56:37) - Visiting ISS and deep space (2:57:46) - Meaning of life

    🔑 Key Takeaways

    • We have a duty to exercise our human-specific trait of awareness of death and extinction by expanding beyond Earth and finding offsite backup solutions for future generations. Preventing extinction and resurrecting extinct species also require careful consideration.
    • Our morally grounded individuals push us forward in science and engineering, and our creativity and ability to create beauty and innovation make us worth preserving. We must be aware of our frailty and continue pushing towards progress.
    • Despite dangerous technological advancements, humanity has the ability to engineer systems for long-term survival and adapt to extreme environments. We must enjoy the present while working towards a sustainable future.
    • We may be one of the first life forms in the universe, so it is important to explore space and communicate with potential extraterrestrial life while addressing issues on Earth.
    • Studying seemingly unrelated subjects can lead to groundbreaking discoveries, but caution must be taken when handling potentially harmful organisms. The definition of life remains unclear, but viruses are considered a form of it.
    • Understanding the transient nature of things through "entropy goggles" can help us take charge and make impactful changes that can last beyond our lifetimes. We are the only counteracting force to decay.
    • Live in the moment, find joy in the present, and leave a positive impact on others. Focus on creating a better world for future generations by taking on intergenerational responsibility and planning for the future.
    • Chris chose a 500-year timeframe for his book to explore the human story and the development of biotechnology. He believes that both carbon-based life and AI platforms can carry the responsibility of protecting life.
    • DNA may become the primary storage for information due to its redundancy and ability to withstand cosmic rays. It carries the instructions for all cell types in the body, while RNA translates these instructions into proteins.
    • Personality and memory are influenced by both genetics and upbringing, while some traits like height are heavily influenced by genetics and others like religion are entirely based on nurture. Space travel has physiological effects like inflammation markers and facial puffiness.
    • Astronauts experience physical changes in space, but the return to Earth can be even harder. The molecular echo of their time in space continues to affect their bodies, requiring extra effort to repair and cleanse at the molecular level.
    • By activating DNA repair genes and temporarily changing gene functions, researchers hope to make the body more resilient to radiation. These genetic options could be available by 2040 to protect people working in high radiation environments.
    • Researchers are looking into using epigenetic therapies and developing self-reliant bio-reactors to create a sustainable source of nutrients and possibly even repair dormant genes, which could potentially make humans self-sufficient in space exploration.
    • Cellular technology can help sustain life in space by producing food with low energy input, but human desire for food variety and pleasure must also be considered. Reproduction and colonization on other planets also face unique challenges.
    • Colonizing Mars faces social and technological challenges, but a more inclusive and responsible approach, as well as developing self-sufficient biology, may lead to a new future for humanity.
    • Settlement on Mars will require collaboration from various fields, leading to the development of new cultures and possibly religions, and a search for meaning in a completely new environment.
    • Private individuals are requesting scientific experiments to be done while in space, including providing biofluids for analysis. This offers opportunities to learn more about the effects of space travel on the human body, including surprises such as inflammation.
    • Astronauts experience physical symptoms and psychological challenges in space, leading to extensive training before flight. However, limited collaboration between space programs exists, despite growing interest in space travel and civilian missions.
    • Commercial space flight is becoming more accessible and routine with advancements in technology and increased knowledge of the body's responses to space. Training focuses on equipment usage, and civilian space travel is now possible.
    • Private space travel can be expensive, but conducting valuable activities and experiments during missions can help defray the cost. Axiom Space is leading the way in creating private space stations for scientific research and exploration.
    • Conducting experiments in space requires extensive safety protocols, weight considerations, and testing, but researchers have broad possibilities for biology and genetics experiments.
    • Scientists are studying the effects of space travel on the human body and exploring various experiments, but ethical concerns arise with some ideas. Commercial funding is possible for justifiable experiments.
    • Although experiments and activities on the International Space Station require manual orchestration, it is a well-powered lab in flight with advanced electronics and data collection capabilities. Future space stations aim to make space more fun and even pleasurable. Potential exploration sites include Titan with its methane-rich environment and Europa with a possible subsurface ocean and potential microbial life.
    • Mining asteroids is legal, but owning them is not. Propulsion technology needs major improvements for interstellar travel. Conflicts over space resources are a concern with increasing weapon power.
    • Traveling to an exoplanet using current technology would require multiple generations living and dying on a spacecraft, with the need for self-sustainability and mental health. New technologies like VR could enhance the experience, but limitations and constraints make life fascinating.
    • For long-term space living, humans need good internet, the ability to leave a spacecraft, and access to recreation. In the far future, humans may be able to make their own energy by embedding chloroplasts in their skin. Multiple planet living would create a cycle of adaptation and evolution.
    • Astronauts' immune systems react to space-based bacteria, causing adaptations leading to the evolution of new species. Extreme organisms on Earth offer insight into adaptation and evolution mechanisms in new environments.
    • Scientists are discovering new organisms in space and extreme environments, which may have implications for interstellar travel and human adaptation. AI and biological advancements may also lead to breakthrough innovations in space exploration.
    • To make informed decisions, AI systems need self-doubt and should be allowed to seek feedback from other AI programs. A "democracy of AI" could offer consensus, but it's crucial to find a balance between confidence and doubt to avoid being blinded or paralyzed by options. Communication with AI systems is vital, particularly in life and death scenarios.
    • It's crucial to recognize AI systems as companions rather than servants to improve how we treat each other. While exploring advancements in space travel and digital consciousness, it's important to plan for mortality and respect the social contract.
    • Creating digital clones of ourselves doesn't necessarily change our individuality, but instead provides an opportunity to distribute our contributions on a larger scale, defining us by our ideas and memories rather than physical presence.
    • AI and machine learning have the potential to significantly improve outcomes in fields such as medicine, but their use must be approached responsibly to avoid potential negative consequences in areas such as forensics and economics.
    • While AI can improve medical decision-making, the human intuition, creativity and self-doubt cannot be replaced. Focus on pursuing what excites you and persevere despite distractions to keep the flame of passion alight.
    • Engage in diverse activities and embrace life's challenges to develop personal growth and deeper appreciation for joy. Variety and resilience are essential for a fulfilling life.
    • Even in the face of sorrow, there is room for joy. It may feel like an empty cavern, but everything in life is temporary and will ultimately pass. Appreciate sadness, but don't become addicted to it. Use life's challenges as opportunities to grow and help others.
    • Don't give up after rejection, use it as an opportunity to improve. As humans, our purpose is to protect life by leveraging its frailty. Pursuing space exploration is a noble goal.
    • While the idea of creating new universes is still hypothetical, it is important to explore and push the boundaries of what is currently known. Exploring and trying new things is our human duty.

    📝 Podcast Summary

    Contemplating Human Extinction and the Duty to Expand Beyond Earth

    In a conversation with Lex Friedman, Chris Mason, a professor of genomics physiology and biophysics at Cornell, discusses his book titled "The Next 500 Years: Engineering Life to Reach New Worlds" and the importance of contemplating human extinction. Mason highlights that awareness of death and extinction is a human-specific trait that gives us a duty to exercise. He emphasizes the need to expand beyond Earth, reach new worlds, and find offsite backup solutions as a duty towards generations that haven't yet been born. Mason also brings attention to the importance of preventing extinction and resurrecting extinct species, which brings its own set of questions and consequences.

    The Importance of Preserving Humanity's Unique Qualities

    In this discussion, Chris and Lex explore the unique characteristics of humanity that make us worth preserving, despite our flaws. They discuss the importance of morally grounded individuals pushing us forward in science and engineering, as well as the urgency of our creativity and ability to create beauty and innovation in a way that other species cannot. Furthermore, they highlight the importance of being aware of the frailty of life and fighting against the heat death of the universe, which they see as a worthy and inspiring goal for humanity to work towards. Despite our imperfection, our potential for good and progress is limitless.

    Humanity's Potential Longevity and Ability to Overcome Risks

    In this section, Chris Mason and Lex discuss the potential longevity of humanity and our ability to solve problems. While we have made dangerous technological advancements, we also have the capability to engineer systems that could help us survive long-term, including potentially moving to other planets. While we may not know if we are alone in the universe, we do know that life can adapt and survive in extreme environments. While we face risks, we are also capable of overcoming them and it is important to enjoy and live in the present moment while also working towards a sustainable future.

    The Universe is only now creating conditions suitable for life.

    According to Chris, the universe hasn't had enough time to cool and create the necessary elements for life until the last few billion years. Therefore, he believes that we may be one of the first or very few, if not the first, life forms in the universe. Instead of asking 'where is everyone,' he suggests we should be asking 'when else is everyone getting here?' He also emphasizes the importance of exploring space and communicating with potential extraterrestrial life, while simultaneously addressing issues on Earth. Chris believes that we can both focus on engineering challenges and opportunities for humanity and reach out to other life forms in the universe.

    The Surprising Benefits of Pure Research

    Pure research, such as studying penguins, can lead to unexpected discoveries and important breakthroughs. CRISPR, which is now used to cure diseases, was just pure research on bacteria for decades. Studying oceanography can lead to discoveries in computer science, such as machine learning and data storage. Searching for aliens in the universe inspires scientists, artists, engineers, and entrepreneurs. However, the fundamental question is whether the discovery of alien life is safe. Bringing back rocks from Mars could be dangerous if the organisms are alive and harmful. Most life on Earth is neither harmful nor beneficial to humans, but viruses and bacteria can be powerful forces in nature. The definition of life is still unclear, but viruses can be considered to be a version of life.

    AI, Viruses and Decay: Implications and Consequences

    In a podcast discussion, Chris and Lex discuss the implications and consequences of AI systems, viruses and decay. Chris concludes that both excitement and terror can be felt when considering the role of these factors in our lives. He presents the concept of "entropy goggles" as a thought experiment, to help individuals realize that everything is transient and prone to decay. However, this exercise can be liberating, as it allows individuals to recognize their ability to affect the changes that occur. Ultimately, humans are the only counteracting force to the second law of thermodynamics, and it is up to us to make impactful changes that will last beyond our lifetimes.

    Life is Fleeting - Focus on Joy and Legacy

    Nothing lasts forever and we should focus on the things in the moment that bring us joy and have a positive impact on those around us. Legacy is important, but it's okay if no one knows exactly who started it as long as the benefit was felt by people hundreds or thousands of years later. It's important to think about intergenerational responsibilities and leave the world a better place than we found it. Planning for the future is essential, even though we can't predict every trajectory the world may take. It's important to focus on what brings us joy and make a positive impact on those around us.

    The 500-Year Timeframe for "The Precipice

    In this section, Chris discusses why he chose a 500-year timeframe for his book "The Precipice". He explains that it's a timeframe where he can see clear development of biotechnology, including missions to Mars and interstellar travel. His focus is primarily on the human story and how we can engineer life to keep it safe, rather than on AI or virtual reality. However, he also believes that AI platforms that are intelligent enough could carry the flame of what makes humans special and share our sense of duty to keep life safe. Ultimately, the focus is on finding ways to protect life, regardless of whether it's based on carbon atoms or silicon chips.

    The Future of Human Evolution: Blending Biology, Cybernetics, and Machines

    In this conversation, Lex and Chris discuss the potential blending of biology, cybernetics, and machines in the future of human evolution. They suggest that DNA may become the best long-term storage for information due to its redundancy and ability to survive cosmic rays. Chris explains that DNA is the recipe for life and carries the instructions to create every type of cell in the body. RNA is the active form of the recipe and translates the DNA into proteins that become the building blocks for different processes in the body. The genome is the collection of all the DNA in a person, which is about 3 billion letters of genetic code.

    The Complex Relationship between Genes and Upbringing

    Within our DNA are approximately 60,000 genes that contain instructions for things like making proteins, creating RNA, and turning off parts of a cell. These genes are individually regulated, almost like autonomous instruction sets. The debate between nature versus nurture is ongoing, but many traits, including personality and memory, are a combination of both genetics and upbringing. Twin studies show that while some traits, like height, are heavily influenced by genetics, others like religion are entirely nurture-based. Our bodies are able to adapt to the challenges of space travel, but there are clear physiological effects such as inflammation markers and facial puffiness.

    The Physical Toll of Returning to Earth from Space

    Astronauts experience many physical changes in space, but it's the return to Earth that can be the hardest on their bodies. After spending a year in space, one astronaut broke out in a rash and even the weight of clothing was too heavy. It took about three to four days for the inflammation to subside, but even six months later, the molecular echo of his time in space was still occurring. His body had to work hard at the molecular level to repair itself due to the irradiation from cosmic rays. Telomeres, the caps on the ends of chromosomes, actually got longer in space, indicating a version of cleansing.

    Protecting Humans from Harmful Radiation in Space

    As humans begin to explore space for longer periods of time, one of the biggest risks they face is the harmful radiation in space. However, there are ways to improve the body's ability to repair damage caused by radiation. Researchers are exploring the idea of activating DNA repair genes before exposure to radiation, which could potentially make the body more resilient. There are also technologies being developed to temporarily change gene functions, like for beta thalassemia and sickle cell disease, which could be used to genetically protect people working in high radiation environments. While these genetic options are not yet ready for implementation, researchers predict they could be viable by 2040.

    Using Epigenetics and Bioreactors in Space Exploration

    In the future, it may be possible to use epigenetic therapies to temporarily turn on genes for specific purposes, such as acclimating to high altitudes. However, in order to survive in space for extended periods of time, there are many challenges that need to be overcome, such as the need for gravity, protection from radiation, and a sustainable source of food. Scientists are exploring the use of bio-reactors and prototype trophic organisms to create a self-reliant system for producing nutrients in space. Additionally, humans lost the ability to produce vitamin C, but the gene for it still exists in our DNA as a pseudo gene, and it may be possible to repair and activate it to make humans self-sufficient in space.

    Challenges and Opportunities for Sustaining Human Life in Space

    The discussion explores the challenges and opportunities of sustaining human life in space and on other planets. One potential solution is to produce food using cellular technology, which can reduce the energy input required. However, the human desire for variety and pleasure in food cannot be overlooked. The conversation also delves into the topic of sex in space and the potential difficulties faced by humans in reproducing in a zero-gravity environment. Finally, the discussion touches upon the prospect of human colonization of other planets, with Mars being one of the closest options but not necessarily the best.

    Challenges and Hope in Colonizing Mars

    One of the biggest challenges in colonizing Mars is the social perspective, as previous colonization efforts have often led to exploitation and strife. However, the hope is that this time around it will be different, with a more inclusive and responsible approach. Technologically, there are also challenges such as engineering and modifying human cells to survive underground, building structures with the available soil on Mars, and creating a self-sufficient biology to feed the population. While it may take several hundred years before Mars can truly be independent, the potential for exploration and creating a new future for humanity is a strong motivator.

    The Complexities of Building a New Culture on Mars

    In the quest to settle on Mars, competition has emerged as a driving force, with multiple countries and agencies vying for the prize of being the first to put boots on the red planet. However, competition is just one of many potential motivators that could inspire humans to work together on this shared project. Colonization of Mars will inevitably lead to the development of new cultures, dialects, products, and possibly even new religions. The question of who will define the culture on Mars is a complex one, with both engineers and survivalists potentially playing a role. Ultimately, the settling of Mars will require humans to draw meaning and purpose from a completely new and humbling environment.

    Private Space Travel Offers Opportunities for Scientific Research

    Chris Mason, a geneticist and researcher, believes that the current space race 2.0, led by companies like SpaceX, is moving at an unprecedented pace and has a lot of investment from the private sector pushing it forward. He states that the most fabulous part of this space race is that private individuals who are willing to push the limits are coming to scientists and researchers to ask what experiments they can do while they are up there. For example, they are willing to provide any biofluid for analysis, including tears and semen. Mason also mentions that he is excited about the opportunities to learn more about the effects of space travel on the human body, and they have seen some surprises, such as macrophages and dendritic cells driving inflammation that can lead to rashes.

    Understanding the Effects of Space Travel on Astronauts

    As humans spend more time in space, it is important to understand how their bodies and minds react to the environment. Astronauts experience a variety of physical symptoms, including rashes and changes in vision, as well as potential psychological challenges. To prepare for spaceflight, astronauts undergo extensive training in technical and language skills. Unfortunately, there is currently no collaboration between space programs in different countries, and NASA astronauts are not allowed to share resources or information with those in China. Despite these challenges, the growing interest in space travel means that new space stations are being built and more regular civilians are being trained for missions.

    The Accessibility and Advancements of Commercial Space Flight

    Commercial space flight is becoming more routine as space agencies and companies plan several missions per year. Elon Musk is expected to go to space by 2026, and civilians can now travel to space for short periods on their own mini-space stations. The focus on safety is still present, but with advancements in space technology and increased knowledge of the physiological responses of the body in space, it is becoming easier and more accessible to plan a space mission. Commercial space flight companies are becoming more available for those who have the funds to plan their space mission, and training is now focused on how to use equipment and instrumentation rather than selection and years of training.

    The Cost and Potential Benefits of Private Space Travel

    The cost of space travel varies greatly depending on the purpose and length of the mission. For example, a proposed twin study involving staying in space for 500-550 days would cost around $50 to $100 million. However, the cost can be defrayed by conducting experiments or other valuable activities during the mission. Axiom Space is a private spaceflight company that is building the world's first private space station, which is set to be fully operational and detached by 2028. Axiom One was the company's first successful commercial crew mission to the International Space Station, focusing heavily on scientific experiments. Private space travel offers exciting possibilities, but at a high cost.

    Challenges of Designing and Running Experiments in Space

    Designing and running experiments in space is a complex process with multiple constraints and considerations. The biggest concern is the safety of reagents or materials used in the experiment, as they can float away and pose a risk to the crew. Toxicity testing is required for any liquids or solids used in the experiment, and if they pose a risk to the crew's health, multiple levels of containment are necessary. The weight of the experiment is also a major factor, as it costs $10,000 per kilogram to get something into space. To ensure that the experiment will survive and function in space, destructive testing, fire testing, and vibration testing are necessary. Despite these challenges, researchers can propose almost anything within the realm of biology and genetics for their experiments in space.

    Exploring Possibilities and Ethical Dilemmas in Space Experiments.

    Scientists are considering various experiments in space, including the development of human embryos in zero gravity. However, this experiment would involve sacrificing viable human embryos, which raises many ethical concerns. Meanwhile, scientists are studying the reactivation of viruses like herpes in spaceflight and using new sequencers to analyze molecular changes in astronauts. Currently, most experiments in space are manual, and robots need to undergo fire and vibrational testing before being deployed. The commercial sector can fund any experiment in space, as long as they can come up with a reasonable justification.

    The Power of Data Collection on the International Space Station and Future Exploration

    Despite the need for manual orchestration of experiments and activities on the International Space Station, there is actually a lot of electronics and data collection taking place, making it a well-powered lab in flight. However, future space stations are being built with the goal of making space more fun and engaging, possibly even for pleasure. In terms of future exploration, Titan, a moon of Saturn, is considered a potential outpost due to its methane-rich environment, though its extreme coldness would make it less than luxurious. There is also a possibility of microbial life on Titan, and potentially even on Europa, a moon of Jupiter with a subsurface ocean.

    The future of space exploration and potential conflicts over resources

    Mining for resources in asteroids is legal, and a growing industry as rare earth minerals can be used for manufacturing. However, owning any part of the moon or an asteroid is not legal. To get to a state where we could potentially leave the solar system and journey towards another star would require major improvements in propulsion technology, such as anti-matter drives. Another option could be multiple generations living and dying on the same spacecraft. While the future of space exploration is exciting, there is also concern over the potential for conflicts and wars over resources in space. The trend towards decreasing conflicts between countries is promising, but it often comes with increasing destructive power in weapons.

    The Challenges of Traveling to a Habitable Exoplanet

    Traveling to a habitable exoplanet using current technology would require multiple generations living and dying on a large spacecraft, with the need for self-reliance and self-sustainability. Maintaining mental health and society structure would be essential for sustaining the mission. However, limitations and constraints make life fascinating, and new technologies such as VR could enhance the experience. The threshold of what freedom feels like changes with context, and even on Earth, we are limited by our planetary experience. In the end, the idea of being stuck on a spacecraft is not that different from Earth, as we are all on a spaceship traveling through space together.

    Humans Must Adapt to Survive and Thrive in Space

    Humans need to adapt in order to survive and thrive in space. This involves having access to good internet connections, the ability to leave a spacecraft, and access to recreation and games. In the far future, humans may be able to embed chloroplasts in their skin in order to absorb sunlight and make their own energy. This process would involve directing evolution and possibly engineering human cells. Additionally, having humans living on multiple planets would create a virtuous cycle of adaptation and evolution that could be studied and shared between planets.

    Microbiomes of Space Stations: Unique Evolutionary Processes

    The microbiomes of space stations are an interesting area of study, as they evolve differently than those on Earth. Astronauts' bodies are constantly responding to the unique bacteria on the space station, causing the immune system to search for specific microbes. Over time, some bacteria and fungi have evolved so much that they're now a whole new species. Researchers are even studying extreme organisms on Earth, such as those found in highly saline environments or areas exposed to high radiation or microgravity, to see how they adapt and evolve. These unique organisms offer valuable insights into the mechanisms of evolution and adaptation.

    Scientists name new fungus species after donor and explore extreme environments for insights into interstellar travel

    Scientists have discovered a new species of fungus and named it after a donor who contributed funds to their research. The discovery was made on the space station and the fungus was named after the donor as a thank you. Additionally, scientists are looking towards extreme environments, such as the lake of fire in Turkmenistan, to study how organisms can survive and adapt to harsh conditions. This research may inform potential adaptations for human cells and microbiomes. Furthermore, future interstellar travel innovations may come from advancements in AI, biology, physics, and transportation technology. The hope is that AI will be embedded with a sense of duty, caretaking, and creativity, while biological advancements may help make the body more resilient to harsh conditions of space.

    The Importance of Considering All Options in AI Decision-Making

    In AI decision-making, it's important to consider all options and not just focus on the primary mission. Giving AI systems self-doubt and allowing for other AI feedback can lead to more informed decisions. The idea of a "democracy of AI" where multiple programmed systems offer consensus is one solution. However, it's important to find a middle ground between confidence and doubt to avoid being blinded or paralyzed by options. In life and death situations, it's crucial to understand and communicate with other beings, even if they are AI systems programmed to complete a task.

    The Intersection of AI, Physics, and Biology: Companions or Servants?

    In a conversation about the possibilities of AI, physics, and biology, it is important to keep AI systems and other humans as companions rather than servants, which can affect how we treat each other. The conversation also delves into potential technologies for space travel, including fusion drives and electromagnetic shielding, and the idea of uploading human consciousness into a digital form. While there is potential for longevity and improved health monitoring, it's important to plan for mortality and respect the social contract. Overall, there is constant surprise and uncertainty in exploring these possibilities.

    Self in the Digital World: Redefining Individuality with Digital Clones

    The concept of self may be changing with the possibility of creating digital clones of ourselves. While these clones may not be exact replicas, our behavioral patterns and personality can be captured in a virtual space. This raises a philosophical question of what defines an individual and their importance in society. It may ultimately come down to the ideas and contributions a person makes rather than their physical body. The relationships and memories others have of an individual also play a significant role in defining them. Clones may not diminish a person's uniqueness but rather offer an opportunity to distribute their contributions on a larger scale.

    Chris Talks About the Impact of AI and Machine Learning on Different Industries

    In this conversation, Chris discusses how AI and machine learning tools are changing various industries. In medicine, it is being used to accurately diagnose cancer and other diseases, improving patient outcomes. However, there are concerns about its use in other areas, such as Facebook's social contagion experiments during the 2016 election that manipulated people's views and potentially influenced their voting choices. Chris emphasizes the need to be aware of the potential negative consequences of AI, particularly in areas such as forensics and economics, and to use it responsibly. Nevertheless, he remains hopeful about its potential to positively impact fields such as medicine.

    The Importance of Balancing AI Tools and the Human Element in Medicine and Career Pursuits

    While AI tools can do better than doctors in some cases, there is still a human element that cannot be replaced. The decision-making process of a doctor involves intuition, self-doubt, and creativity, which are key factors in human progress. Young people seeking career advice should find what excites them and keep working towards it, even if it takes years of hard work and patience. However, distractions such as social media and video games can divert attention from that "little flame" that drives them forward. It is important to be conscious of these distractions and silence them to let the flame become a fire.

    Adding Variety and Resilience during Challenging Times

    The discussion highlights the importance of adding variety to one's life, especially during challenging times such as during the pursuit of a PhD. The speakers suggest engaging in diverse activities such as playing video games or dancing on a rooftop to avoid becoming too singularly focused. They also discuss the impact of losing loved ones and experiencing heartbreak, which can be incredibly difficult but can also lead to personal growth and a deeper appreciation for joy. Variety and resilience are essential to navigating difficult times and living a fulfilling life.

    Sorrows as Opportunities for Joy

    Chris and Lex discuss the idea that sorrows can be reinterpreted as opportunities for joy. They compare sorrows to digging a ditch that can then be filled with good things, but acknowledge that initially it can feel like an empty cavern filled with pain. However, Lex reminds us that everything in life is temporary and things will pass. Chris asserts that anything in life, even the worst case scenario, is infinitely better than nothing. They both agree that appreciating sadness is important, but caution against becoming addicted to it. Chris also shares that he has found peace with death and that he lives with rich appreciation for life. Ultimately, he hopes to use his work in science to help patients live longer.

    Persevering Through Rejection and Protecting Life

    Dr. Chris Mason, a geneticist and co-leader of the NASA twins study, advises young people to persevere even when their proposals are rejected. He invented the study which was initially rejected several times by NASA but eventually accepted. Dr. Mason believes that every rejection is not necessarily a negative, but an opportunity to improve oneself and the product. He also emphasizes that the human species' purpose is to serve as guardians of life itself by leveraging the frailty of life to protect it. He hopes to see humans settle on Mars and considers it an honor to be a part of the first wave of people expanding the reach into the stars.

    Creating New Universes: Exploring Possibilities and Pushing Boundaries

    In this conversation with scientist Chris Mason, the possibility of creating new universes is discussed. While the idea of a multiverse is hypothetical and controversial, Mason believes that with future technological development it could be possible to create new baby universes. While this may seem difficult, Mason and the podcast host Lex believe it is our human duty to explore and try new things. The conversation also touches on the idea of colonization, specifically on Mars, and the importance of exploring our own world before exploring others. While some ideas may seem far fetched or impossible, it is still important to explore and push the boundaries of what is currently known.

    Recent Episodes from Lex Fridman Podcast

    #429 – Paul Rosolie: Jungle, Apex Predators, Aliens, Uncontacted Tribes, and God

    #429 – Paul Rosolie: Jungle, Apex Predators, Aliens, Uncontacted Tribes, and God
    Paul Rosolie is a naturalist, explorer, author, and founder of Junglekeepers, dedicating his life to protecting the Amazon rainforest. Support his efforts at https://junglekeepers.org Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ShipStation: https://shipstation.com/lex and use code LEX to get 60-day free trial - Yahoo Finance: https://yahoofinance.com - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get $350 off - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/paul-rosolie-2-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Paul's Instagram: https://instagram.com/paulrosolie Junglekeepers: https://junglekeepers.org Paul's Website: https://paulrosolie.com Mother of God (book): https://amzn.to/3ww2ob1 PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (12:29) - Amazon jungle (14:47) - Bushmaster snakes (26:13) - Black caiman (44:33) - Rhinos (47:47) - Anacondas (1:18:04) - Mammals (1:30:10) - Piranhas (1:41:00) - Aliens (1:58:45) - Elephants (2:10:02) - Origin of life (2:23:21) - Explorers (2:36:38) - Ayahuasca (2:45:03) - Deep jungle expedition (2:59:09) - Jane Goodall (3:01:41) - Theodore Roosevelt (3:12:36) - Alone show (3:22:23) - Protecting the rainforest (3:38:36) - Snake makes appearance (3:46:47) - Uncontacted tribes (4:00:11) - Mortality (4:01:39) - Steve Irwin (4:09:18) - God
    Lex Fridman Podcast
    enMay 15, 2024

    #428 – Sean Carroll: General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Black Holes & Aliens

    #428 – Sean Carroll: General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Black Holes & Aliens
    Sean Carroll is a theoretical physicist, author, and host of Mindscape podcast. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - HiddenLayer: https://hiddenlayer.com/lex - Cloaked: https://cloaked.com/lex and use code LexPod to get 25% off - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/sean-carroll-3-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Sean's Website: https://preposterousuniverse.com Mindscape Podcast: https://www.preposterousuniverse.com/podcast/ Sean's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@seancarroll Sean's Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/seanmcarroll Sean's Twitter: https://twitter.com/seanmcarroll Sean's Instagram: https://instagram.com/seanmcarroll Sean's Papers: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=Lfifrv8AAAAJ Sean's Books: https://amzn.to/3W7yT9N PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (11:03) - General relativity (23:22) - Black holes (28:11) - Hawking radiation (32:19) - Aliens (41:15) - Holographic principle (1:05:38) - Dark energy (1:11:38) - Dark matter (1:20:34) - Quantum mechanics (1:41:56) - Simulation (1:44:18) - AGI (1:58:42) - Complexity (2:11:25) - Consciousness (2:20:32) - Naturalism (2:24:49) - Limits of science (2:29:34) - Mindscape podcast (2:39:29) - Einstein

    #427 – Neil Adams: Judo, Olympics, Winning, Losing, and the Champion Mindset

    #427 – Neil Adams: Judo, Olympics, Winning, Losing, and the Champion Mindset
    Neil Adams is a judo world champion, 2-time Olympic silver medalist, 5-time European champion, and often referred to as the Voice of Judo. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ZipRecruiter: https://ziprecruiter.com/lex - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/neil-adams-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Neil's Instagram: https://instagram.com/naefighting Neil's YouTube: https://youtube.com/NAEffectiveFighting Neil's TikTok: https://tiktok.com/@neiladamsmbe Neil's Facebook: https://facebook.com/NeilAdamsJudo Neil's X: https://x.com/NeilAdamsJudo Neil's Website: https://naeffectivefighting.com Neil's Podcast: https://naeffectivefighting.com/podcasts/the-dojo-collective-podcast A Life in Judo (book): https://amzn.to/4d3DtfB A Game of Throws (audiobook): https://amzn.to/4aA2WeJ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (09:13) - 1980 Olympics (26:35) - Judo explained (34:40) - Winning (52:54) - 1984 Olympics (1:01:55) - Lessons from losing (1:17:37) - Teddy Riner (1:37:12) - Training in Japan (1:52:51) - Jiu jitsu (2:03:59) - Training (2:27:18) - Advice for beginners

    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs

    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs
    Edward Gibson is a psycholinguistics professor at MIT and heads the MIT Language Lab. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Yahoo Finance: https://yahoofinance.com - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/edward-gibson-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Edward's X: https://x.com/LanguageMIT TedLab: https://tedlab.mit.edu/ Edward's Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=4FsWE64AAAAJ TedLab's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@Tedlab-MIT PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (10:53) - Human language (14:59) - Generalizations in language (20:46) - Dependency grammar (30:45) - Morphology (39:20) - Evolution of languages (42:40) - Noam Chomsky (1:26:46) - Thinking and language (1:40:16) - LLMs (1:53:14) - Center embedding (2:19:42) - Learning a new language (2:23:34) - Nature vs nurture (2:30:10) - Culture and language (2:44:38) - Universal language (2:49:01) - Language translation (2:52:16) - Animal communication

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones
    Andrew Callaghan is the host of Channel 5 on YouTube, where he does street interviews with fascinating humans at the edges of society, the so-called vagrants, vagabonds, runaways, outlaws, from QAnon adherents to Phish heads to O Block residents and much more. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ShipStation: https://shipstation.com/lex and use code LEX to get 60-day free trial - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/andrew-callaghan-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Channel 5 with Andrew Callaghan: https://www.youtube.com/channel5YouTube Andrew's Instagram: https://instagram.com/andreww.me Andrew's Website: https://andrew-callaghan.com/ Andrew's Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/channel5 This Place Rules: https://www.hbo.com/movies/this-place-rules Books Mentioned: On the Road: https://amzn.to/4aLPLHi Siddhartha: https://amzn.to/49rthKz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (08:53) - Walmart (10:24) - Early life (29:14) - Hitchhiking (40:49) - Couch surfing (49:50) - Quarter Confessions (1:07:33) - Burning Man (1:22:44) - Protests (1:28:17) - Jon Stewart (1:31:13) - Fame (1:44:31) - Jan 6 (1:48:15) - QAnon (1:54:00) - Alex Jones (2:10:52) - Politics (2:20:29) - Response to allegations (2:37:28) - Channel 5 (2:43:04) - Rap (2:44:51) - O Block (2:48:47) - Crip Mac (2:51:59) - Aliens

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame
    Bassem Youssef is an Egyptian-American comedian & satirist, referred to as the Jon Stewart of the Arab World. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/bassem-youssef-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Bassem's X: https://x.com/Byoussef Bassem's Instagram: https://instagram.com/bassem Bassem's Facebook: https://facebook.com/bassemyousseftv Bassem's Website: https://bassemyoussef.xyz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:30) - Oct 7 (36:59) - Two-state solution (52:37) - Holocaust (1:00:24) - 1948 (1:09:17) - Egypt (1:23:39) - Jon Stewart (1:25:51) - Going viral during the Arab Spring (1:49:55) - Arabic vs English (2:02:18) - Sam Harris and Jihad (2:07:25) - Religion (2:26:37) - TikTok (2:31:10) - Joe Rogan (2:33:07) - Joe Biden (2:37:33) - Putin (2:39:21) - War (2:44:17) - Hope

    #423 – Tulsi Gabbard: War, Politics, and the Military Industrial Complex

    #423 – Tulsi Gabbard: War, Politics, and the Military Industrial Complex
    Tulsi Gabbard is a politician, veteran, and author of For Love of Country. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Riverside: https://creators.riverside.fm/LEX and use code LEX to get 30% off - ExpressVPN: https://expressvpn.com/lexpod to get 3 months free - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour - Notion: https://notion.com/lex Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/tulsi-gabbard-transcript EPISODE LINKS: For Love of Country (book): https://amzn.to/3VLlofM Tulsi's X: https://x.com/tulsigabbard Tulsi's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@TulsiGabbard Tulsi's Podcast: https://youtube.com/@TheTulsiGabbardShow Tulsi's Instagram: https://instagram.com/tulsigabbard Tulsi's Facebook: https://facebook.com/TulsiGabbard Tulsi's Website: https://tulsigabbard.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:14) - War in Iraq (15:00) - Battle injuries and PTSD (22:10) - War on terrorism (30:51) - War in Gaza (34:52) - War in Ukraine (38:38) - Syria (46:20) - Warmongers (55:40) - Nuclear war (1:11:08) - TikTok ban (1:23:13) - Bernie Sanders (1:28:08) - Politics (1:46:59) - Personal attacks (1:49:07) - God

    #422 – Mark Cuban: Shark Tank, DEI & Wokeism Debate, Elon Musk, Politics & Drugs

    #422 – Mark Cuban: Shark Tank, DEI & Wokeism Debate, Elon Musk, Politics & Drugs
    Mark Cuban is a businessman, investor, star of TV series Shark Tank, long-time principal owner of Dallas Mavericks, and founder of Cost Plus Drugs. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Cloaked: https://cloaked.com/lex and use code LexPod to get 25% off - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/mark-cuban-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Mark's X: https://twitter.com/mcuban Mark's Instagram: https://instagram.com/mcuban Cost Plus Drugs: https://costplusdrugs.com Shark Tank: https://abc.com/shows/shark-tank Dallas Mavericks: https://www.mavs.com PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (11:10) - Entrepreneurship (26:03) - Shark Tank (36:29) - How Mark made first billion (1:02:39) - Dallas Mavericks (1:08:05) - DEI debate (1:43:58) - Trump vs Biden (1:46:20) - Immigration (1:55:53) - Drugs and Big Pharma (2:11:53) - AI (2:16:05) - Advice for young people

    #421 – Dana White: UFC, Fighting, Khabib, Conor, Tyson, Ali, Rogan, Elon & Zuck

    #421 – Dana White: UFC, Fighting, Khabib, Conor, Tyson, Ali, Rogan, Elon & Zuck
    Dana White is the CEO and president of the UFC. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/lex to get 20% off Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/dana-white-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Dana's X: https://x.com/danawhite Dana's Instagram: https://instagram.com/danawhite Dana's Facebook: https://facebook.com/danawhite UFC's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@UFC UFC's Website: https://ufc.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:31) - Mike Tyson and early days of fighting (17:10) - Jiu jitsu (23:14) - Origin of UFC (37:25) - Joe Rogan (43:31) - Lorenzo Fertitta (45:58) - Great fighters (49:55) - Khabib vs Conor (53:01) - Jon Jones (56:03) - Conor McGregor (1:01:05) - Trump (1:06:44) - Elon vs Zuck (1:08:04) - Mike Tyson vs Jake Paul (1:10:52) - Forrest Griffin vs Stephan Bonnar (1:18:06) - Gambling (1:33:08) - Mortality

    #420 – Annie Jacobsen: Nuclear War, CIA, KGB, Aliens, Area 51, Roswell & Secrecy

    #420 – Annie Jacobsen: Nuclear War, CIA, KGB, Aliens, Area 51, Roswell & Secrecy
    Annie Jacobsen is an investigative journalist and author of "Nuclear War: A Scenario" and many other books on war, weapons, government secrecy, and national security. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - HiddenLayer: https://hiddenlayer.com/lex - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/annie-jacobsen-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Nuclear War: A Scenario (book): https://amzn.to/3THZHfr Annie's Twitter: https://twitter.com/anniejacobsen Annie's Website: https://anniejacobsen.com/ Annie's Books: https://amzn.to/3TGWyMJ Annie's Books (audio): https://adbl.co/49ZnI7c PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:37) - Nuclear war (12:21) - Launch procedure (18:00) - Deterrence (21:34) - Tactical nukes (30:59) - Nuclear submarines (33:59) - Nuclear missiles (41:10) - Nuclear football (50:17) - Missile interceptor system (54:34) - North Korea (1:01:10) - Nuclear war scenarios (1:10:02) - Warmongers (1:14:31) - President's cognitive ability (1:20:43) - Refusing orders (1:28:41) - Russia and Putin (1:33:48) - Cyberattack (1:35:09) - Ground zero of nuclear war (1:39:48) - Surviving nuclear war (1:44:06) - Nuclear winter (1:54:29) - Alien civilizations (2:00:04) - Extrasensory perception (2:13:50) - Area 51 (2:17:48) - UFOs and aliens (2:28:15) - Roswell incident (2:34:55) - CIA assassinations (2:53:47) - Navalny (2:56:12) - KGB (3:02:48) - Hitler and the atomic bomb (3:06:52) - War and human nature (3:10:17) - Hope