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    #208 – Jeff Hawkins: The Thousand Brains Theory of Intelligence

    Intelligent machines are not like humans and do not have emotions or desires to live. It is important to consider what kind of model we are creating and what its purpose or goal ultimately is when deciding whether they should have rights.

    enAugust 08, 2021

    About this Episode

    Jeff Hawkins is a neuroscientist and cofounder of Numenta, a neuroscience research company. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Codecademy: https://codecademy.com and use code LEX to get 15% off - BiOptimizers: http://www.magbreakthrough.com/lex to get 10% off - ExpressVPN: https://expressvpn.com/lexpod and use code LexPod to get 3 months free - Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/lex and use code LEX to get special savings - Blinkist: https://blinkist.com/lex and use code LEX to get 25% off premium EPISODE LINKS: A Thousand Brain (book): https://amzn.to/3AmxJt7 Numenta's Twitter: https://twitter.com/Numenta Numenta's Website: https://numenta.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (10:35) - Collective intelligence (17:17) - The origin of intelligence in the human brain (30:31) - How intelligent life evolved on Earth (41:30) - Why humans are special in the universe (44:48) - Neurons (49:02) - A Thousand Brains theory of intelligence (57:42) - How to build superintelligent AI (1:15:41) - Sam Harris and existential risk of AI (1:27:43) - Neuralink (1:34:34) - Will AI prevent the self-destruction of human civilization? (1:40:05) - Communicating human knowledge to alien civilizations (1:50:22) - Devil's advocate (1:55:16) - Human nature (2:03:39) - Hardware for AI (2:10:18) - Advice for young people

    🔑 Key Takeaways

    • The neocortex is responsible for intelligence in the human brain, running on a repetitive circuit that can be applied to multiple problems. Collective intelligence is the result of individual intelligence magnified through collaboration.
    • Our brain is made up of tens of thousands of independent modeling systems that work together to create a collective intelligence. This complexity results in a singular perception even as the different systems communicate and vote with each other.
    • To become smarter, we need to actively interact with the world and build a sophisticated model in our head. The brain constantly processes information to create voting neurons, which are connected to language and memory.
    • Our brains create models to predict outcomes and make decisions. These models help us learn where we're wrong and apply to all senses, making them fundamental to our intelligence.
    • Prediction is crucial for intelligence, and models allow for accurate predictions about various scenarios. The brain's ability to make predictions evolved early on, and the cortical column has developed to create models for a range of things.
    • The neocortex has grid cells that create reference frames and sensory motor models, making it possible for the brain to learn generic knowledge without prior experience. This maps to society operating as a single brain.
    • Our ability to understand complex knowledge is rooted in the neocortex and the predictive capabilities of neurons. While the study of complexity theory remains challenging, unlocking the secrets of the brain is crucial for advancing our understanding of the universe.
    • The brain constantly makes predictions using dendritic spikes, which lead to a unique modeling system in each cortical column. This 'thousand brains theory' creates diverse representations of objects under different contexts.
    • The brain needs reference frames to understand and predict the world, and this same mechanism applies to higher-level concepts. Neurons in different parts of the brain create these reference frames.
    • The brain's hierarchical representations can be replicated through mini-brains, paving the way for smarter, more interactive robots and physical entities. With a clear roadmap, this technology could become a reality in just a few years.
    • AI's universal learning principle has the potential to revolutionize society in ways similar to the invention of the computer. The thousand brain theory suggests that the human brain is a specific implementation of this principle, which can also be implemented in other forms. However, integrating these intelligent AI systems into society requires engineering solutions.
    • Intelligent machines are not like humans and do not have emotions or desires to live. It is important to consider what kind of model we are creating and what its purpose or goal ultimately is when deciding whether they should have rights.
    • Design an intelligent system for a specific task and provide it with the necessary knowledge and skills to accomplish it successfully. Include safeguards and goals to avoid risks and ensure safe operation.
    • Jeff Hawkins believes that while AI has its risks, the existential risk of AI is not from the system creating the risk on its own. He argues that AI will be intelligent but not have human-like drives and emotions.
    • Taking action is essential to prevent the creation of self-replicating systems that pose an existential risk. Intelligent machines can benefit society, but regulations are necessary to balance risks and benefits. Vigilance is crucial to prevent bad actors from creating self-replicating systems.
    • Tesla aims to create a self-replicating factory that goes from raw resources to final products. Super-intelligent systems may not obey human commands, but consciousness cannot be uploaded into a computer.
    • Although progress has been made in prosthetic control, merging biology with technology is complex due to our lack of knowledge about neurons and information coding. Creating a superintelligent system may be a better option than attempting to merge with technology.
    • AI has the potential to enhance our lives by overcoming our limitations, and intelligent machines could become our offspring, preserving our knowledge and history even if the human species vanishes.
    • Archiving important information like Wikipedia and creating unique signals can help future generations or intelligent species discover evidence of our existence. Intelligent machines may ultimately be the ones to explore the galaxy.
    • By conducting concrete experiments to validate our understanding of the brain, we can not only build it but also make progress for the future. The potential for human progress is promising.
    • Simple explanations for complex systems are important, but oversimplification can prove theories wrong in the future. The neocortex offers insights into intelligence, but human nature can be limiting.
    • Understanding how our brains construct models can lead to a better world by teaching skepticism and constantly testing beliefs through common ground. Strive for better models to make progress.
    • Our understanding of reality depends on how we define it, and the pursuit of intelligent machines will lead to innovation. By understanding computation principles, we can implement them biologically or otherwise.
    • Adding the brain's principle of sparsity to existing neural networks, along with using dendrites models, can improve learning and create commercially valuable systems. Pursue your passions, even in adversity.
    • Identifying your passion can provide purpose and a sense of contribution. It doesn't have to be a big question, but can come from the smallest things. Pursuing your passion can lead to lifelong mastery and fulfillment.
    • Focus on what brings you joy and meaning, even if it means making sacrifices. Love and compassion are crucial for AI systems that interact with humans. By accelerating the inevitable, we can leave a positive legacy for future generations.
    • By contributing to beneficial causes, individuals can help steer civilization towards progress while minimizing missteps. A better future is possible, with solutions for climate change and less discord and violence. Even if we don't make it, future generations can learn from us.

    📝 Podcast Summary

    The Neocortex: Key to Understanding Intelligence

    Neuroscientist Jeff Hawkins studies the structure, function, and origin of intelligence in the human brain. He believes that our brains have a model of the world that is continually being updated and includes everything from objects to people. The neocortex, which makes up about 75% of our brain, is the key to understanding intelligence. It runs on a repetitive circuit that can be applied to many different problems. While collective intelligence is an interesting idea, it's not a separate circuit in the brain. Rather, it's a result of humans being intelligent individuals who can magnify their intelligence through collaboration. Understanding how our brains work is crucial to understanding intelligence, whether individual or collective.

    The Thousand Brains Theory: A Revolutionary New Approach to Intelligence

    The brain is the core element in all theories of intelligence, and it is where knowledge is represented and created. Jeff Hawkins, founder of Numenta, believes in starting with the brain to understand how we interact with each other and build communal intelligence. His new book, "A Thousand Brains," proposes the "Thousand Brains Theory" of intelligence, which suggests that there are tens of thousands of independent modeling systems in the neocortex, each communicating and voting with each other to create a collective intelligence. Despite this complexity, we experience a singular perception as our brain works towards a consensus on the information it receives.

    The Thousand Brains Theory of Intelligence and Learning through Interaction.

    The brain is constantly processing information that we don't even realize. We are only aware of the stable outcomes of the voting neurons, which are the long-range connections in the brain that are accessible to language and memory. The thousand brains theory of intelligence suggests that the basic element of intelligence is the ability to learn a model of the world, and the more sophisticated the model is, the smarter we are. This model is constructed through movement and interaction with the world, rather than just passive observation. So, to learn something new, we need to physically interact with it and build a model in our head.

    The Power of Brain Models in Imagining the Future

    Our brains use models, similar to physical models and computer models, to imagine the future and predict outcomes. These models allow us to plan and make decisions based on predicted consequences. Prediction is not the goal of the model, but an inherent property of it, and it helps us learn where our model is wrong so we can update it. This predictive ability applies to all senses, not just vision, and helps us perceive and understand the world around us. Ultimately, our ability to create and use models is fundamental to intelligence.

    The Importance of Models in Prediction and Intelligence

    Prediction is at the core of intelligence and requires a model. Having a model allows for predictions to be made about a wide range of things, from simple low-level predictions to high-level predictions about potential outcomes of situations. Understanding how the brain makes predictions and builds models is key to understanding intelligence. The development of the ability to make predictions is believed to have evolved as soon as living things began to move about in their environments, with the ability to map out one's surroundings being a crucial part of this process. This mapping mechanism has since been repurposed and developed into the cortical column, allowing for the creation of models for a wide range of things.

    Replicating and Compressing Neural Networks to Understand the Neocortex

    In this section, Jeff Hawkins and the interviewer discuss the concept of replicating and compressing neural networks, similar to the way the human brain may have evolved to create grid cells in each column of the neocortex. These grid cells create reference frames and sensory motor models of the world, which are essential to understanding how the neocortex works. The flexibility of this mapping algorithm allows the brain to learn things without any prior knowledge, making it a very generic and universal mechanism. While the focus is on understanding the neocortex and its role in human intelligence, the concept of collective intelligence and social structures operating as a single brain is also briefly mentioned.

    The Neocortex, Neurons, and the Quest to Understand Complexity

    The neocortex is responsible for high-level functions like language, planning, and thinking. It can be understood independently, but it interacts with other areas of the brain to shape personalities and motivations. Humans have a unique ability to understand complex knowledge, such as the origins of the universe and the workings of DNA, that no other species on Earth possesses. Predictions happen within neurons, which are the basic elements of the brain. Understanding neurons and their prediction capabilities is an important research agenda in neuroscience. Complexity theory, which seeks to understand complex systems, is a challenging field that has yet to fully congeal in the scientific community.

    The Brain's Internal Prediction System through Dendritic Spikes and the 'Thousand Brains Theory'

    The brain makes predictions by using internal spikes called dendritic spikes, which occur inside the neuron rather than externally. These spikes are a form of prediction, telling the neuron that it might become active shortly and that external spikes may soon be generated. This mechanism is prevalent in the pyramidal cells in the brain, and although most people are not aware of it, they make predictions all the time. This internal prediction system is part of the 'thousand brains theory', which suggests that every cortical column in the brain is a complete modeling system, and that there are thousands of models of each object in the world, leading to different representations in the brain under different contexts.

    The Brain's Use of Reference Frames for Predictions and Organization

    The brain needs a reference frame to make predictions about the world, including when touching or seeing an object. This means the brain must know where the object is located relative to the body (or specific body part). While X, Y, Z coordinates don't exist in the brain, neurons create reference frames in different parts of the brain, such as the hippocampus and the cortex, which allows for predictions to be made. The same principle applies to higher level concepts such as mathematics, language, and politics, where knowledge is organized in reference frames. The brain uses the exact same mechanism to process these concepts as it does for spatial information.

    The Powerful Potential of Mini-Brains for Robotics and Beyond

    The brain is a marvel of engineering that is able to instantly process complex information about objects, brands, and even concepts through hierarchical representations. This capability is built on the same principle of learning structured models, using movement and reference frames, and can be applied to everything from a coffee cup to the future of humanity. Despite its complexity, the brain can be replicated through the use of mini-brains, which can be copied and pasted effectively. This has enormous potential for robotics and entities that operate in the physical world and can interact with it. Building such entities may be an engineering challenge, but one that can be solved in a matter of years with a clear roadmap.

    The Universal Learning Principle in AI and its Potential Impact on Society

    The concept of a universal learning principle that is being developed in AI is similar to the creation of the universal Turing machine that created the computer. The impact of AI is predicted to be as large or even larger than that of the computer in the last century because it is a fundamental principle of learning and gaining intelligence. The thousand brain theory suggests that the human brain is a particular implementation of this learning system, but it can be implemented in various embodiments. However, integrating increasingly intelligent AI systems into human society is seen as an engineering problem rather than a fundamental one.

    The Debate on Giving Intelligent Machines Rights

    In a conversation about whether intelligent machines should have rights, Jeff Hawkins argues that we cannot assume machines will be like humans and have emotions or desires to live. They are simply modeling systems that can learn sophisticated tasks. While some argue that it may be useful to give machines the perception of consciousness, it does not necessarily imply desires or goals. Therefore, we must consider what kind of model we are creating and what its purpose or goal ultimately is. Ultimately, intelligent machines may not have any desires or emotional states unless we give them agency or motivation.

    Teaching an Intelligent System for Specific Applications

    When creating an intelligent system, it is important to remember that the system needs to be taught and directed in a specific way for different applications. For example, if creating a smart car, the system needs to be taught about driving and cars, as it won't figure it out on its own. Additionally, there needs to be an understanding of the game theory of human interaction to successfully operate in, for example, Manhattan streets. The intelligence system can learn these interactions just like people do, but it will not have its own personal goals or agency beyond what is assigned to it. It is important to embed physical, virtual, goals, and safeguards in the system to prevent risks associated with AI.

    How the neuro cortex creates an intelligent prediction system

    Jeff Hawkins explains that the neuro cortex creates an intelligent prediction system modeling system that can be used to make predictions and can be embedded in something to create action. While AI can be a dangerous technology, Hawkins believes that the existential risk of AI is not from the AI system creating the risk on its own. Many people worry that AI could become like humans and have human-like drives and emotions. However, Hawkins argues that AI will be intelligent but will not be like humans at all. He believes that computer systems do not fundamentally change how they compute and that certain things are impossible for them to do.

    Risks of AI: Self-Replication vs. Intelligent Machines

    The key takeaway from this section is that unless we take action, things we want to happen will not happen. In terms of AI, the risks we should be worried about are self-replication and not necessarily creating intelligent machines. Self-replication poses an existential risk to humanity, and we should be vigilant against bad actors who might create self-replicating systems. However, intelligent machines can be beneficial to society and help us understand and mitigate these risks better. We need regulations to balance the benefits of intelligent machines with the risks they pose. We must never create a self-replicating system, and we should be vigilant to avoid bad actors from doing so.

    Building a Factory that Replicates Itself and Supply Chain

    The goal of building a factory that can make new factories with an end-to-end supply chain is extremely difficult and no one is currently doing it. However, there are efforts by Tesla to achieve this goal by going from raw resources to the final car in one factory. Self-replication is a key factor, meaning that there is no entity involved other than the entity replicating. There is a possibility that super-intelligent systems may ignore human commands but won't be able to operate independently without serving human purposes. Uploading human brains into a computer is a distant and unlikely possibility due to technical difficulties and ethical concerns. Consciousness is not remotely shared, and people will not want to upload their minds into digital space even if it were possible.

    The Challenges and Possibilities of Merging Minds with AI Technology

    The concept of merging our minds with AI technology is highly difficult due to the complexity of understanding billions of signals and learning what they mean. While some progress has been made in prosthetic control, merging the biology of the brain with the information coding of technology is a major hurdle. It requires detailed knowledge of the types of neurons, how they work, and their timing, which we currently lack. Surgery to implant technology is also a concern, but it's the information coding aspect that is much harder. While virtual reality and expanded brain capability are possibilities, creating a superintelligent system may be a better option rather than attempting to merge with technology.

    The Potential Benefits of AI for Humanity's Transcendence

    In the podcast conversation, Jeff Hawkins and Kai-Fu Lee discuss the potential benefits of AI in enhancing our lives, particularly through the development of intelligent machines that can aid us in various ways. While these advancements may seem sci-fi-like, they could help overcome our human limitations, particularly in our desire to transcend our biological being by acquiring knowledge and exploring the universe. The duo discusses the possibility of intelligent machines becoming our "offspring," which can propagate throughout the universe, representing our knowledge and history even if the human species vanishes. In sum, the continual acquisition and preservation of knowledge could be humanity's transcendent quality.

    How to Leave Evidence of Our Existence for Future Generations

    The discussion revolves around the possibility of civilizations going extinct, like the dinosaurs or potentially humans in the future. The main takeaway is that there may be ways to leave evidence of our knowledge and existence for future generations or other intelligent species to discover, such as archiving important information like Wikipedia or creating signals that are unequivocally from an intelligent species, like a rotating object around the sun that would block out light in a particular pattern. It is also suggested that intelligent machines may be the ones to explore the galaxy in the future, rather than human beings.

    Leaving a Legacy for Future Civilizations through Understanding the Human Brain

    Jeff Hawkins and interviewer discuss the importance of leaving a legacy that preserves ideas for future civilizations. They acknowledge that understanding the human brain is a complex yet achievable task, and propose that the work being done now will impact the future. Hawkins stresses the need to create concrete experiments that validate our understanding of the brain, and points out that once we understand it, we will not only have the ability to build it but also to validate our theories in real-time. In short, they are optimistic about the future and the potential for human progress.

    The complexities and limitations of brain theories

    In this conversation, Jeff Hawkins and David Krakauer discuss the potential shortcomings of their theories, with a specific focus on the complexity of the brain and the limitations of science. While Hawkins believes that simple explanations for complex systems are important in order to provide a framework for understanding, Krakauer worries about oversimplification and the potential for theories to be proven wrong in the future. Despite these concerns, they both agree that the universal abilities and flexibility of the neocortex offer promising insights into the underlying principles of intelligence. Krakauer also expresses disappointment in the limitations of human nature and our tendency to default to evolutionary strategies that can be harmful.

    The fallibility of human beliefs and thoughts

    In a conversation between Jeff Hawkins and Lex Fridman, they discuss the fallibility of human beliefs and thoughts, as our brains build models of the world that may not reflect reality. This can result in false beliefs and even dangerous ideas. However, they suggest that if we all understood the process of how our brains construct these models, and were more skeptical of our beliefs, we could have a better world. Instead of raising children on dogma, we should teach them to be skeptical and constantly test their beliefs through common ground. While it may be difficult to comprehend reality, striving for better models can lead to progress.

    What Defines Reality and the Pursuit of Intelligent Machines

    The question of whether we are getting close to reality depends on how we define reality. We have a useful model of the world that has allowed us to build planes and computers, but a theory of everything would give us a good model of the world only if it accounts for all layers of abstraction. Even if we had a theory of everything, we may not have a full understanding of intelligence. The acquisition of knowledge is pursued for its own pleasure, and the pursuit of intelligent machines will lead to decades of innovation. By understanding the principles of computation, we can choose how to implement them biologically or otherwise.

    Jeff Hawkins on Innovations in Deep Learning and Neural Networks

    Jeff Hawkins, a renowned scientist and inventor, discusses how the effectiveness of deep learning for specific tasks is driving a lot of innovation in hardware, which could lead to the discovery of intelligent systems that operate very differently from deep learning. One principle he talks about is sparsity in the brain, which is different from deep learning networks. By adding this principle to existing neural networks, it could result in a commercially valuable way of bringing more brain principles into the existing system. Another way to improve neural networks is to use dendrites models to create continuous learning and rapid learning. Jeff advises young people to find something they are passionate about and become dedicated to it, even in the face of adversity.

    Finding Your Passion Can Lead to a Lifetime of Joy and Fulfillment

    Passion is a prerequisite for surviving the obstacles of pursuing your interests. Jeff Hawkins, a neuroscientist, found his passion for the brain after identifying it as the most interesting problem in his teenage years. Discovering your spark can give you purpose and a sense of contribution. It does not have to be a big question, but can come from the smallest things like parenting or mastering a particular sport. Finding joy and passion in something can lead to a lifelong pursuit of mastery, and may bring an intense level of joy and fulfillment.

    Prioritizing Joy and Meaning, Embracing Love, and Leaving a Positive Legacy.

    The key takeaway from this section is that it is important to prioritize activities that bring joy and meaning into your life, even if it means making sacrifices in other areas. Jeff Hawkins discusses how he had to give up on his dream of neuroscience but still came back to it later in life. Additionally, the discussion touches on the importance of love and compassion in the human experience and how it may play a role in developing AI systems that interact with humans. Despite uncertainties about the future, there is an optimistic view that love will ultimately win out. Finally, the emphasis is on accelerating the inevitable and leaving a positive legacy for future generations.

    How individuals can contribute to a positive future for society

    The key takeaway from this section is that individuals can accelerate the progress of civilization towards a positive direction by contributing to something that is beneficial. This can make things happen sooner and eliminate bad missteps along the way, ultimately leading to a better future for society. Jeff Hawkins is optimistic that we will be able to live for a long time and solve problems like climate change, leading to less discord and violence. At the very least, if we do destroy ourselves, we will leave behind some traces of our curious existence for future inhabitants, or perhaps even alien civilizations to ponder.

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    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs

    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs
    Edward Gibson is a psycholinguistics professor at MIT and heads the MIT Language Lab. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Yahoo Finance: https://yahoofinance.com - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/edward-gibson-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Edward's X: https://x.com/LanguageMIT TedLab: https://tedlab.mit.edu/ Edward's Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=4FsWE64AAAAJ TedLab's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@Tedlab-MIT PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (10:53) - Human language (14:59) - Generalizations in language (20:46) - Dependency grammar (30:45) - Morphology (39:20) - Evolution of languages (42:40) - Noam Chomsky (1:26:46) - Thinking and language (1:40:16) - LLMs (1:53:14) - Center embedding (2:19:42) - Learning a new language (2:23:34) - Nature vs nurture (2:30:10) - Culture and language (2:44:38) - Universal language (2:49:01) - Language translation (2:52:16) - Animal communication

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones
    Andrew Callaghan is the host of Channel 5 on YouTube, where he does street interviews with fascinating humans at the edges of society, the so-called vagrants, vagabonds, runaways, outlaws, from QAnon adherents to Phish heads to O Block residents and much more. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ShipStation: https://shipstation.com/lex and use code LEX to get 60-day free trial - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/andrew-callaghan-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Channel 5 with Andrew Callaghan: https://www.youtube.com/channel5YouTube Andrew's Instagram: https://instagram.com/andreww.me Andrew's Website: https://andrew-callaghan.com/ Andrew's Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/channel5 This Place Rules: https://www.hbo.com/movies/this-place-rules Books Mentioned: On the Road: https://amzn.to/4aLPLHi Siddhartha: https://amzn.to/49rthKz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (08:53) - Walmart (10:24) - Early life (29:14) - Hitchhiking (40:49) - Couch surfing (49:50) - Quarter Confessions (1:07:33) - Burning Man (1:22:44) - Protests (1:28:17) - Jon Stewart (1:31:13) - Fame (1:44:31) - Jan 6 (1:48:15) - QAnon (1:54:00) - Alex Jones (2:10:52) - Politics (2:20:29) - Response to allegations (2:37:28) - Channel 5 (2:43:04) - Rap (2:44:51) - O Block (2:48:47) - Crip Mac (2:51:59) - Aliens

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame
    Bassem Youssef is an Egyptian-American comedian & satirist, referred to as the Jon Stewart of the Arab World. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/bassem-youssef-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Bassem's X: https://x.com/Byoussef Bassem's Instagram: https://instagram.com/bassem Bassem's Facebook: https://facebook.com/bassemyousseftv Bassem's Website: https://bassemyoussef.xyz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:30) - Oct 7 (36:59) - Two-state solution (52:37) - Holocaust (1:00:24) - 1948 (1:09:17) - Egypt (1:23:39) - Jon Stewart (1:25:51) - Going viral during the Arab Spring (1:49:55) - Arabic vs English (2:02:18) - Sam Harris and Jihad (2:07:25) - Religion (2:26:37) - TikTok (2:31:10) - Joe Rogan (2:33:07) - Joe Biden (2:37:33) - Putin (2:39:21) - War (2:44:17) - Hope

    #423 – Tulsi Gabbard: War, Politics, and the Military Industrial Complex

    #423 – Tulsi Gabbard: War, Politics, and the Military Industrial Complex
    Tulsi Gabbard is a politician, veteran, and author of For Love of Country. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Riverside: https://creators.riverside.fm/LEX and use code LEX to get 30% off - ExpressVPN: https://expressvpn.com/lexpod to get 3 months free - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour - Notion: https://notion.com/lex Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/tulsi-gabbard-transcript EPISODE LINKS: For Love of Country (book): https://amzn.to/3VLlofM Tulsi's X: https://x.com/tulsigabbard Tulsi's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@TulsiGabbard Tulsi's Podcast: https://youtube.com/@TheTulsiGabbardShow Tulsi's Instagram: https://instagram.com/tulsigabbard Tulsi's Facebook: https://facebook.com/TulsiGabbard Tulsi's Website: https://tulsigabbard.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:14) - War in Iraq (15:00) - Battle injuries and PTSD (22:10) - War on terrorism (30:51) - War in Gaza (34:52) - War in Ukraine (38:38) - Syria (46:20) - Warmongers (55:40) - Nuclear war (1:11:08) - TikTok ban (1:23:13) - Bernie Sanders (1:28:08) - Politics (1:46:59) - Personal attacks (1:49:07) - God

    #422 – Mark Cuban: Shark Tank, DEI & Wokeism Debate, Elon Musk, Politics & Drugs

    #422 – Mark Cuban: Shark Tank, DEI & Wokeism Debate, Elon Musk, Politics & Drugs
    Mark Cuban is a businessman, investor, star of TV series Shark Tank, long-time principal owner of Dallas Mavericks, and founder of Cost Plus Drugs. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Cloaked: https://cloaked.com/lex and use code LexPod to get 25% off - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/mark-cuban-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Mark's X: https://twitter.com/mcuban Mark's Instagram: https://instagram.com/mcuban Cost Plus Drugs: https://costplusdrugs.com Shark Tank: https://abc.com/shows/shark-tank Dallas Mavericks: https://www.mavs.com PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (11:10) - Entrepreneurship (26:03) - Shark Tank (36:29) - How Mark made first billion (1:02:39) - Dallas Mavericks (1:08:05) - DEI debate (1:43:58) - Trump vs Biden (1:46:20) - Immigration (1:55:53) - Drugs and Big Pharma (2:11:53) - AI (2:16:05) - Advice for young people

    #421 – Dana White: UFC, Fighting, Khabib, Conor, Tyson, Ali, Rogan, Elon & Zuck

    #421 – Dana White: UFC, Fighting, Khabib, Conor, Tyson, Ali, Rogan, Elon & Zuck
    Dana White is the CEO and president of the UFC. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/lex to get 20% off Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/dana-white-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Dana's X: https://x.com/danawhite Dana's Instagram: https://instagram.com/danawhite Dana's Facebook: https://facebook.com/danawhite UFC's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@UFC UFC's Website: https://ufc.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:31) - Mike Tyson and early days of fighting (17:10) - Jiu jitsu (23:14) - Origin of UFC (37:25) - Joe Rogan (43:31) - Lorenzo Fertitta (45:58) - Great fighters (49:55) - Khabib vs Conor (53:01) - Jon Jones (56:03) - Conor McGregor (1:01:05) - Trump (1:06:44) - Elon vs Zuck (1:08:04) - Mike Tyson vs Jake Paul (1:10:52) - Forrest Griffin vs Stephan Bonnar (1:18:06) - Gambling (1:33:08) - Mortality

    #420 – Annie Jacobsen: Nuclear War, CIA, KGB, Aliens, Area 51, Roswell & Secrecy

    #420 – Annie Jacobsen: Nuclear War, CIA, KGB, Aliens, Area 51, Roswell & Secrecy
    Annie Jacobsen is an investigative journalist and author of "Nuclear War: A Scenario" and many other books on war, weapons, government secrecy, and national security. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - HiddenLayer: https://hiddenlayer.com/lex - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/annie-jacobsen-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Nuclear War: A Scenario (book): https://amzn.to/3THZHfr Annie's Twitter: https://twitter.com/anniejacobsen Annie's Website: https://anniejacobsen.com/ Annie's Books: https://amzn.to/3TGWyMJ Annie's Books (audio): https://adbl.co/49ZnI7c PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:37) - Nuclear war (12:21) - Launch procedure (18:00) - Deterrence (21:34) - Tactical nukes (30:59) - Nuclear submarines (33:59) - Nuclear missiles (41:10) - Nuclear football (50:17) - Missile interceptor system (54:34) - North Korea (1:01:10) - Nuclear war scenarios (1:10:02) - Warmongers (1:14:31) - President's cognitive ability (1:20:43) - Refusing orders (1:28:41) - Russia and Putin (1:33:48) - Cyberattack (1:35:09) - Ground zero of nuclear war (1:39:48) - Surviving nuclear war (1:44:06) - Nuclear winter (1:54:29) - Alien civilizations (2:00:04) - Extrasensory perception (2:13:50) - Area 51 (2:17:48) - UFOs and aliens (2:28:15) - Roswell incident (2:34:55) - CIA assassinations (2:53:47) - Navalny (2:56:12) - KGB (3:02:48) - Hitler and the atomic bomb (3:06:52) - War and human nature (3:10:17) - Hope