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    The Peter Attia Drive

    Expert insight on health, performance, longevity, critical thinking, and pursuing excellence. Dr. Peter Attia (Stanford/Hopkins/NIH-trained MD) talks with leaders in their fields.
    enPeter Attia, MD355 Episodes

    Episodes (355)

    #309 ‒ AI in medicine: its potential to revolutionize disease prediction, diagnosis, and outcomes, causes for concern in medicine and beyond, and more | Isaac Kohane, M.D., Ph.D.

    #309 ‒ AI in medicine: its potential to revolutionize disease prediction, diagnosis, and outcomes, causes for concern in medicine and beyond, and more | Isaac Kohane, M.D., Ph.D.

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    Isaac "Zak" Kohane, a pioneering physician-scientist and chair of the Department of Biomedical Informatics at Harvard Medical School, has authored numerous papers and influential books on artificial intelligence (AI), including The AI Revolution in Medicine: GPT-4 and Beyond. In this episode, Zak explores the evolution of AI, from its early iterations to the current third generation, illuminating how it is transforming medicine today and unlocking astonishing possibilities for the future. He shares insights from his unconventional journey and early interactions with GPT-4, highlighting significant AI advancements in image-based medical specialties, early disease diagnosis, and the potential for autonomous robotic surgery. He also delves into the ethical concerns and regulatory challenges of AI, its potential to augment clinicians, and the broader implications of AI achieving human-like creativity and expertise.

    We discuss:

    • Zak’s unconventional journey to becoming a pioneering physician-scientist, and his early interactions with GPT-4 [2:15];
    • The evolution of AI from the earliest versions to today’s neural networks, and the shifting definitions of intelligence over time [8:00];
    • How vast data sets, advanced neural networks, and powerful GPU technology have driven AI from its early limitations to achieving remarkable successes in medicine and other fields [19:00];
    • An AI breakthrough in medicine: the ability to accurately recognize retinopathy [29:00];
    • Third generation AI: how improvements in natural language processing significantly advanced AI capabilities [32:00];
    • AI concerns and regulation: misuse by individuals, military applications, displacement of jobs, and potential existential concerns [37:30];
    • How AI is enhancing image-based medical specialties like radiology [49:15];
    • The use of AI by patients and doctors [55:45];
    • The potential for AI to augment clinicians and address physician shortages [1:02:45];
    • The potential for AI to revolutionize early diagnosis and prediction of diseases: Alzheimer’s disease, CVD, autism, and more [1:08:00];
    • The future of AI in healthcare: integration of patient data, improved diagnostics, and the challenges of data accessibility and regulatory compliance [1:17:00];
    • The future of autonomous robotic surgery [1:25:00];
    • AI and the future of mental health care [1:31:30];
    • How AI may transform and disrupt the medical industry: new business models and potential resistance from established medical institutions [1:34:45];
    • Potential positive and negative impacts of AI outside of medicine over the next decade [1:38:30];
    • The implications of AI achieving a level of creativity and expertise comparable to exceptional human talents [1:42:00];
    • Digital immortality and legacy: the potential to emulate an individual's personality and responses and the ethical questions surrounding it [1:45:45];
    • Parting thoughts [1:50:15]; and
    • More.

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    The Peter Attia Drive
    enJuly 15, 2024

    Zone 2 training: impact on longevity and mitochondrial function, how to dose frequency and duration, and more | Iñigo San-Millán, Ph.D. (#201 rebroadcast)

    Zone 2 training: impact on longevity and mitochondrial function, how to dose frequency and duration, and more | Iñigo San-Millán, Ph.D. (#201 rebroadcast)

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    Iñigo San-Millán is an internationally renowned applied physiologist and a previous guest on The Drive. His research and clinical work focuses on exercise-related metabolism, metabolic health, diabetes, cancer metabolism, nutrition, sports performance, and critical care. In this episode, Iñigo describes how his work with Tour de France winner Tadej Pogačar has provided insights into the amazing potential of elite athletes from a performance and metabolic perspective. He speaks specifically about lactate levels, fat oxidation, how carbohydrates in food can affect our lactate and how equal lactate outputs between an athlete and a metabolically unhealthy individual can mean different things. Next, he discusses how Zone 2 training boosts mitochondrial function and impacts longevity. He explains the different metrics for assessing one’s Zone 2 threshold and describes the optimal dose, frequency, duration, and type of exercise for Zone 2. Additionally, he offers his thoughts on how to incorporate high intensity training (Zone 5) to optimize health, as well as the potential of metformin and NAD to boost mitochondrial health. Finally, he discusses insights he’s gathered from studying the mitochondria of long COVID patients in the ICU.

    We discuss:

    • The amazing potential of cyclist Tadej Pogačar [2:00];
    • Metrics for assessing athletic performance in cyclists and how that impacts race strategy [7:30];
    • The impact of performance-enhancing drugs and the potential for transparency into athletes’ data during competition [16:15];
    • Tadej Pogačar’s race strategy and mindset at the Tour de France [23:15];
    • Defining Zone 2, fat oxidation, and how they are measured [26:00];
    • Using fat and carbohydrate utilization to calculate the mitochondrial function and metabolic flexibility [35:00];
    • Lactate levels and fat oxidation as it relates to Zone 2 exercise [39:15];
    • How moderately active individuals should train to improve metabolic function and maximize mitochondrial performance [51:00];
    • Bioenergetics of the cell and what is different in elite athletes [56:30];
    • How the level of carbohydrate in the diet and ketogenic diets affects fuel utilization and power output during exercise [1:07:45];
    • Glutamine as a source for making glycogen—insights from studying the altered metabolism of ICU patients [1:14:15];
    • How exercise mobilizes glucose transporters—an important factor in diabetic patients [1:20:15];
    • Metrics for finding Zone 2 threshold—lactate, heart rate, and more [1:24:00];
    • Optimal Zone 2 training: dose, frequency, duration, and type of exercise [1:40:30];
    • How to incorporate high intensity training (Zone 5) to increase VO2 max and optimize fitness [1:50:30];
    • Compounding benefits of Zone 2 exercise and how we can improve metabolic health into old age [2:01:00];
    • The effects of metformin, NAD, and supplements on mitochondrial function [2:04:30];
    • The role of lactate and exercise in cancer [2:12:45];
    • How assessing metabolic parameters in long COVID patients provides insights into this disease [2:18:30];
    • The advantages of using cellular surrogates of metabolism instead of VO2 max for prescribing exercise [2:25:00];
    • Metabolomics reveals how cellular metabolism is altered in sedentary individuals [2:33:00];
    • Cellular changes in the metabolism of people with diabetes and metabolic syndrome [2:38:30]; and
    • More.

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    The Peter Attia Drive
    enJuly 08, 2024

    #308 - AMA #61: Sun exposure, sunscreen, and skin health: relationship between sun exposure and skin cancer, vitamin D production, and photoaging, how to choose a sunscreen, and more

    #308 - AMA #61: Sun exposure, sunscreen, and skin health: relationship between sun exposure and skin cancer, vitamin D production, and photoaging, how to choose a sunscreen, and more

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    In this “Ask Me Anything” (AMA) episode, Peter delves into two topics that have generated a lot of questions over the years: skin cancer and sunscreen. He begins by exploring the basics of UV radiation, discussing its effects on vitamin D conversion, photoaging, and its role in skin cancer. He examines various skin types, discussing their implications for sun exposure and vitamin D levels, as well as how to determine where you fall on the skin type scale. He then delves into the various types of skin cancer, with a particular emphasis on melanoma, exploring its complex relationship with UV exposure and other contributing risk factors. Additionally, he covers tanning beds, the importance of early skin cancer detection through regular skin checks, and the often confusing topic of sunscreen. He explains how sunscreen affects UV radiation and skin cancer risk, what SPF levels to choose, the differences between organic and mineral sunscreens, and what to consider when selecting the best sunscreen for your needs.

    If you’re not a subscriber and are listening on a podcast player, you’ll only be able to hear a preview of the AMA. If you’re a subscriber, you can now listen to this full episode on your private RSS feed or our website at the AMA #61 show notes page. If you are not a subscriber, you can learn more about the subscriber benefits here.

    We discuss:

    • The impact of UV radiation on the skin [2:00];
    • Understanding solar UV: from the electromagnetic spectrum to skin health [3:45];
    • The role of sunlight in vitamin D production [8:30];
    • Factors contributing to vitamin D deficiency: insufficient UV exposure, magnesium levels, and more [9:45];
    • Sun exposure needs for different skin types, and the limitations of current studies in defining vitamin D deficiency [12:45];
    • The acute and long-term effects of excessive UV exposure: sunburn, photoaging, and the increased risk of skin cancer [15:30];
    • Types of skin cancer and associations with UV exposure [17:45];
    • The complex relationship between melanoma and UV exposure [22:15];
    • Why UV exposure alone doesn’t necessarily explain the risk for melanoma [25:15];
    • Other risk factors for melanoma [29:15];
    • Tanning beds and skin cancer risk [34:45];
    • Balancing sun exposure: benefits and risks [38:15];
    • Tattoos and sun exposure [40:30];
    • The importance of regular skin checks, dermatologists, and emerging technologies showing promise for early detection of cancer [41:45];
    • Self-skin checks: what to look for [46:30];
    • Prevalence of skin cancer and the importance of early detection [49:30];
    • Summary of the major risk factors for melanoma [54:15];
    • The role of sunscreen in reducing skin cancer risk [55:45];
    • How sunscreen works, the differences between chemical and mineral sunscreens, an explanation of SPF, and more [58:30];
    • How to determine the appropriate sunscreen SPF to use based on the UV index [1:04:45];
    • Choosing the right sunscreen for your individual needs [1:07:00];
    • The impact of water and perspiration on sunscreen effectiveness [1:12:00];
    • Chemical vs. mineral sunscreens: safety concerns and recommendations [1:14:00];
    • Concerns about hormone effects from chemical sunscreens [1:19:15];
    • Sunscreen summary: skin types, key considerations, recommended brands, and more [1:23:15]; and
    • More.

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    The Peter Attia Drive
    enJuly 01, 2024

    #307 ‒ Exercise for aging people: where to begin, and how to minimize risk while maximizing potential | Peter Attia, M.D.

    #307 ‒ Exercise for aging people: where to begin, and how to minimize risk while maximizing potential | Peter Attia, M.D.

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    In this special episode, Peter addresses the common questions about starting or returning to an exercise routine over the age of 50. Individuals in this age group have frequently reached out with questions about whether it's too late to start exercising and often express concern over a lack of prior training, a fear of injury, or uncertainty about where to begin. Peter delves into the importance of fitness for older adults, examining all four pillars of exercise, and provides practical advice on how to start exercising safely, minimize injury risk, and maximize potential benefits. Although this conversation focuses on people in the “older” age category, it also applies to anyone of any age who is deconditioned and looking to ease into regular exercise.

    We discuss:

    • Key points about starting exercise as an older adult [2:45];
    • Why it’s never too late to begin exercising and incorporating the four pillars of exercise [5:45];
    • The gradual, then sharp, decline in muscle mass and activity level that occur with age [10:00];
    • The decline of VO2 max that occurs with age [15:30];
    • Starting a training program: exercise variability, movement quality, realistic goals, and more [18:30];
    • Improving aerobic capacity: the malleability of the system, the importance of consistency, and setting long-term fitness goals [25:15];
    • Starting cardio training: base building, starting with low volume, and zone 2 training [30:45];
    • The critical role of VO2 max in longevity [36:45];
    • How to introduce VO2 max training to older or deconditioned individuals [46:15];
    • Options for performing zone 2 and VO2 max training [53:45];
    • The ability to make gains in strength and muscle mass as we age [57:00];
    • How to implement strength training for older individuals [1:01:00];
    • Advice for avoiding injury when strength training [1:07:30];
    • Risk of falls: the devastating consequences and the factors that increase fall risk [1:12:15];
    • Mitigating fall risk: the importance of foot and lower leg strength, ankle mobility, and balance [1:19:45];
    • Improving bone mineral density through resistance training [1:24:30];
    • The importance of protein in stimulating muscle protein synthesis, especially in older adults [1:31:00];
    • Parting advice from Peter [1:34:00]; and
    • More.

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    The Peter Attia Drive
    enJune 24, 2024

    #306 - AMA #60: preventing cognitive decline, nutrition myths, lowering blood glucose, apoB, and blood pressure, and more

    #306 - AMA #60: preventing cognitive decline, nutrition myths, lowering blood glucose, apoB, and blood pressure, and more

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    In this “Ask Me Anything” (AMA) episode, Peter provides insights on a broad range of important topics. He delves into the prevention of cognitive decline, the link between cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease, and methods to lower blood glucose, insulin, and apoB. He also addresses nutrition-related queries, exploring the impact of dietary habits on weight loss and longevity, how a person can identify the best diet for themselves, and common nutrition myths. Additional discussions include optimal blood pressure, daily step goals, the benefits of standing versus sitting desks, and much more.

    If you’re not a subscriber and are listening on a podcast player, you’ll only be able to hear a preview of the AMA. If you’re a subscriber, you can now listen to this full episode on your private RSS feed or our website at the AMA #60 show notes page. If you are not a subscriber, you can learn more about the subscriber benefits here.

    We discuss:

    • Overview of topics and episode format [1:40];
    • Preventing cognitive decline [5:00];
    • How to lower blood glucose and insulin [13:30];
    • The relationship between lipids, CVD, and Alzheimer’s disease, and whether statins can increase the risk of neurodegenerative disorders and AD [23:15];
    • Reducing apoB levels through exercise and diet [31:45];
    • Pharmacological options for lowering apoB [38:00];
    • How nutrition impacts longevity via metabolic health, muscle mass, BMD and more [40:15];
    • How can someone determine the best diet for themselves? [43:45];
    • Nutrition myth: All weight loss is good [46:45];
    • Nutrition myth: Metabolic rates are dramatically different among individuals based on genetics [49:00];
    • Nutrition myth: Losing weight after a brief period of overeating is impossible [53:45];
    • Nutrition myth: GLP-1 agonists are a replacement for a healthy lifestyle [57:45];
    • Nutrition myth: There is a single best diet for weight loss [1:03:00];
    • Nutrition oversimplification: All calories are created equal [1:05:45];
    • Daily step goals [1:06:45];
    • The benefits of standing versus sitting throughout the day [1:10:45];
    • How to identify the most impactful and easiest-to-implement ways to improve your health [1:12:30];
    • The critical importance of emotional health [1:14:30];
    • Why supplements should be considered as supportive aids rather than primary solutions in one’s strategy to improve longevity [1:18:00];
    • Strategies for reducing high blood pressure [1:20:45];
    • Peter’s biggest frustrations with "mainstream health advice" [1:28:00];
    • Peter’s chaotic, yet cherished, morning routine [1:31:00]; and
    • More.

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    The Peter Attia Drive
    enJune 17, 2024

    #305 ‒ Heart rate variability: how to measure, interpret, and utilize HRV for training and health optimization | Joel Jamieson

    #305 ‒ Heart rate variability: how to measure, interpret, and utilize HRV for training and health optimization | Joel Jamieson

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    Joel Jamieson is a conditioning expert who developed Morpheus to give people a smarter way to build their conditioning regimen and improve their recovery. In this episode, Joel dives deep into the world of heart rate variability (HRV), explaining its scientific foundation, how it measures the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, the various methods of measurement, and how it can guide healthier lifestyle choices and improved training performance. He explores the nuances of HRV calculation, the impact of aging on HRV, and the roles of genetics, exercise, and other lifestyle factors in this process. He also covers Morpheus, the innovative training tool that won Peter over after his initial skepticism, highlighting its practicality and effectiveness in guiding training and optimizing fitness outcomes.

    We discuss:

    • Heart rate variability (HRV): evolution, science, and practical applications of HRV in athletic training [4:00];
    • Methods of measuring HRV: EKG, wrist-based sensors, and more [11:30];
    • How HRV is calculated from the data [22:30];
    • The role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in regulating HRV [25:45];
    • The decline in HRV with age, and the mitigating effects of fitness and other lifestyle factors [33:30];
    • The role of genetics in HRV, the modifiability of HRV, and a comparison of VO2 max and HRV as predictors of mortality [37:00];
    • How aging affects HRV and sympathetic drive, and the importance of spontaneous movement and exercise in maintaining the body's adaptability [43:30];
    • How Morpheus measures HRV using RMSSD and normalizes it to a 100-point scale for easier interpretation [49:45];
    • The Morpheus system: development, integration with various metrics, and personalized daily training recommendations to optimize fitness and recovery [51:30];
    • The benefits of morning HRV readings for assessing daily readiness compared to overnight HRV measurements [1:03:00];
    • Why Morpheus recommends using a chest strap rather than an arm band [1:10:00];
    • The impact of consistent exercise, stress, alcohol, and other lifestyle factors on HRV [1:11:15];
    • Optimizing zone 2 training with Morpheus [1:18:15];
    • Using heart rate recovery (HRR) as an indicator of athletic conditioning and the balance between aerobic and anaerobic systems [1:22:45];
    • The importance of tracking HRV trends over time rather than focusing on data from a given day [1:29:00];
    • Effect of GLP-1 agonists on heart rate and HRV [1:34:45];
    • Where HRV belongs in the hierarchy of health metrics [1:42:00];
    • Parting thoughts [1:46:30]; and
    • More.

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    The Peter Attia Drive
    enJune 10, 2024

    #304 – NEW: Introducing quarterly podcast summaries - Peter shares his biggest takeaways on muscle protein synthesis, VO2 max, toe strength, gut health, and more

    #304 – NEW: Introducing quarterly podcast summaries - Peter shares his biggest takeaways on muscle protein synthesis, VO2 max, toe strength, gut health, and more

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    In this quarterly podcast summary (QPS) episode, Peter introduces a new format aimed at summarizing his biggest takeaways from the last three months of guest interviews on the podcast. Peter shares key insights from each episode, covering diverse topics such as protein and muscle building with Luc van Loon, toe strength with Courtney Conley, VO2 max with Olav Aleksander Bu, liquid biopsies for cancer with Alex Aravanis, gut health and probiotics with Colleen Cutcliffe, and road safety with Mark Rosekind. Additionally, Peter shares any personal behavioral adjustments or modifications to his patient care practices that have arisen from these engaging discussions.

    If you’re not a subscriber and are listening on a podcast player, you’ll only be able to hear a preview of the AMA. If you’re a subscriber, you can now listen to this full episode on your private RSS feed or our website at the episode #304 show notes page. If you are not a subscriber, you can learn more about the subscriber benefits here.

    We discuss:

    • How Peter keeps track of his takeaways from each podcast episode [5:15];
    • Luc van Loon episode: fat utilization, muscle protein synthesis, dietary protein, aging and inactivity, and more [8:45];
    • Behavioral changes that have come about from the conversation with Luc van Loon [23:45];
    • Courtney Conley episode: importance of toe strength and the impact of dedicated foot training [26:45];
    • Olav Aleksander Bu episode: the importance of VO2 max for lifespan, and the practicalities of measuring and improving VO2 max [36:45];
    • Behavioral changes that have come about from the conversation with Olav [56:00];
    • Alex Aravanis episode: liquid biopsies for cancer detection [1:01:30];
    • Colleen Cutcliffe episode: the importance of gut bacteria balance, and the potential therapeutic uses of probiotics, particularly Akkermansia [1:16:45];
    • Mark Rosekind: the significant issue of road fatalities and injuries, their causes, and practical safety measures to reduce risks [1:27:00]; and
    • More.

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    The Peter Attia Drive
    enJune 03, 2024

    #303 - A breakthrough in Alzheimer’s disease: the promising potential of klotho for brain health, cognitive decline, and as a therapeutic tool for Alzheimer's disease | Dena Dubal, M.D., Ph.D.

    #303 - A breakthrough in Alzheimer’s disease: the promising potential of klotho for brain health, cognitive decline, and as a therapeutic tool for Alzheimer's disease | Dena Dubal, M.D., Ph.D.

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    Dena Dubal is a physician-scientist and professor of neurology at UCSF whose work focuses on mechanisms of longevity and brain resilience. In this episode, Dena delves into the intricacies of the longevity factor klotho: its formation and distribution in the body, the factors such as stress and exercise that impact its levels, and its profound impact on cognitive function and overall brain health. Dena shares insights from exciting research in animal models showing the potential of klotho in treating neurodegenerative diseases as well as its broader implications for organ health and disease prevention. She concludes with an optimistic outlook for future research in humans and the potential of klotho for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

    Disclosure: Peter is an investor in Jocasta Neuroscience, a company working to develop klotho as a therapy for people with Alzheimer’s disease.

    We discuss:

    • Dena’s fascination with aging and how she came to study klotho [3:30];
    • Biological properties of klotho: production, regulation, decline with age, and factors influencing its levels [11:45];
    • Potential benefits of klotho on brain health [22:00];
    • The relationship between soluble klotho protein, platelet factors, and cognitive enhancement [33:45];
    • The role of platelet factor 4 (PF4) and it’s interaction with GluN2B in mediating cognitive enhancement [46:45];
    • Benefits of klotho observed in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease [55:45];
    • Benefits of klotho observed in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease [1:03:00];
    • Promising results of klotho in primate models, and the importance of finding an appropriate therapeutic dose before moving to human trials [1:08:00];
    • Speculating why a single klotho injection has such long-lasting effects [1:25:30];
    • Potential cognitive benefits of klotho in humans, the impact of the KL-VS genetic variant on klotho levels, and the need for human trials to confirm these effects [1:27:45];
    • The interaction between the KL-VS genetic variant and APOE4 and how it impacts risk of Alzheimer’s disease [1:34:45];
    • The significance of klotho levels: studies linking lower levels to increased mortality and the broader implications for organ health and disease prevention [1:47:15];
    • Measuring klotho levels and determining an individual’s KL-VS status [1:52:15];
    • The promising potential of klotho for Alzheimer’s disease treatment, and the importance of philanthropy for funding research [1:58:00]; and
    • More.

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    The Peter Attia Drive
    enMay 27, 2024

    #302 - Confronting a metabolic epidemic: understanding liver health and how to prevent, diagnose, and manage liver disease | Julia Wattacheril, M.D., M.P.H.

    #302 - Confronting a metabolic epidemic: understanding liver health and how to prevent, diagnose, and manage liver disease | Julia Wattacheril, M.D., M.P.H.

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    Julia Wattacheril is a physician scientist and director of the Metabolic Dysfunction Associated Steatotic Liver Disease (MASLD) program at Columbia University Irving Medical Center. In this episode, Julia delves deep into the complex world of liver health, beginning with a foundational overview of liver physiology. She provides an in-depth look at how alcohol impacts liver function, breaking down the metabolism of ethanol and its detrimental effects. Julia then shifts the focus to understanding liver function tests and optimal enzyme levels, providing a detailed explanation of AST and ALT and elucidating why fluctuations in these levels may or may not be concerning. She provides a primer on the four major stages of liver disease, discussing risk and emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis. Julia highlights the role of liver disease in increasing the risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease and covers in detail the various strategies for diagnosing, treating, and preventing the progression of liver disease.

    We discuss:

    • Julia’s training, the importance of liver health, and the challenges and innovations of hepatology [3:15];
    • The complex and crucial functionality of the liver, its four most essential functions, and more [8:45];
    • Liver injuries: historical and evolving understanding of causal factors, and the progression to liver diseases and cancer [13:15];
    • How the liver metabolizes nutrients and what happens in the presence of excess calories or alcohol [24:45];
    • Methods of diagnosing liver disease and how insights guide treatment and management strategies [33:30];
    • The poisonous nature of ethanol to the liver [40:30];
    • Varied responses to alcohol, damaging effects of alcohol beyond the liver, and the process of advising patients on their alcohol consumption [47:15];
    • Understanding liver enzymes AST and ALT—interpreting levels, lifestyle factors that affect them, and diagnostic approaches [58:30];
    • Interpreting liver function tests for fatty liver disease, and the challenges of diagnosing liver pathologies, particularly in children versus adults [1:13:15];
    • Comprehensive liver health assessments via imaging and various diagnostic tools to prevent overlooking potential liver pathologies [1:18:45];
    • Potential impact of recreational drugs, statins, and other medications on liver function test results [1:26:45];
    • Shifting nomenclature from NAFLD to MASLD to reflect accuracy in the underlying pathophysiology and understanding of liver diseases [1:30:30];
    • Pathophysiology of MASLD, the need for proactive screening, and the significance of liver fat percentage as an indicator of metabolic health [1:36:30];
    • The importance of screening for rare conditions alongside common metabolic diseases associated with fatty liver accumulation [1:42:45];
    • Practical strategies for managing MAFLD [1:45:30];
    • The impact of fructose consumption on liver health and the challenges of disentangling its effects from other factors like obesity and insulin resistance [1:52:45];
    • The potential of GLP-1 agonists for the treatment of MASLD [1:57:45];
    • How the four stages of liver disease have evolved [2:00:30];
    • Increased cancer and heart disease risk associated with early-stage MAFLD [2:05:15];
    • Emerging drugs and therapies for addressing fat accumulation and fibrosis related to MAFLD [2:12:15];
    • Peter’s major takeaways [2:18:45]; and
    • More.

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    The Peter Attia Drive
    enMay 20, 2024

    #301 - AMA #59: Inflammation: its impact on aging and disease risk, and how to identify, prevent, and reduce it

    #301 - AMA #59: Inflammation: its impact on aging and disease risk, and how to identify, prevent, and reduce it

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    In this “Ask Me Anything” (AMA) episode, Peter delves into the often misunderstood concept of inflammation. He first defines inflammation and differentiates between acute inflammation and chronic inflammation, the latter of which is linked to aging and a plethora of age-related diseases. Peter breaks down the intricate relationship between chronic inflammation, obesity, and metabolic health, and highlights the signs that might suggest someone may be suffering from chronic inflammation. From there, the conversation centers on actionable advice and practical steps one can take to manage and minimize chronic inflammation. He explores how diet plays a crucial role, including the potential benefits of elimination diets, and he examines the impact of lifestyle factors such as exercise, sleep, and stress management. Additionally, he discusses the relevance of food inflammatory tests and concludes by examining the potential benefits and drawbacks of drugs and supplements in managing inflammation.

    If you’re not a subscriber and are listening on a podcast player, you’ll only be able to hear a preview of the AMA. If you’re a subscriber, you can now listen to this full episode on your private RSS feed or our website at the AMA #59 show notes page. If you are not a subscriber, you can learn more about the subscriber benefits here.

    We discuss:

    • Defining inflammation (and the cultural impact of Napoleon Dynamite) [1:45];
    • Acute vs chronic inflammation [8:00];
    • The connection between chronic inflammation, aging, and age-related diseases [11:00];
    • The impact of inflammation on metabolic health [18:30];
    • Understanding and diagnosing chronic inflammation: blood tests and other approaches, and challenges with measurement [20:00];
    • Factors that contribute to low-level chronic inflammation [28:00];
    • Minimizing inflammation through diet [29:45];
    • The important role of fiber for gut health and inflammation [33:45];
    • A closer look at the impact of trans fats and saturated fats on overall health [34:45];
    • Why Peter prefers dietary fiber from food sources over supplements [38:30];
    • Debunking “superfoods”: emphasizing proven methods over marketing claims for reducing inflammation [39:00];
    • Is there any value in over-the-counter food inflammatory tests? [42:30];
    • Food elimination diets: how they work, symptoms and markers to watch, challenges and limitations [45:15];
    • Identifying dietary triggers for gut-related symptoms through low-FODMAP diets like the “carnivore diet” [51:15];
    • Dairy: the complex role of dairy on inflammation and individual responses [55:00];
    • Wheat: the complexities and conflicting evidence around wheat's inflammatory effects [57:45];
    • How exercise influences inflammation [1:02:00];
    • How sleep quality and duration impacts inflammation [1:07:00];
    • The potential impact of chronic psychological stressors on inflammation [1:13:00];
    • The impact of oral health on inflammation and overall well-being [1:15:00];
    • The role of medications in managing chronic inflammation [1:18:15];
    • Supplements: evaluating the efficacy of various anti-inflammatory supplements [1:22:15];
    • Parting thoughts and takeaways [1:27:00]; and
    • More.

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    The Peter Attia Drive
    enMay 13, 2024

    #300 - Special episode: Peter on exercise, fasting, nutrition, stem cells, geroprotective drugs, and more — promising interventions or just noise?

    #300 - Special episode: Peter on exercise, fasting, nutrition, stem cells, geroprotective drugs, and more — promising interventions or just noise?

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    In this special edition celebrating 300 episodes of The Drive, Peter discusses a variety of popular topics and health interventions and classifies them based on their level of evidence and relevance using the following categories: proven, promising, fuzzy, noise, and nonsense. Peter first delves into the topic of geroprotective molecules, covering rapamycin, metformin, NAD and its precursors, and resveratrol. Next, he explores the significance of metrics like VO2 max and muscle mass, as well as emerging concepts like blood flow restriction and stem cells. The conversation extends to nutrition, addressing questions surrounding long-term fasting, sugar consumption, sugar substitutes, and the contentious role of red meat in cancer. Peter not only provides his current stance on each topic—most of which have been covered in great detail in the previous 300 episodes—but also reflects on how his opinion may have evolved over the years.

    We discuss:

    • Defining the categories of “proven, promising, fuzzy, noise, and nonsense” [3:15];
    • Rapamycin [9:30];
    • Metformin [17:00];
    • NAD and its precursors [24:30];
    • Resveratrol [32:45];
    • The importance of VO2 max, muscle mass, and muscular strength for lifespan [38:15];
    • Blood flow restriction (BFR) training [44:00];
    • Using stem cells to treat osteoarthritis or injury [51:30];
    • Fasting as a tool for longevity (and why Peter stopped his fasting protocol) [55:45];
    • The energy balance theory [1:06:30];
    • The idea that sugar is poison [1:12:00];
    • The idea that sugar substitutes are dangerous [1:22:15];
    • The debate on red meat and cancer [1:28:45]; and
    • More.

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    Special episode with Dax Shepard: F1 and the 30th anniversary of Ayrton Senna’s death

    Special episode with Dax Shepard: F1 and the 30th anniversary of Ayrton Senna’s death

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    This is a special episode of The Drive with Peter’s friend and fellow car enthusiast Dax Shepard. In this podcast, which commemorates the 30th anniversary of the death of Brazilian Formula One legend Ayrton Senna, Dax sits down with Peter to better understand what made Senna so special and why Peter remains an enormous fan. This conversation focuses on Senna’s life, the circumstances of his death, and his lasting impact and legacy on the sport of F1.

    We discuss:

    • Peter’s interest in motorsports began as a child [2:30];
    • The drama and dangers of F1 [6:00];
    • What made Senna special [13:00];
    • What Senna meant to Brazilians [24:00];
    • The cause of the fatal crash [28:15];
    • Why Peter is obsessed with Senna [40:30];
    • Being the best versus having the best record [43:30];
    • Senna’s unique driving style and incredible intuition about automotive engineering [46:30];
    • Back to the day of the dreadful race [53:00];
    • What Peter believes caused the crash [1:02:45];
    • Views on dying young, in the prime of life [1:13:00];
    • Senna lives on in his foundation and in safety changes adopted by F1 [1:21:00];
    • Statistics aren’t enough for fandom, and why people like who they do [1:24:15];
    • The biggest difference between F1 today and F1 in the 80s [1:28:30];
    • Senna’s driving superpower [1:30:30];
    • The fastest drivers currently in F1 [1:38:30];
    • Current F1 obsessions [1:45:00];
    • How hard it is to do what the top F1 drivers do [1:50:15];
    • Dax’s love of motorcycles and his AMG E63 station wagon [1:52:15];
    • Awesome Senna mementos from Etsy [2:01:15];
    • What makes specialists interesting, and Max’s devotion to F1 [2:10:15];
    • What Senna might have done if he had not died that day [2:14:00];
    • Michael Schumacher and Max Verstappen are also top F1 drivers [2:17:30];
    • Interlagos in Sao Paulo Brazil is always an incredible experience [2:18:45]; and
    • More.

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    #299 ‒ Optimizing muscle protein synthesis: the crucial impact of protein quality and quantity, and the key role of resistance training | Luc van Loon, Ph.D.

    #299 ‒ Optimizing muscle protein synthesis: the crucial impact of protein quality and quantity, and the key role of resistance training | Luc van Loon, Ph.D.

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    Luc van Loon is an internationally renowned expert in skeletal muscle metabolism. In this episode, Luc starts with an exploration of the roles of insulin and triglycerides in endurance exercise, highlighting their impact on skeletal muscle metabolism, and he offers profound insights into the significance of protein in this context. He elucidates how different protein types and forms influence muscle protein synthesis rates, exploring the nuances of protein absorption, digestibility, amino acid quality, and their implications for performance and recovery. Delving deeper, he differentiates between animal and plant protein sources, unraveling the distinctive properties of various protein types, from the differences between whey and casein to the emerging trends in collagen protein supplementation. Moreover, Luc dissects the intricate connections among physical activity, lean muscle mass, muscle protein synthesis induced by resistance training, and dietary protein.

    We discuss:

    • Luc’s background and insights about fuel selection during exercise [3:30];
    • Fuel utilization during endurance exercise [9:30];
    • Fat metabolism, intramuscular lipids, and the nutritional dynamics of endurance sports [17:15];
    • The optimal window for replenishing intramuscular fat stores and glycogen post-exercise [25:15];
    • Luc’s interest in protein metabolism and exploration of amino acids' dual role as building blocks and signaling molecules in driving muscle protein synthesis [32:15];
    • How protein metabolism differs between sedentary individuals and those engaged in predominantly strength training or endurance training [38:45];
    • The basics of how proteins are digested and absorbed, and how muscle protein synthesis is measured [50:30];
    • How factors like food texture, cooking methods, and protein composition impact muscle protein synthesis, and the importance of protein distribution throughout the day [59:45];
    • Differences in whey and casein proteins, and the ability of ingested protein to stimulate muscle protein synthesis [1:03:30];
    • Dietary protein distribution and quantity for the maximization of muscle protein synthesis [1:09:00];
    • Muscle loss with age and inactivity and the importance of resistance exercise to maintain type II muscle fibers [1:17:15];
    • Differences between whey and casein proteins, and the importance of both quantity and quality of protein sources [1:28:30];
    • Optimizing muscle protein synthesis: exercise, timing of protein intake, protein quality, and more [1:37:00];
    • How to preserve muscle while trying to lose weight [1:46:00];
    • Anabolic resistance and overcoming it with physical activity [1:55:45];
    • Importance of protein intake and physical activity in hospitalized patients [2:06:30];
    • Reviewing the efficacy of collagen supplements [2:13:30];
    • Plant-based diets: how to ensure a balance of amino acids, and other considerations [2:20:30];
    • Future research: understanding protein metabolism in the brain [2:23:45]; and
    • More.

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    #298 ‒ The impact of emotional health on longevity, self-audit strategies, improving well-being, and more | Paul Conti, M.D.

    #298 ‒ The impact of emotional health on longevity, self-audit strategies, improving well-being, and more | Paul Conti, M.D.

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    Paul Conti is an author and practicing psychiatrist who specializes in helping people heal from trauma. In this episode, Paul returns to The Drive to delve into the intricate relationship between emotional health, healthspan, and lifespan. He first challenges common assumptions about the inevitable decline of emotional health with age, providing strategies for conducting a comprehensive audit of internal emotional health. He establishes a framework for the foundation of good emotional health: a balance between the generative drive, the assertive drive, and the pleasure drive. Paul also explores the nuanced dynamics of motivation, happiness, and satisfaction as it relates to material possessions, draws connections between physical and emotional well-being, confronts the impact of negative self-talk, and describes how making peace with our mortality can foster a sense of hope, purpose and well-being. Additionally, Paul offers many practical insights into initiating emotional health improvements and navigating the search for a suitable therapist.

    We discuss:

    • The importance of prioritizing emotional health as we age [2:45];
    • The impact of emotional health on healthspan and how to foster a proactive approach to emotional well-being [7:00];
    • The discrepancy between outward success and inner fulfillment, and the importance of a healthy “generative drive” for genuine well-being [13:00];
    • A deeper dive into generative drive: impact on human behavior, resilience, purpose, and more [23:15];
    • Evaluating one’s inner self: introspection, self-awareness, challenging societal norms, and returning to the basics of physical and emotional well-being [29:00];
    • Self-auditing tools: introspection, curiosity, and exploring underlying reasons for unwanted behaviors [41:45];
    • Breaking free from destructive cycles by understanding the continuum of self-care and addictive behaviors and remaining curious [50:15];
    • Critical self talk: the malleability of one’s inner dialogue and the potential for transformative change with perseverance and self-compassion [1:00:15];
    • Slowing the anger response and gaining insights into the underlying triggers to achieve lasting change and self-understanding [1:13:45];
    • Foster gratitude and humility by achieving balance between the three drives—assertion, pleasure, and generative [1:20:45];
    • The conflict between intellectual understanding and emotional feelings, problematic comparison frameworks, and the importance of living in the present with intentionality [1:24:15];
    • How making peace with our mortality can foster a sense of hope, purpose and well-being [1:34:45];
    • Advice for finding a compatible therapist [1:43:45];
    • The key components of therapeutic progress [1:57:00];
    • The caricatures of four common patient phenotypes, and how to get through to them [2:05:30];
    • How Paul manages his own well-being and the emotional challenges that come with his line of work [2:15:15]; and
    • More.

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    #297 - AMA #58: Iron: its role in health, testing methods, and strategies for preventing and managing iron deficiency

    #297 - AMA #58: Iron: its role in health, testing methods, and strategies for preventing and managing iron deficiency

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    In this “Ask Me Anything” (AMA) episode, Peter delves into the crucial yet often overlooked topic of iron and iron deficiency. He explores why iron is indispensable for the body, explains the repercussions of iron deficiency, and sheds light on the prevalence of this issue and who is most susceptible. Peter outlines strategies for increasing iron levels, covering dietary iron, supplementation, and infusion options, while also discussing the suitability of each approach for different individuals. Shifting gears, Peter tackles rapid-fire questions on creatine and sodium, as well as inquiries related to his book.

    If you’re not a subscriber and are listening on a podcast player, you’ll only be able to hear a preview of the AMA. If you’re a subscriber, you can now listen to this full episode on your private RSS feed or our website at the AMA #58 show notes page. If you are not a subscriber, you can learn more about the subscriber benefits here.

    We discuss:

    • Overview of today’s topics and the importance of understanding iron levels in the body [1:45];
    • The importance and ubiquity of iron in the body, and the role of the protein called ferritin [4:30];
    • The processes of iron absorption, utilization, and transportation [9:30];
    • Options for testing iron levels and how to interpret the results [13:45];
    • What does it mean to be iron deficient, and how is it different from anemia? [17:15];
    • Symptoms of iron deficiency and/or anemia [22:15];
    • How prevalent is iron deficiency, and who is most susceptible? [24:30];
    • The importance of consuming an adequate amount of iron daily to prevent deficiency [30:30];
    • The best way to improve iron levels for someone who is deficient [34:45];
    • Iron supplementation: various formulations and potential side effects [37:45];
    • Intravenous iron infusion as an alternative to oral supplements -- plus restless legs syndrome and other topics [42:00];
    • Iron supplementation: who should and should not consider it [44:00];
    • Peter’s approach to creatine and his pre- and post-workout supplements [50:15];
    • Navigating sodium intake: effect on blood pressure, who should use precaution, and other considerations [54:45];
    • Peter’s thoughts about the potential of writing another book [57:15]; and
    • More.

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    #296 ‒ Foot health: preventing and treating common injuries, enhancing strength and mobility, picking footwear, and more | Courtney Conley, D.C.

    #296 ‒ Foot health: preventing and treating common injuries, enhancing strength and mobility, picking footwear, and more | Courtney Conley, D.C.

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    Courtney Conley is an internationally renowned foot and gait specialist. In this episode, Courtney delves into the intricate world of foot anatomy and functionality. She explores the complexities of the foot, discussing its anatomy, common injuries, and the importance of understanding its structure in preventing issues. She covers a range of foot ailments, factors contributing to them, treatment options, and prevention strategies. She delves into the significance of loading, balance, range of motion, and posture, emphasizing the crucial role of strength in preventing both injuries and falls. Additionally, she sheds light on the interconnectedness of the kinetic chain, from the leg muscles down to the foot, and how issues within this chain can cascade downstream, leading to various injuries and pathologies. Additionally, she provides a comprehensive overview of footwear, discussing suitable options for both adults and children to promote foot health and mitigate potential problems.

    In addition to this interview, Courtney also recorded a series of videos to better explain a number of the concepts discussed such as diagnostic tests that are used to determine mobility and strength and the exercises one should perform to improve the outcomes based on the diagnostics. The interview will be available to everyone while the videos from the gym will only be available to paid subscribers (found at the end of the show notes page).

    We discuss:

    • Why Courtney chose to specialize in the foot [3:30];
    • The vital role of foot strength, function, and health in human movement and well-being [6:15];
    • Anatomy of the rear foot and midfoot [10:15];
    • The development of flat feet, the impact of footwear, and the benefits of going barefoot [19:45];
    • Anatomy of the forefoot, common injuries, and why most injuries occur in the forefoot [23:15];
    • Foot musculature and its role in maintaining foot stability and preventing deformities like bunions and hammer toes [30:15];
    • The intrinsic musculature of the foot, plantar fasciitis, footwear, and more [39:00];
    • Plantar fasciitis: diagnosis, causes, and treatment [51:30];
    • Posterior leg muscles: strength assessment methods, role in ACL injuries, and more [59:15];
    • Lateral and medial muscles: ankle stability, arch support, big toe stabilization, and exercises to strengthen and prevent injuries [1:04:15];
    • Importance of strength of lower leg muscles for gait and preventing shin splints, stress injuries, and more [1:08:15];
    • Tendinopathies and other common pathologies related to the anterior and lateral compartments of the foot [1:13:00];
    • The importance of midfoot integrity, ankle dorsiflexion, and a discussion of gait alterations [1:19:45];
    • Proximal stability and its implications for posture and movement patterns [1:27:00];
    • The age-related decline in foot sensation and strength [1:32:45];
    • Common toe injuries, treatment, and how to prevent further progression of the injury [1:36:30];
    • Preventing falls and managing arthritis with proactive foot care and exercises [1:46:45];
    • Footwear: advice for picking shoes that promote foot health [1:54:45];
    • Footwear for runners [2:05:30];
    • The importance of prioritizing footwear that promotes natural foot movement and strength while considering individual comfort and foot health needs [2:09:30]; and
    • More.

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    #295 ‒ Roadway death and injury: why everyone should care and what you can do to reduce risk | Mark Rosekind, Ph.D.

    #295 ‒ Roadway death and injury: why everyone should care and what you can do to reduce risk | Mark Rosekind, Ph.D.

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    Mark Rosekind is an expert on road safety and a policy leader with more than 30 years of experience enacting strategic, practical, and effective data-based solutions that enhance driver and pedestrian safety and health in complex environments. In this episode, Mark delves into the persistent issue of accidental deaths resulting from roadway accidents, a concern for those focused on longevity given its consistent risk throughout life. From exploring statistics on car crashes to identifying the demographics most at risk and the key locations of incidents, he uncovers various risk factors including distractions like smartphone usage, the influence of alcohol and cannabis, the dangers of sleep deprivation, and speeding. Mark also provides practical advice for both drivers and pedestrians to enhance safety, while delving into the potential and challenges of emerging technologies such as autonomous vehicles. Additionally, Mark provides valuable resources for listeners, particularly parents navigating the road safety landscape with teenage drivers.

    We discuss:

    • Mark’s background and education, and the profound impact of transportation accidents on human lives [4:15];
    • From sleep science to safety leadership: Mark’s journey in transportation innovation [14:15];
    • Stats on transportation accidents and fatalities [18:00];
    • Historical trends in road fatalities and the key contributors—impairment, distraction, and more [28:00];
    • The demographics of drivers involved in crashes, and the life-saving potential of better driver education programs [34:30];
    • The most critical areas where drivers need to be hyper-aware to protect themselves [41:00];
    • The role of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) in accident investigations, and the importance of data sources like event data recorders (EDRs) in accident reconstruction and investigations [47:00];
    • The dangers of phone use while driving [53:45];
    • How drunk driving was addressed through advocacy and legal changes [1:01:30];
    • The need to address distracted driving and the psychological impact of distracted driving accidents on both victims and perpetrators[1:07:15];
    • Navigating the roads and lowering your risk of accidents: weather, human error, and defensive driving [1:15:45];
    • The impact of impaired driving: alcohol, cannabis, prescription drugs, and more [1:26:15];
    • Mitigating the effects of vehicle speed [1:38:15];
    • The promise and challenges of autonomous vehicles for road safety [1:44:15];
    • Automatic emergency braking (AEB): the effectiveness and challenges of implementing AEB as a standard feature in new vehicles [1:53:00];
    • Sleep deprivation: the impact of poor sleep, drowsiness, and disrupted circadian rhythm on driving [1:58:15];
    • Protecting pedestrians: strategies for reducing the risk of fatal accidents with pedestrians on foot or bicycle [2:02:30];
    • Empowering safe driving: essential resources and tips for parents and teenage drivers [2:14:00];
    • Promoting a culture of proactive safety: parting thoughts from Mark [2:19:15]; and
    • More.

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    #294 ‒ Peak athletic performance: How to measure it and how to train for it from the coach of the most elite athletes on earth | Olav Aleksander Bu

    #294 ‒ Peak athletic performance: How to measure it and how to train for it from the coach of the most elite athletes on earth | Olav Aleksander Bu

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    Olav Aleksander Bu is an internationally renowned sports scientist acclaimed for his coaching prowess with elite athletes spanning a diverse range of sports disciplines. In this episode, Olav delves deep into the intricacies of VO2 max and its profound impact on performance. They explore the relationship between VO2 max and ATP production, energy efficiency, and power, as well as the impact of low-intensity training on VO2 max. The conversation extends to Olav’s experiences pushing the boundaries with high-performance athletes and the data driven interventions he uses to improve performance. They also dissect the role of lactate threshold, discuss other important metrics to track, and explore the exciting possibility of utilizing a portable VO2 testing device as a practical alternative to traditional lab-based assessments.

    We discuss:

    • Olav’s background, expertise in exercise physiology, coaching experience, and interest in the extremes of human capability [4:15];
    • The processes of energy conversion within the human body and its implications for performance [9:30];
    • Improving movement efficiency, and the importance of mindfulness in training to optimize performance [20:00];
    • The relationship between VO2 max, power output, and endurance performance in different sporting contexts [34:45];
    • How VO2 max is measured in the lab, and why it’s a crucial predictor of both lifespan and quality of life [44:45];
    • Absolute vs relative VO2 max, the significance of functional threshold power in cycling, and the importance of longer duration tests for accurate assessments [54:00];
    • Portable VO2 testing devices as a practical alternative to lab-based tests [1:05:15];
    • The complexities of measuring ventilation and its impact on performance metrics like VO2 max and heart rate [1:15:45];
    • Training interventions to increase VO2 max, and factors that impact performance outcomes [1:23:30];
    • The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and endurance sports, and how factors such as diet composition and exercise intensity influence RER values and performance [1:32:45];
    • Science-guided training for versatile athletes: maximizing VO2 max, power, torque, and cadence in cycling, and the importance of incorporating diverse stimuli to enhance performance [1:41:00];
    • Physiological limitations on VO2 max [2:02:15];
    • The different energy systems used during work, and other things to monitor like VCO2 and heart rate [2:06:00];
    • Lactate threshold and other metrics to guide your training [2:10:30];
    • Analysis of a lactate power curve: exploring lactate dynamics in endurance training and performance [2:23:15]; and
    • More.

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    #293 - AMA #57: High-intensity interval training: benefits, risks, protocols, and impact on longevity

    #293 - AMA #57: High-intensity interval training: benefits, risks, protocols, and impact on longevity

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    In this “Ask Me Anything” (AMA) episode, Peter delves into the topic of high-intensity interval training (HIIT), starting with addressing some common misunderstandings around this type of exercise and breaking down what HIIT truly entails. He examines the correlation between HIIT and VO2 max, a vital metric for overall health and longevity, and describes the beneficial impact of HIIT on longevity when incorporated properly. Additionally, he emphasizes the importance of building a wide base of cardiovascular fitness, reveals the optimal protocols for incorporating HIIT into a balanced routine, and discusses the risk of injury and other potential drawbacks of HIIT.

    If you’re not a subscriber and are listening on a podcast player, you’ll only be able to hear a preview of the AMA. If you’re a subscriber, you can now listen to this full episode on your private RSS feed or our website at the AMA #57 show notes page. If you are not a subscriber, you can learn more about the subscriber benefits here.

    We discuss:

    • Common questions about high-intensity interval training (HIIT) [1:30];
    • The origins of HIIT [3:15];
    • Defining HIIT training and differentiating it from sprint interval training (SIT) [5:45];
    • Why HIIT is often touted as a more efficient way to exercise [14:00];
    • Navigating the nuances of HIIT research: understanding limitations and the importance of a blended exercise routine [20:30];
    • The four pillars of exercise [24:15];
    • Using HIIT to improve VO2 max [26:00];
    • HIIT training for the untrained individual: impact on VO2 max and the interplay between exercise-induced adaptations and potential weight loss [33:00];
    • Sprint interval training (SIT) vs. HIIT: comparing the relative improvements in VO2 max and the impact of longer duration intervals [40:00];
    • Benefits and limitations of HIIT, drawbacks of overtraining with HIIT, and the importance of a diversified routine to increase total cardiorespiratory capacity [44:15];
    • HIIT protocols Peter recommends [58:45];
    • The risk of injury and other potential drawbacks of HIIT [1:02:15];
    • The importance of incorporating a balance of continuous moderate-intensity cardio and HIIT when aiming for longevity [1:04:00]; and
    • More.

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    #292 ‒ Rucking: benefits, gear, FAQs, and the journey from Special Forces to founding GORUCK | Jason McCarthy

    #292 ‒ Rucking: benefits, gear, FAQs, and the journey from Special Forces to founding GORUCK | Jason McCarthy

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    Jason McCarthy is a former US Special Forces member and the founder of GORUCK, a company specializing in rucking equipment. In this episode, Jason recounts his journey from military service to navigating the challenging transition back into civilian life and ultimately embracing the mission of introducing rucking to the masses. Delving into the significance of rucking in military training and its applicability to the wider population, he discusses the mental and physical benefits of rucking as a mode of training, provides practical tips for beginners, and answers frequently asked questions about packs, weights, footwear, and more.

    We discuss:

    • Jason’s upbringing and what inspired him to join the military [3:15];
    • Jason’s path to becoming a Green Beret, his calling to serve, and staying true to oneself [10:30];
    • About the Green Berets: their role in the military, unique abilities, missions, and more [20:00];
    • The mental and physical challenges of special forces training and selection [25:00];
    • Rucking challenges as a Green Beret [37:00];
    • How Jason trained in his off-time and stayed mentally prepared [46:30];
    • Jason’s difficult decision to leave the army, and the challenges many veterans face returning to civilian life [51:30];
    • Jason’s struggles after leaving the army: loss of identity, feelings of shame, and the how he overcame a period of despair [57:15];
    • The origin of GORUCK [1:10:30];
    • The GORUCK Challenge [1:24:30];
    • The company's evolution from event organizer to manufacturing specialist, spurred by the growing interest in rucking as a form of training [1:35:30];
    • FAQs about rucking: packs, weight, rucksack vs. weighted vest, chest straps, and more [1:38:45];
    • Commemorating Normandy: GORUCK's plans for the 80th anniversary of the Normandy landings [1:51:30];
    • Footwear for rucking, and how GORUCK got into the footwear business [1:57:30];
    • How to avoid the most common injuries from rucking, and the benefits of rucking for VO2 max, strength, and sleep quality [2:05:00];
    • Advice for using rucking as a mode of training, and the advantages of rucking over other forms of training [2:12:45]; and
    • More.

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