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    #132 – George Hotz: Hacking the Simulation & Learning to Drive with Neural Nets

    enOctober 22, 2020

    Podcast Summary

    • The potential for self-destruction and the importance of responsible technology usage.Advancements in technology must be approached with caution and responsibility to avoid catastrophic outcomes. The role of cryptography as a defensive tool is highlighted, but the challenge of nuclear weapons remains. Communication with other intelligent civilizations is uncertain.

      Intelligent civilizations may have existed elsewhere in the universe, but they may have destroyed themselves or entered into a steady state where they simply exist in stasis. This suggests that technological advancements have the potential to lead to self-destruction, emphasizing the importance of using technology responsibly and ensuring that we do everything right to avoid catastrophic outcomes. Additionally, the conversation highlights the role of cryptography as a defensive tool in our world, where defense often prevails, but nuclear weapons pose a different challenge due to their destructive power. It is speculated that if intelligent civilizations were still present, they might have employed technologies like Von Neumann probes for interstellar exploration. However, the possibility of communication and interaction with these civilizations remains uncertain.

    • Exploring the Possibility of Intelligent Life Beyond EarthKeep an open mind and approach UFO sightings with critical thinking. While there may be various explanations, it is essential to consider the possibility of extraterrestrial intelligence and look for traces of their existence.

      There is a possibility of intelligent life beyond Earth. While we may not fully understand the phenomena like UFO sightings, it's important to approach such claims with a critical mindset. There could be various explanations for these sightings, ranging from physical phenomena to advanced technologies developed by other countries. However, it is also possible that these sightings could be evidence of extraterrestrial intelligence. It's essential to consider all possibilities and not dismiss these claims outright. Additionally, this conversation raises the idea that civilizations expand their usage of energy and are limited by the problem of waste heat. This suggests that as civilizations progress, they may leave behind traces or footprints of their intelligence for us to discover.

    • The challenges of truth, privacy, and language in a digital age.Maintaining truth and objectivity in the era of fake news is difficult, but there are also concerns about privacy and the blurred lines between reality and deep fake technology. Additionally, exploring programming languages and harnessing tools and automation could enhance scientific research and experimentation.

      There is a concern regarding the dilution of truth and objectivity in today's world of fake news and conspiracy theories. The conversation highlights how governments used to control information through censorship, but with the rise of the internet, they are struggling to maintain control. The idea of privacy is also discussed, suggesting that generating deep fake conversations could protect the contents of a conversation, but it also creates confusion about what is real. The conversation then shifts to programming languages and the possibility of intelligent life using similar languages to our own. It concludes with a discussion about the limitations and inefficiencies in simulating nature, particularly in the field of biology, where tools and automation could greatly benefit research and experimentation processes.

    • Rethinking our priorities and finding fulfillment in life's journey.Instead of obsessing over trivial matters, we should focus on the true game of life and find joy in the present moment rather than seeking immortality or artificial pursuits.

      We should humble ourselves and reconsider the things we spend time thinking about. The talk about hacking the simulation was not meant to be literal, but rather a reminder of how small and insignificant we are in the grand scheme of things. Instead of getting worked up about trivial matters, we should focus on the real game, the game that nature has set for us. We should question the artificial games we have constructed for ourselves as humans, such as the pursuit of wealth or social status. Rather than seeking immortality, which may not bring true fulfillment, we should aim to make the most out of the time we have and find joy in the journey.

    • Perspectives on Death, Immortality, and KnowledgeWhile Hotz desires to have control over his own death and seeks complete knowledge before dying, Fridman argues that the finite nature of life drives creativity and curiosity, and immortality may result in a loss of these qualities.

      George Hotz expresses his preference for being able to choose his own death rather than letting nature determine it. He also emphasizes his desire to know everything before being ready to die. However, Lex Fridman presents the idea that the finiteness of life is what drives creativity and curiosity, and without it, these qualities may diminish. They also touch upon the topic of immortality and the potential consequences it may bring, such as the loss of curiosity. Additionally, they briefly discuss the concept of living in a simulation, with George Hotz expressing his belief in its existence but considering simulation theory as less significant in his pursuit of knowledge.

    • The Future of Technology: Balancing Fascination and ConcernBlockchain technology is a potential solution to the control and security concerns of advanced technology, but it's crucial to continuously evaluate and strive for practical and powerful solutions.

      The future of technology is both fascinating and concerning. The ability for machines like computers to write anything, even random noise, is a huge problem that can be terrifying. The advancements in nanotechnology and theories of everything are intriguing, but what truly matters is their practical applications and how they can give us power over the universe. People are worried about who will control this power, whether it's individuals, governments, or corporations. Blockchain technology offers a potential solution to this problem, providing transparency and security. Ethereum, as a cryptocurrency, has interesting technological innovations and is technically Turing complete, but it still has limitations. The world of technology is constantly evolving, and it's important to pay attention to its implications and strive for practical and powerful solutions.

    • Innovating Solutions for Scaling Ethereum ContractsImplementing a sandbox mechanism and resolution mechanism is crucial for ensuring trust and security in running computations off the Ethereum blockchain, enabling scalability and efficient contract execution.

      In order to scale the process of running contracts in Ethereum, there is a need to run computations off the blockchain and then only save the results. However, this brings up the problem of trust, as someone could lie about the results. To solve this, a resolution mechanism is necessary, which can be expensive to implement. One way to secure the system is by using a sandbox, similar to the Chrome sandbox, where certain calls are restricted and require approval from a hypervisor process. In the context of Ethereum, the boundaries of the sandbox involve restricting the reading and writing of state to the Ethereum contract or activity. Overall, the conversation highlights the challenges and innovative solutions in scaling blockchain technologies like Ethereum.

    • Revolutionizing the Legal System with Smart ContractsSmart contracts eliminate the need for expensive lawyers, provide consistent results, and bring efficiency to the legal process, benefiting businesses and various fields such as finance and agreements.

      Smart contracts have the potential to revolutionize the legal system. Currently, contracts are interpreted by lawyers, who can be expensive and often provide inconsistent results. Smart contracts, on the other hand, are based on code and can be executed with certainty using cryptography. This eliminates the need for costly legal disputes and provides businesses with the certainty they desire. Smart contracts can be applied to various fields, including financial transactions and even prenuptial agreements. George Hotz believes that this technology could replace expensive lawyers and bring efficiency to the legal process. Furthermore, the conversation highlights the importance of having competent leaders, or geniuses, in systems, as they can drive progress and innovation.

    • The value of diverse knowledge and the power of experimentation in various domainsContinuous learning and curiosity, along with trying new things, are vital for personal growth and can lead to rewarding outcomes.

      Being knowledgeable and competent in various areas, even outside of one's expertise, can be a valuable skill. The ability to connect different subjects and integrate information into our daily lives is a sign of competence. It is not necessary to have a formal education or a PhD to possess this kind of knowledge. Additionally, the concept of forking, which allows for experimentation and competition, can be applied not only in the crypto world but also in various domains, such as business strategies. Continuous learning and curiosity are important for personal growth, even when we are busy or focused on specific tasks. It is okay not to have all the answers, and trying new things can be challenging but rewarding.

    • Solving self-driving cars with honesty and valueComma AI's focus is on creating self-driving cars that prioritize honesty, value, and providing a chill driving experience through their comma 2 product.

      Comma AI's mission is to solve self-driving cars while delivering shippable intermediaries. George Hotz emphasizes the importance of not just making progress but also ensuring honesty and real value in the advancements made. Revenue is seen as a reflection of consent-based capitalism, where providing value is the key criterion. The comma 2, their main product, functions as a person replacement, equipped with cameras and a brain-like interface with the car. It aims to make driving chill, expanding on the features of cruise control with adaptive capabilities like maintaining speed, slowing down for cars in front, and staying in the lane using machine learning. The comma 2 hardware is akin to a modified cell phone with additional components and a car interface.

    • Open pilot: autonomous driving software using end-to-end learning approach.Open pilot software learns from human driving behavior and can drive without lane assistance, thanks to training on actual driving data. Future goals include reinforcement learning for enhanced capabilities.

      Open pilot, the autonomous driving software developed by George Hotz, uses an end-to-end learning approach. This means that it doesn't rely on explicit lane detection or object detection algorithms. Instead, it learns from the behavior of human drivers by training on actual driving data. Open pilot has improved over time, and now it can drive almost completely end-to-end without the need for lane assistance. George Hotz's team has collected a large amount of high-quality driving data, which they use to train the software. They plan to further enhance the software's capabilities using reinforcement learning, where the data depends on the weights of the model.

    • Contrasting Approaches to Level 5 Self-Driving Cars: Machine Learning vs. Holistic TrainingGeorge Hotz advocates for breaking down driving tasks into smaller tasks for better control decisions, while Tesla trains their neural network using real driving data, displaying flexibility in their approach.

      The approach to achieving level 5 self-driving cars differs between George Hotz and Tesla. Hotz believes in treating driving as a machine learning problem and using a multi-task learning approach, where each driving task is broken down into smaller tasks and mastered individually. This allows for better control decisions and expertise in each task. On the other hand, Tesla takes a more holistic approach by training their neural network on actual driving data gathered from human drivers, including moments of disengagement. Hotz argues that an end-to-end approach is the only way to achieve level 5, while Tesla's approach seems to be more flexible. The timeframe for reaching level 5 remains uncertain for both approaches.

    • Balancing Feature Engineering and End-to-End Approaches in AIWhile end-to-end approaches like the Tesla data engine show promise, advancements are still needed. Transitioning to higher levels of autonomy requires considering human factors and implementing adaptive monitoring systems.

      Feature engineering approaches in AI, although important, will always be replaced and lose to end-to-end approaches. The Tesla data engine, which incorporates active learning tasks and constantly mines data for edge cases, is a higher abstraction level of feature engineering for different tasks. However, deep learning is still missing certain elements and there is a need for further advancements. The solution to self-driving cars lies in neural networks, but it is uncertain how long it will take to achieve full autonomy. In the meantime, delivering products with Level 2 autonomy, where liability is shared between the system and the driver, is a step in the right direction. The transition to higher levels of autonomy must also consider factors such as human psychology and over-reliance on the system. Adaptive monitoring systems that adjust based on different circumstances are already being implemented.

    • Balancing Driver Monitoring for Safety and User Experience in Autonomous VehiclesMonitoring driver behavior is crucial for safety and user experience in autonomous vehicles. Striking a balance between alerting drivers when necessary and avoiding fatigue is essential. Leaders in the field recognize the need for adaptation and evolution.

      Monitoring driver behavior is crucial for both safety and a pleasant user experience in autonomous vehicles. While George Hotz emphasizes the importance of driver monitoring, he also acknowledges the need to strike a balance to avoid fatigue and annoyance. Tuning the monitoring policy to alert drivers only when necessary can prevent them from becoming desensitized to the alerts and maintaining their attention on the road. Lex Fridman sees driver monitoring as a fascinating psychology problem that goes beyond just driving, exploring human attention and behavior. Although Elon Musk has been resistant to driver monitoring, it may eventually be implemented. Both leaders recognize the challenge of publicly changing opinions and appreciate the need to adapt and evolve in the ever-changing field of autonomous vehicles.

    • The Complexity of Driver Monitoring: Beyond Cameras and DataDesigning effective driver monitoring systems requires thoughtful consideration of human factors, safety perspectives, and long-term strategies for data collection and utilization. Continuous improvement through over-the-air updates is crucial.

      Driver monitoring is a complex issue that requires careful consideration. While it may seem like a simple solution to the problem of attention, it is not as straightforward as just putting a camera in the car. Creating an engaging and compelling experience for the driver is essential. Design decisions about adding a camera should also take into account the human factors and safety perspectives. Additionally, gathering data through monitoring is separate from the decision-making process. The conversation highlights the need for making informed decisions and long-term strategies in collecting and utilizing data. It is also important to continuously improve and update driver monitoring systems through over-the-air updates, which have become essential in the automotive industry.

    • Enhancing Human-Machine Communication in Autonomous VehiclesEffective communication of uncertainty and risk through haptic feedback and explicit UI elements is crucial for establishing trust and ensuring safety in autonomous vehicles. Furthermore, collaboration and innovation are needed to address challenges in training models for autonomous driving systems.

      There is an opportunity to create richer experiences in autonomous vehicles, particularly in terms of human-machine communication. While driving, it is important to communicate uncertainty and risk to the human passenger in order to establish trust and ensure safety. The haptic feel of the car and explicit UI elements can play a role in conveying this information effectively. Furthermore, specialized hardware, like the one being developed by Tesla, can enhance the training process for autonomous driving systems. However, there is a need for more options and alternatives in training models, as current options like Nvidia and Google come with restrictions and limitations. There is potential for innovation in this field, and collaboration is encouraged to address these challenges.

    • George Hotz's perspective on Nvidia's pricing strategy and Tesla's technology sharing.Nvidia should reconsider their pricing strategy to avoid potential harm to their business, while Tesla should explore revenue opportunities by selling their TPU to other companies cautiously.

      George Hotz believes that Nvidia is making a mistake by charging high prices for their high-end chips. He thinks that Nvidia should sell their chips at a reasonable markup to everyone without any restrictions. George believes that Nvidia's attempt to extract more value from their chips is not sustainable and could potentially harm their business in the long run. He suggests that Nvidia should focus on selling their chips and not try to productize them too much. He also mentions that Tesla should keep their battery technology exclusive and suggests that Tesla should consider selling their Tesla Processing Unit (TPU) to other companies as it could be a significant source of revenue. However, he warns against being too greedy as other companies may start building their own accelerators, and eventually, Chinese knockoffs could enter the market.

    • Tesla's Neural Net Rewrite and the Importance of Human InputTesla is working on integrating sensors to create a 4D model of the world, allowing their neural network to make more effective predictions. The use of supervised learning pipelines and human input is emphasized for optimal results.

      Tesla is working on a complete rewrite of their neural net for a more holistic view of the world. This rewrite involves integrating all the sensors to create a 4D model of the world over time. It allows the neural network to make predictions and annotations more effectively. The conversation also touches on the concept of end-to-end learning and the challenges it presents. While the idea of end-to-end learning is compelling, it has limitations and constraints that need to be considered. The use of supervised learning pipelines and data engines is highlighted as an impressive engineering solution. Additionally, the importance of human input and subjective judgment in tasks like driver attention detection is discussed. Ultimately, finding the right approach depends on the specific task and the data available.

    • Easy and Accessible: Installing and Using comma.ai's Autonomous Driving Systemcomma.ai's open pilot offers a user-friendly installation process and is compatible with popular car models. It also allows customization and modification for advanced users, while emphasizing responsible usage within a supportive community.

      Installing and using comma.ai's autonomous driving system, open pilot, is relatively easy and accessible. It is compatible with a wide range of car makes and models, with the 2020 Corolla, Sonata, and Honda Civic being highlighted as great options. Installing the comma.ai system typically takes around 10 minutes and can be done by following YouTube videos, making it as simple as assembling Ikea furniture. Additionally, for those interested in further customization and experimentation, there is an active developer community and the ability to modify the code through SSH access. However, responsible and safe usage is encouraged, with the maintenance of a supportive and responsible community being a priority.

    • Comma - A Visionary Autonomous Vehicle Company.Comma's customer-centric approach, high-quality products, and ambitious goals position them as a potential leader in the autonomous driving industry.

      Comma, an autonomous vehicle company, has a sound business strategy in place. They sell their products at a cost of around a thousand bucks, with additional features available for purchase. The company prioritizes customer satisfaction and offers a 30-day money-back guarantee. They have a high retention rate among users who fall in love with the product. While their current product, comma 2, is comparable to early versions of Tesla's Autopilot, they plan on developing even better technology in the future. Their goal is to overtake Tesla and become a leader in the autonomous driving industry. Even if only a small percentage of open pilot devices come from comma, the company can still generate substantial revenue and remain profitable.

    • George Hotz's Perspective on Convergence, Revenue, and Company AcquisitionsFaster loss convergence in A/B testing leads to better performance. Tesla may have more users, but revenue is not surpassed. George dismisses being purchased by larger companies and respects Apple and Waymo's achievements.

      George Hotz believes that a model with faster loss convergence in A/B testing will likely result in better performance. He also expresses his belief that Tesla may have more users, but they will not surpass Tesla in terms of revenue. When asked about the possibility of being purchased by larger companies like automakers or tech giants, George dismisses the idea, stating that he has been approached before but finds the process demeaning. He mentions that he respects Apple among the tech companies and expresses his thoughts about Waymo, acknowledging their impressive engineering and achievements. Overall, this conversation highlights George's perspective on convergence, revenue, company acquisitions, and his respect for certain tech companies.

    • George Hotz's Insights on Waymo, Scooters, and TeslaHotz criticizes Waymo's autonomous ride-sharing model, questions the viability of scooters, supports Tesla and Waymo's current path, and highlights the significance of Instagram's focus on beauty.

      George Hotz believes the product that Waymo is building for autonomous ride-sharing doesn't make sense and won't be competitive with traditional ride-sharing. He argues that users are not willing to trade off money for speed, as seen in the case of Uber pool. Hotz also questions the viability of scooters as a means of transportation and compares it to the autonomous car market. Furthermore, if Hotz were to run Tesla or Waymo, he wouldn't make significant changes and believes both companies are on the right track. He emphasizes the value of Instagram, which glorifies beauty, over Twitter, which glorifies conflict.

    • The Importance of a Renegade CEO and Honesty in the IndustryWaymo needs a solution, and the speaker believes Anthony Lewandowski, despite his shortcomings, is the genius who can provide it. Waymo must take big risks and showcase engineering transparency to overcome their financial challenges.

      The speaker believes Anthony Lewandowski is a genius and the best person to come up with a solution for Waymo. The speaker acknowledges the shortcomings of Lewandowski but believes in his unconventional and renegade thinking. However, the speaker also acknowledges the financial challenges faced by Waymo, as they are already $10 billion in debt. They express their inability to come up with a solution themselves and suggest that Waymo needs a big risk idea to turn things around. The speaker also criticizes Waymo for their early commercialization and suggests that they should focus more on showcasing their engineering and being transparent. Ultimately, the importance of a renegade CEO and honesty in the industry is highlighted.

    • George Hotz on the True Impact of Technology and Autonomous DrivingHotz believes that the true impact of technology lies in the possibilities it enables, and that autonomous driving, while cool and lucrative, may not be a groundbreaking change. True innovation is often unpredictable and requires staying focused on solving challenges. San Francisco may lack diversity of thought and growth, while San Diego and Austin could be better options for startups.

      George Hotz believes that the true impact of technology lies in what it enables, rather than the technology itself. He sees autonomous driving as a cool and monetarily valuable application, but not necessarily a groundbreaking change for the world. Hotz argues that the world-changing innovations, such as the internet, are often unpredictable and can only be imagined by true visionaries. He advises staying focused on the mission and solving the challenges of self-driving cars before considering other ventures. When discussing potential locations for a startup, Hotz suggests that San Francisco lacks diversity of thought and has stopped growing, while San Diego and Austin could be better choices.

    • The importance of honesty and integrity in the world of technology.Building and innovating with honesty and integrity is crucial for long-term success, as hype and deception eventually fade away. Emphasize honest capabilities and deliver on promises, while working towards goals.

      Technology always wins in the end, and it's essential to build and innovate with honesty and integrity. While hype and smoke and mirrors may temporarily attract attention and investment, it ultimately falls flat if not backed by substance. It's crucial to be honest about your capabilities and deliver on promises, even if they may take longer than expected. Elon Musk's tendency to overpromise and deliver later can be seen as acceptable as long as he continues working towards his goals. However, lying and misleading others is never justified and can lead to disastrous consequences. Honesty, backed by genuine efforts, is the true path to success.

    • Shifting Mindset: Celebrating Success for Change and ProgressBy changing perspectives and celebrating success, we can inspire positive change and progress, while online platforms need to promote positivity, empathy, and nuanced discussion for a more supportive society.

      There is a need to change the perspective on success. It is unfortunate that many people seem to want others to fail rather than celebrating their achievements. This is evident in the way people root for the failure of successful individuals like Elon Musk or Donald Trump. The conversation highlights the importance of shifting our mindset and celebrating success as a means to inspire change and progress. It also emphasizes the negative impact of online platforms that promote toxic behavior and discourage positive engagement. There is a call for developing platforms that encourage nuanced discussion, positivity, and empathy, rather than exacerbating negativity and chaos. Changing the approach towards success and fostering positive platforms can lead to a more constructive and supportive society.

    • The Influence Economy: Uncovering Manipulation, Productivity, and the Truth about Tools and SetupsSuccess in the tech world is not determined by fancy equipment or setups, but by the mindset, tools, and self-awareness of the programmer.

      The product being sold on the internet is your influence. George Hotz and Lex Fridman discuss how users are often unknowingly manipulated and how disingenuity is pervasive online. They also touch on the topic of productivity in programming setups, highlighting that fancy equipment like multiple monitors and keyboards don't automatically unlock productivity. Instead, it's the mindset, tools, and self-awareness of the programmer that truly matters. George Hotz mentions using Vim, an editor from the 70s, and how it's perfectly functional for his coding needs. Ultimately, the conversation emphasizes that while certain tools and setups may be nice to have, they are not essential for success.

    • Transformative Moments: A Journey of Radical Change and GrowthStay open-minded and ready to receive new information - transformative moments can happen unexpectedly and have a profound impact on your thinking and worldview.

      Certain days in our lives can have a profound impact on our thinking and worldview. George Hotz recounts three significant days when he experienced radical transformations. The first day was when he discovered Eliezer Yudkowsky and his ideas on singularity, which blew his mind and introduced him to exponential growth of AI. The second day was when he understood that AI is just compression and realized the potential for technological progress. The third day was when he found a blog called unqualified reservations during a time of social and political upheaval, which provided him with a framework to interpret the world. These transformative moments were not coincidental, but a result of being ready to receive new information. It highlights the possibility of future transformative days without needing any specific actions and underscores the value of being open to learning and new experiences.

    • The Role of Compression and Neural Networks in Achieving General IntelligenceCompression can serve as a framework to understand intelligence, but neural networks have limitations in achieving general-purpose intelligence and complex tasks like building a rocket ship.

      George Hotz believes that humans will eventually be replaced by artificial intelligence. He suggests that the task of creating a general intelligence system can be reduced to compression. Hotz defines compression as lossless compression, which is equivalent to intelligence. He admits that this definition may not be useful in everyday life but provides a framework to understand what intelligence is. Hotz also explores the idea of using neural networks for lossless compression and discusses their limitations, such as the lack of long-term memory. He concludes that while these systems may produce interesting results, they are unlikely to achieve general-purpose intelligence or solve complex tasks like building a rocket ship.

    • The Singularity and the Importance of Collective Intelligence and Communication in Technological Advancements.The development of self-driving cars and the concept of the singularity suggest that solving one problem can contribute to solving broader intelligence issues. Building something concrete, even if it's not true general intelligence, is still valuable.

      The idea of a singularity, where there is a transformative phase shift in the world, is closely tied to the collective intelligence of humanity and the networked communication of information. The concept of the singularity suggests that as the bandwidth between people increases and the speed of communication improves, it empowers collective intelligence. This view questions the belief in a hard take off of artificial general intelligence (AGI) and suggests that AGI is not fundamentally different from what we have already been building, such as self-driving cars. The development of self-driving cars can contribute to solving general intelligence, indicating that solving one problem can have broader implications. Additionally, the importance of having a mission and focusing on building something concrete, even if it falls short of being true general intelligence, is emphasized. Overall, the conversation highlights the interconnectedness of various technological advancements and their potential impact on the world.

    • The Importance of Hands-On Experience in Learning ProgrammingProgramming is best learned by actively engaging in projects or problems, continuously pushing oneself, and understanding different programming paradigms through exploration and experimentation.

      Learning programming requires hands-on experience and practical application. Watching videos or tutorials alone won't make someone a proficient programmer. Instead, individuals should have a project or problem they're passionate about solving, and use that as a starting point to delve into programming. Progress comes from continuously pushing oneself and learning from the process of trying to accomplish something. The conversation also highlights the importance of understanding different programming paradigms, such as imperative, functional, hardware-based, and machine learning. Each paradigm offers unique benefits and requires specific skills. Ultimately, the message is that programming is best learned through active engagement and a willingness to explore and experiment.

    • Integrating new technologies: starting with problem-solvingStart by identifying specific problems, utilize existing solutions, and learn from others' knowledge and experiences when integrating new technologies like machine learning.

      When it comes to integrating new technologies like machine learning, it is important to start with a problem that needs solving rather than trying to fit the technology into any situation. It is not about blindly using machine learning for everything, but about understanding the specific problems and finding the appropriate solutions. Being a beginner is not a problem as long as one is willing to learn and grow. Googling and doing research is a valuable skill that can help find existing solutions and build upon them. It is better to invest time in finding someone who has already solved the problem than trying to solve it from scratch. So, focus on identifying the right problems and tap into the knowledge and experiences of others to find the best solutions.

    • Exploring the Impact of Philosophical Concepts on Ethics and MoralityContinuously seek knowledge and think critically about our own beliefs and values to navigate the complexities of philosophical concepts and their implications on ethics and morality.

      Philosophical concepts, such as objectivism and capitalism, can have a deep impact on our understanding of ethics and morality. The discussion highlights how these ideas can be interpreted differently by individuals, with some finding them compelling and others seeing negative aspects. It also emphasizes the importance of recognizing the capacity for both good and evil within ourselves, as opposed to characterizing individuals as purely good or evil. Furthermore, the conversation touches on the value of reading and engaging with literature, particularly science fiction, which can offer unique perspectives on utopia and technological advancements. Ultimately, the takeaway is that while there may be no groundbreaking advice, we are reminded to continuously seek knowledge and think critically about our own beliefs and values.

    • Simplify thinking, embrace uniqueness, approach life with curiosity.Don't overthink, embrace individuality, learn from new experiences, and approach life with curiosity. Simplify your thinking and don't worry too much about meaningless questions.

      We shouldn't overthink things and worry too much about meaningless questions. George Hotz emphasizes the importance of not getting caught up in our own heads and advises against overthinking. He also highlights the individuality of advice, stating that what works for him may not work for others. Love, according to Hotz, takes different forms, including a love for math that doesn't fit into traditional paradigms. Additionally, he believes that all drugs have lessons to teach, but they primarily provide insights about ourselves rather than the world. Hotz values new experiences and occasionally revisits psychedelics for the learning experiences they offer. He recognizes the potential of a higher learning rate but acknowledges the pros and cons. Finally, Hotz views himself as somewhat crazy but places himself lower on the scale compared to figures like Elon Musk. Ultimately, this conversation urges us to simplify our thinking, embrace our uniqueness, and approach life with curiosity.

    • Challenging the Notion of Madness: Embracing Neurodiversity and IndividualityEmbrace your uniqueness and break free from societal expectations, as being true to yourself is more important than conforming to predefined molds.

      The concept of "madness" and mental health is complex and diverse. George Hotz questions the boundaries and definitions of mental disorders, highlighting the spectrum of human behavior. He believes that only extreme cases, like hallucinations, can be considered as madness. Instead, he embraces the idea of neurodiversity and encourages people to be true to themselves without conforming to societal expectations. Hotz emphasizes the importance of being willing to stand out and sparkle, refusing to be boring or constrained by predefined molds. However, he acknowledges that being wrong is a necessary part of personal growth. Ultimately, Hotz encourages individuals to break free from societal constraints and embrace their unique selves.

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    Kevin Spacey is a two-time Oscar-winning actor, who starred in Se7en, the Usual Suspects, American Beauty, and House of Cards, creating haunting performances of characters who often embody the dark side of human nature. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ExpressVPN: https://expressvpn.com/lexpod to get 3 months free - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get $350 off - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil EPISODE LINKS: Kevin's X: https://x.com/KevinSpacey Kevin's Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/kevinspacey Kevin's YouTube: https://youtube.com/kevinspacey Kevin's Website: https://kevinspacey.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (10:14) - Seven (13:54) - David Fincher (21:46) - Brad Pitt and Morgan Freeman (27:15) - Acting (35:40) - Improve (44:24) - Al Pacino (48:07) - Jack Lemmon (57:25) - American Beauty (1:17:34) - Mortality (1:20:22) - Allegations (1:38:19) - House of Cards (1:56:55) - Jack Nicholson (1:59:57) - Mike Nichols (2:05:30) - Christopher Walken (2:12:38) - Father (2:21:30) - Future
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    #431 – Roman Yampolskiy: Dangers of Superintelligent AI

    #431 – Roman Yampolskiy: Dangers of Superintelligent AI
    Roman Yampolskiy is an AI safety researcher and author of a new book titled AI: Unexplainable, Unpredictable, Uncontrollable. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Yahoo Finance: https://yahoofinance.com - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get $350 off EPISODE LINKS: Roman's X: https://twitter.com/romanyam Roman's Website: http://cecs.louisville.edu/ry Roman's AI book: https://amzn.to/4aFZuPb PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (09:12) - Existential risk of AGI (15:25) - Ikigai risk (23:37) - Suffering risk (27:12) - Timeline to AGI (31:44) - AGI turing test (37:06) - Yann LeCun and open source AI (49:58) - AI control (52:26) - Social engineering (54:59) - Fearmongering (1:04:49) - AI deception (1:11:23) - Verification (1:18:22) - Self-improving AI (1:30:34) - Pausing AI development (1:36:51) - AI Safety (1:46:35) - Current AI (1:51:58) - Simulation (1:59:16) - Aliens (2:00:50) - Human mind (2:07:10) - Neuralink (2:16:15) - Hope for the future (2:20:11) - Meaning of life
    Lex Fridman Podcast
    enJune 02, 2024

    #430 – Charan Ranganath: Human Memory, Imagination, Deja Vu, and False Memories

    #430 – Charan Ranganath: Human Memory, Imagination, Deja Vu, and False Memories
    Charan Ranganath is a psychologist and neuroscientist at UC Davis, specializing in human memory. He is the author of a new book titled Why We Remember. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Riverside: https://creators.riverside.fm/LEX and use code LEX to get 30% off - ZipRecruiter: https://ziprecruiter.com/lex - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/charan-ranganath-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Charan's X: https://x.com/CharanRanganath Charan's Instagram: https://instagram.com/thememorydoc Charan's Website: https://charanranganath.com Why We Remember (book): https://amzn.to/3WzUF6x Charan's Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=ptWkt1wAAAAJ Dynamic Memory Lab: https://dml.ucdavis.edu/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (10:18) - Experiencing self vs remembering self (23:59) - Creating memories (33:31) - Why we forget (41:08) - Training memory (51:37) - Memory hacks (1:03:26) - Imagination vs memory (1:12:44) - Memory competitions (1:22:33) - Science of memory (1:37:48) - Discoveries (1:48:52) - Deja vu (1:54:09) - False memories (2:14:14) - False confessions (2:18:00) - Heartbreak (2:25:34) - Nature of time (2:33:15) - Brain–computer interface (BCI) (2:47:19) - AI and memory (2:57:33) - ADHD (3:04:30) - Music (3:14:15) - Human mind
    Lex Fridman Podcast
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    #429 – Paul Rosolie: Jungle, Apex Predators, Aliens, Uncontacted Tribes, and God

    #429 – Paul Rosolie: Jungle, Apex Predators, Aliens, Uncontacted Tribes, and God
    Paul Rosolie is a naturalist, explorer, author, and founder of Junglekeepers, dedicating his life to protecting the Amazon rainforest. Support his efforts at https://junglekeepers.org Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ShipStation: https://shipstation.com/lex and use code LEX to get 60-day free trial - Yahoo Finance: https://yahoofinance.com - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get $350 off - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/paul-rosolie-2-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Paul's Instagram: https://instagram.com/paulrosolie Junglekeepers: https://junglekeepers.org Paul's Website: https://paulrosolie.com Mother of God (book): https://amzn.to/3ww2ob1 PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (12:29) - Amazon jungle (14:47) - Bushmaster snakes (26:13) - Black caiman (44:33) - Rhinos (47:47) - Anacondas (1:18:04) - Mammals (1:30:10) - Piranhas (1:41:00) - Aliens (1:58:45) - Elephants (2:10:02) - Origin of life (2:23:21) - Explorers (2:36:38) - Ayahuasca (2:45:03) - Deep jungle expedition (2:59:09) - Jane Goodall (3:01:41) - Theodore Roosevelt (3:12:36) - Alone show (3:22:23) - Protecting the rainforest (3:38:36) - Snake makes appearance (3:46:47) - Uncontacted tribes (4:00:11) - Mortality (4:01:39) - Steve Irwin (4:09:18) - God
    Lex Fridman Podcast
    enMay 15, 2024

    #428 – Sean Carroll: General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Black Holes & Aliens

    #428 – Sean Carroll: General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Black Holes & Aliens
    Sean Carroll is a theoretical physicist, author, and host of Mindscape podcast. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - HiddenLayer: https://hiddenlayer.com/lex - Cloaked: https://cloaked.com/lex and use code LexPod to get 25% off - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/sean-carroll-3-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Sean's Website: https://preposterousuniverse.com Mindscape Podcast: https://www.preposterousuniverse.com/podcast/ Sean's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@seancarroll Sean's Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/seanmcarroll Sean's Twitter: https://twitter.com/seanmcarroll Sean's Instagram: https://instagram.com/seanmcarroll Sean's Papers: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=Lfifrv8AAAAJ Sean's Books: https://amzn.to/3W7yT9N PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (11:03) - General relativity (23:22) - Black holes (28:11) - Hawking radiation (32:19) - Aliens (41:15) - Holographic principle (1:05:38) - Dark energy (1:11:38) - Dark matter (1:20:34) - Quantum mechanics (1:41:56) - Simulation (1:44:18) - AGI (1:58:42) - Complexity (2:11:25) - Consciousness (2:20:32) - Naturalism (2:24:49) - Limits of science (2:29:34) - Mindscape podcast (2:39:29) - Einstein

    #427 – Neil Adams: Judo, Olympics, Winning, Losing, and the Champion Mindset

    #427 – Neil Adams: Judo, Olympics, Winning, Losing, and the Champion Mindset
    Neil Adams is a judo world champion, 2-time Olympic silver medalist, 5-time European champion, and often referred to as the Voice of Judo. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ZipRecruiter: https://ziprecruiter.com/lex - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/neil-adams-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Neil's Instagram: https://instagram.com/naefighting Neil's YouTube: https://youtube.com/NAEffectiveFighting Neil's TikTok: https://tiktok.com/@neiladamsmbe Neil's Facebook: https://facebook.com/NeilAdamsJudo Neil's X: https://x.com/NeilAdamsJudo Neil's Website: https://naeffectivefighting.com Neil's Podcast: https://naeffectivefighting.com/podcasts/the-dojo-collective-podcast A Life in Judo (book): https://amzn.to/4d3DtfB A Game of Throws (audiobook): https://amzn.to/4aA2WeJ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (09:13) - 1980 Olympics (26:35) - Judo explained (34:40) - Winning (52:54) - 1984 Olympics (1:01:55) - Lessons from losing (1:17:37) - Teddy Riner (1:37:12) - Training in Japan (1:52:51) - Jiu jitsu (2:03:59) - Training (2:27:18) - Advice for beginners

    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs

    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs
    Edward Gibson is a psycholinguistics professor at MIT and heads the MIT Language Lab. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Yahoo Finance: https://yahoofinance.com - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/edward-gibson-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Edward's X: https://x.com/LanguageMIT TedLab: https://tedlab.mit.edu/ Edward's Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=4FsWE64AAAAJ TedLab's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@Tedlab-MIT PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (10:53) - Human language (14:59) - Generalizations in language (20:46) - Dependency grammar (30:45) - Morphology (39:20) - Evolution of languages (42:40) - Noam Chomsky (1:26:46) - Thinking and language (1:40:16) - LLMs (1:53:14) - Center embedding (2:19:42) - Learning a new language (2:23:34) - Nature vs nurture (2:30:10) - Culture and language (2:44:38) - Universal language (2:49:01) - Language translation (2:52:16) - Animal communication

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones
    Andrew Callaghan is the host of Channel 5 on YouTube, where he does street interviews with fascinating humans at the edges of society, the so-called vagrants, vagabonds, runaways, outlaws, from QAnon adherents to Phish heads to O Block residents and much more. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ShipStation: https://shipstation.com/lex and use code LEX to get 60-day free trial - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/andrew-callaghan-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Channel 5 with Andrew Callaghan: https://www.youtube.com/channel5YouTube Andrew's Instagram: https://instagram.com/andreww.me Andrew's Website: https://andrew-callaghan.com/ Andrew's Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/channel5 This Place Rules: https://www.hbo.com/movies/this-place-rules Books Mentioned: On the Road: https://amzn.to/4aLPLHi Siddhartha: https://amzn.to/49rthKz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (08:53) - Walmart (10:24) - Early life (29:14) - Hitchhiking (40:49) - Couch surfing (49:50) - Quarter Confessions (1:07:33) - Burning Man (1:22:44) - Protests (1:28:17) - Jon Stewart (1:31:13) - Fame (1:44:31) - Jan 6 (1:48:15) - QAnon (1:54:00) - Alex Jones (2:10:52) - Politics (2:20:29) - Response to allegations (2:37:28) - Channel 5 (2:43:04) - Rap (2:44:51) - O Block (2:48:47) - Crip Mac (2:51:59) - Aliens

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame
    Bassem Youssef is an Egyptian-American comedian & satirist, referred to as the Jon Stewart of the Arab World. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/bassem-youssef-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Bassem's X: https://x.com/Byoussef Bassem's Instagram: https://instagram.com/bassem Bassem's Facebook: https://facebook.com/bassemyousseftv Bassem's Website: https://bassemyoussef.xyz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:30) - Oct 7 (36:59) - Two-state solution (52:37) - Holocaust (1:00:24) - 1948 (1:09:17) - Egypt (1:23:39) - Jon Stewart (1:25:51) - Going viral during the Arab Spring (1:49:55) - Arabic vs English (2:02:18) - Sam Harris and Jihad (2:07:25) - Religion (2:26:37) - TikTok (2:31:10) - Joe Rogan (2:33:07) - Joe Biden (2:37:33) - Putin (2:39:21) - War (2:44:17) - Hope

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