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    #130 – Scott Aaronson: Computational Complexity and Consciousness

    enOctober 12, 2020

    Podcast Summary

    • The Uncertainty of Living in a SimulationIt is hard to determine whether our reality is a simulation or not, and even if it is, finding evidence or hacking it may not provide a clear understanding of the true nature of reality.

      The question of whether we are living in a simulation or not may not have a definitive answer. Even if we were in a simulation, it is difficult to distinguish it from reality, especially if it is a perfect simulation. Additionally, the concept of the universe as a computation is an interesting and well-defined question, but it does not necessarily imply that our universe is a simulation. Discovering evidence of another larger universe within which our simulation is running seems unlikely if the simulation is perfect. Furthermore, even if we were able to hack the simulation and discover the true nature of reality, it is uncertain what that would look like or how it would be possible.

    • The Quest for a Theory of Everything in PhysicsA fundamental theory that unifies the laws of physics is crucial, despite the challenges involved, and is recognized as an important pursuit by leaders in the physics community.

      The pursuit of a Theory of Everything in physics is a worthy goal. While it may not encompass every aspect of the universe, a fundamental theory that unifies the laws of physics is crucial in advancing our understanding of the fundamental interactions in nature. Physicists have historically dreamed of such a theory, and despite the challenges and complexities involved, it continues to be a driving force in the field. While the concept may seem far-fetched, respected figures like Stephen Hawking have openly discussed it, and leaders within the physics community recognize the importance of seeking a unified description of nature. Just as in the AI community, where the dream of superhuman intelligence may seem distant, it is still a worthwhile pursuit.

    • Exploring the Complexities of a Theory of Everything and ConsciousnessUnderstanding the nature of consciousness and developing a comprehensive theory of everything requires further exploration and analysis, including addressing the challenge of deriving key parameters in theories like integrated information theory.

      The concept of a Theory of Everything and understanding consciousness present complex challenges. While people may avoid using the term "Theory of Everything" to avoid debates, the need for a fundamental theory of the particles and interactions of nature still exists. Similarly, the problem of consciousness is divided into the "pretty hard problem" and the "infamous hard problem." The pretty hard problem seeks to provide an account of which physical systems are conscious and to what degree, while the infamous hard problem aims to explain how consciousness arises in a material universe. To address these questions, integrated information theory (IIT) has been proposed; however, one major criticism is the lack of a derivation for its key parameters, such as the quantity "fee." Overall, further exploration and analysis are needed to understand these complex topics comprehensively.

    • The Complexity of Defining Consciousness and Its Alignment with IntuitionDefining consciousness based on fee or computation alone fails to capture its true essence. Aligning our understanding of consciousness with our pre-existing notions is crucial, while acknowledging the enigmatic nature of the concept.

      The concept of consciousness cannot simply be measured by the value of fee or reduced to computation. Scott Aaronson argues that the theory of consciousness based on fee fails to match our intuitive understanding of what consciousness is. He emphasizes the importance of defining concepts based on prior understanding and maintaining consistency. While Lex Fridman suggests that humans tend to define complex concepts like intelligence and consciousness in a human-centric way, Scott Aaronson emphasizes the need for a definition that aligns with our pre-existing notions. The discussion also touches upon the idea that the universe itself might be computational. Overall, this conversation underscores the complexity and mystery surrounding the nature of consciousness.

    • The elusive nature of consciousness and the challenges in defining and understanding it.Defining and understanding consciousness is a complex task that requires further exploration and examination of its underlying mechanisms and the nature of perception.

      The concept of consciousness is still highly debated and elusive. While we have made significant progress in understanding neuroscience, computation, and machine learning, the question of what truly constitutes consciousness remains a challenge. The idea of passing the Turing test as a measure of consciousness is not universally agreed upon, as it raises questions about the nature of emulation versus true consciousness. Additionally, it is suggested that consciousness may be relative to the observer, with different beings perceiving and understanding consciousness differently. The presence of mystery or layers of abstraction within a system may contribute to our perception of something as conscious. Overall, defining and understanding consciousness requires further exploration and examination of underlying mechanisms.

    • Exploring the Complexity of Consciousness and Free WillConsciousness is a subjective experience that cannot be fully understood by external observers. While predictions about actions can be made, the concept of free will remains challenged. The creation of replicas raises ethical dilemmas.

      The concept of consciousness and free will raises fascinating questions about our understanding of the human mind. Scott Aaronson emphasizes that consciousness is inherently subjective and cannot be fully understood or predicted by external observers. While it may be possible to gather extensive data about an individual and make predictions about their actions, this would not necessarily undermine their sense of being conscious. However, it would greatly challenge their sense of having free will. The idea of creating an accurate replica of a person, even with advanced technology, raises ethical and philosophical dilemmas. Additionally, the role of quantum mechanics in consciousness remains a topic of exploration and debate. Ultimately, understanding consciousness and free will requires a deeper understanding of our complex biological and cognitive systems.

    • Penrose's Speculative and Controversial Ideas on Quantum Mechanics and ConsciousnessPenrose's claims on the relationship between quantum mechanics and consciousness, as well as the brain's operation as a quantum gravitational computer, are unsupported by empirical evidence and go beyond mainstream physics and neuroscience.

      Penrose's ideas about quantum mechanics and consciousness are highly speculative and controversial. While many physicists admire Penrose's audacity in raising such questions, most do not agree with his claims. He goes beyond the notion that quantum mechanics is relevant to consciousness and suggests that the brain operates as a quantum gravitational computer, involving uncomputable phenomena even beyond what is known in quantum gravity. Moreover, Penrose proposes a modification of quantum mechanics, an objective collapse of quantum states, that would allow consciousness to influence the direction of collapse. These ideas have not yet been supported by empirical evidence and are considered to be outside the mainstream understanding of physics and the brain.

    • Critically Evaluating Claims Based on Logic and EvidenceWhen considering arguments based on Girdle's incompleteness theorem, it is crucial to critically evaluate claims using logic and evidence rather than blindly accepting them.

      The argument made by Penrose based on Girdle's incompleteness theorem is not sound. While it is agreed upon that there are uncomputable problems, Penrose wants to argue that humans can somehow see the consistency of a formal system that cannot prove its own consistency. However, there is no absolute guarantee that we are always right when adding new axioms to a system. Girdle's theorem does not negate the possibility of an AI repeatedly adding new axioms and being right. The claim that a chatbot called Eugene Goostman passed the Turing test was exaggerated, as the bot faltered when faced with simple questions. Thus, it is important to critically evaluate claims based on logic and evidence rather than blindly accepting them.

    • Advancements in AI - GPT-3: An Impressive Text EngineGPT-3 showcases the remarkable potential of deep learning and data compression in natural language processing, pushing AI capabilities forward while highlighting the need for substantial resources.

      Advancements in AI, particularly in text engines like GPT-3, have reached impressive levels. While previous chat programs like Eliza were limited in their capabilities, GPT-3 can generate meaningful and on-topic completions for a wide range of queries. It can write poems, student essays, and even simulates common sense reasoning. GPT-3 achieves this by using deep learning on a massive amount of data from the internet, compressing it into a small number of parameters. Though it does not pass the Turing test, it signifies a major leap forward in natural language processing. The development of GPT-3 shows how harnessing the power of the entire web can lead to remarkable AI capabilities, even though it requires significant resources.

    • GPT-3's focus on predictive processing limits logical reasoning capabilities.GPT-3 struggles with complex tasks and may require additional mechanisms like visual reasoning and subroutines to enhance its reasoning abilities.

      GPT-3, a neural net or deep net algorithm, is primarily focused on predictive processing rather than logical reasoning. It constantly tries to predict the next word or phrase based on what has been said before, without considering what should be true or the context of the conversation. While GPT-3 has shown impressive capabilities, such as completing images and watching videos with the same mechanisms, it still struggles with more complex tasks like arithmetic and spatial reasoning. This suggests that humans possess additional mechanisms beyond predictive processing, such as visual reasoning and subroutines, that allow for more sophisticated forms of reasoning. Integrating these other forms of reasoning may be necessary to overcome the limitations of current AI models.

    • The Power of Universality in ProgrammingUnderstanding the concept of universality in programming allows aspiring programmers to realize that even basic programming languages have the potential to accomplish incredible things.

      Universality is a powerful concept in programming. Universality refers to the idea that with just a few simple operations, like Boolean logic gates, you have the foundation to express any complex function or program. This realization can be a revelation for aspiring programmers, like it was for Scott Aaronson. It means that even basic programming languages, like GW-BASIC, have the potential to accomplish incredible things. The concept of universality dates back to Alan Turing and his Turing machine, which can simulate any other machine. Understanding universality not only flattens the playing field and eliminates the need for infinitely powerful languages, but also presents endless possibilities for programmers to create and innovate using the same tools as the greatest programmers in the world.

    • Understanding Complexity Theory and its Implications in Computer ScienceComplexity theory helps classify computational problems based on their difficulty and resource requirements, providing insights into encryption security and problem solvability.

      Complexity theory is the study of the inherent resources needed to solve computational problems. It helps us understand the difficulty and efficiency of solving different problems. For example, adding two numbers is relatively easy and takes linear time, while multiplying two numbers is harder and takes quadratic time. Factoring numbers, on the other hand, is considered an inherently hard problem for computers and requires exponential time. This has implications for cryptography and internet security, as the security of encryption relies on the belief that factoring is difficult. Complexity theory has been developed as a core part of computer science since the 60s and 70s, allowing us to categorize problems based on their solvability and resource requirements.

    • Understanding Complexity Classes: P vs NPThe P vs NP problem in computer science explores whether problems that are easy to check also have efficient algorithms for finding the solution. The speaker believes that P and NP are not equal.

      There are different complexity classes in computer science, including P (polynomial time) and NP (non-deterministic polynomial). P includes problems that can be solved with a conventional computer using an algorithm that grows with the size of the input. NP includes problems where the solution can be easily checked if given a short witness. The open question is whether every NP problem is also in P, meaning if the answer can be easily checked, can it also be easily found? This question is known as the P vs NP problem and is a famous and intriguing problem in theoretical computer science. Based on the conversation, the speaker believes that P is not equal to NP.

    • The Significance of P versus NP in Computer ScienceThe possibility of P equaling NP has profound implications for encryption, neural networks, and solving million-dollar problems, but experts believe it is unlikely. The discussion also highlights the difference between theoretical algorithms and practical implementation.

      The concept of P versus NP carries immense significance in the field of computer science. If P equals NP, it would have far-reaching implications, such as breaking encryption used to protect the internet and cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin. It would also revolutionize the way we train neural networks and solve complex problems. Additionally, solving the P versus NP question would lead to solving other million-dollar prize problems, including the Riemann hypothesis and the Poincaré conjecture. However, despite the possibilities, the speaker and most experts are inclined to believe that P does not equal NP. The conversation also touches on the distinction between the existence of an algorithm in theory versus its feasibility in practice.

    • Understanding Problem Complexity in Computer ScienceThe classification of problem complexity in computer science, such as P, NP, and PSPACE, helps categorize solvability and efficiency, but the P versus NP controversy remains unsolved. Alternative approaches like randomized algorithms and quantum computers offer potential solutions.

      The complexity of problem-solving in computer science is categorized into various classes, such as P, NP, and PSPACE. P represents problems that can be solved by a conventional computer efficiently, while NP includes problems that can be verified by a computer efficiently but may not be solved efficiently. PSPACE encompasses problems that can be solved using a polynomial amount of memory but potentially an exponential amount of time. Additionally, there is a complexity class known as sharp P, which counts the number of valid solutions to a problem. Despite these classifications, the P versus NP controversy remains unsolved, and current techniques do not help in comparing time and space complexities. However, randomized algorithms and quantum computers offer alternative approaches to efficient problem-solving.

    • The Relationship between BQP and PSPACE and the Power of Quantum ComputersBQP, the class of problems solvable by quantum computers, is a subset of PSPACE, the class solvable by classical computers. However, simulating quantum computation on a classical computer takes exponentially more time.

      BQP, which represents the class of problems that can be efficiently solved by a quantum computer, is contained within PSPACE, the class of problems that can be solved by a classical computer using polynomial space. This means that anything that can be done with a quantum computer can also be simulated by a classical computer, albeit with exponentially more time. Quantum mechanics allows for a branching tree of possibilities, where each path has a complex number attached to it called an amplitude. Calculating the probability of obtaining a specific output involves summing up the amplitudes associated with that output. Moreover, there are classes such as BQP/QPoly and Statistical Zero Knowledge (SZK) that showcase the beauty and fundamental nature of computational complexity.

    • Exploring Zero Knowledge Proofs and Institutional FailuresZero knowledge proofs ensure privacy and trust in cryptography, while the pandemic revealed the need for competent leaders and institutions to regain public trust.

      Zero knowledge proofs are a central idea in cryptography and are used in various applications, including some cryptocurrencies. These proofs allow someone to prove that something is true without revealing why it's true. They have been used in problems like graph isomorphism, where two graphs cannot be permuted to be the same. Zero knowledge proofs rely on protocols that can statistically convince someone of the truth without revealing any new information. Another key takeaway is the observation of the failure of institutions during the pandemic, which has led to a loss of trust in government and media. Building a more competent government may involve addressing these failures and electing competent leaders.

    • Uniting for Progress: Overcoming Division in CrisisIn times of crisis, it is crucial to prioritize unity, empathy, and meaningful dialogue to overcome division and work towards progress as a society.

      There is a need to unite and come together in times of crisis. The division and lack of unity during the COVID-19 pandemic has been detrimental to the country. The World War II mentality, which was about breaking rules to get the job done, also emphasized the importance of working together. The current situation calls for leadership that can bring people together instead of further dividing them. It is important to prioritize love, empathy, and patience, regardless of political affiliations. Cancel culture and the suppression of nuanced conversations hinder progress and understanding. Engaging in meaningful dialogue with differing perspectives is crucial for societal growth.

    • The Importance of Open Discourse and Speaking Up Against Cancel CultureOpen discourse and speaking up against cancel culture are essential in combating racism and sexism. It is important to defend unpopular ideas and engage in respectful conversations to create a more inclusive and understanding society.

      Open discourse and speaking up against cancel culture are crucial in combating racism and sexism effectively. Scott Aaronson and Lex Fridman highlight the importance of defending unpopular ideas and engaging in respectful conversations even in the face of opposition and personal attacks. They emphasize that allowing a particular political faction to define the meaning of these terms can be harmful and divisive. By actively supporting open discourse and expressing dissenting opinions, individuals can contribute to creating a more inclusive and understanding society. However, they acknowledge that speaking up requires mental energy and time, and encourage more people from diverse backgrounds to participate in these discussions to facilitate progress.

    • The role of love in the lives of computer scientistsLove is a universal aspect of human existence, valued by all, even in the field of computer science. It cannot be fully understood or explained through scientific methods.

      Love plays an important role in our lives, even for world-class computer scientists. Scott Aaronson, a theoretical computer scientist, emphasizes the significance of love for his family. While he admits that he may not offer profound insights into the nature of love, he acknowledges its importance. Lex Fridman, the host, wonders if there is any connection between computer science and love. Scott humorously mentions a XKCD comic strip that jokes about applying scientific methods to love, highlighting the limitations of such an approach. This conversation reminds us that love transcends academic disciplines and is a fundamental aspect of human existence. It reinforces the idea that love is universal and valued by all, regardless of their expertise or field of study.

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    #428 – Sean Carroll: General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Black Holes & Aliens

    #428 – Sean Carroll: General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Black Holes & Aliens
    Sean Carroll is a theoretical physicist, author, and host of Mindscape podcast. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - HiddenLayer: https://hiddenlayer.com/lex - Cloaked: https://cloaked.com/lex and use code LexPod to get 25% off - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/sean-carroll-3-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Sean's Website: https://preposterousuniverse.com Mindscape Podcast: https://www.preposterousuniverse.com/podcast/ Sean's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@seancarroll Sean's Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/seanmcarroll Sean's Twitter: https://twitter.com/seanmcarroll Sean's Instagram: https://instagram.com/seanmcarroll Sean's Papers: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=Lfifrv8AAAAJ Sean's Books: https://amzn.to/3W7yT9N PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (11:03) - General relativity (23:22) - Black holes (28:11) - Hawking radiation (32:19) - Aliens (41:15) - Holographic principle (1:05:38) - Dark energy (1:11:38) - Dark matter (1:20:34) - Quantum mechanics (1:41:56) - Simulation (1:44:18) - AGI (1:58:42) - Complexity (2:11:25) - Consciousness (2:20:32) - Naturalism (2:24:49) - Limits of science (2:29:34) - Mindscape podcast (2:39:29) - Einstein

    #427 – Neil Adams: Judo, Olympics, Winning, Losing, and the Champion Mindset

    #427 – Neil Adams: Judo, Olympics, Winning, Losing, and the Champion Mindset
    Neil Adams is a judo world champion, 2-time Olympic silver medalist, 5-time European champion, and often referred to as the Voice of Judo. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ZipRecruiter: https://ziprecruiter.com/lex - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/neil-adams-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Neil's Instagram: https://instagram.com/naefighting Neil's YouTube: https://youtube.com/NAEffectiveFighting Neil's TikTok: https://tiktok.com/@neiladamsmbe Neil's Facebook: https://facebook.com/NeilAdamsJudo Neil's X: https://x.com/NeilAdamsJudo Neil's Website: https://naeffectivefighting.com Neil's Podcast: https://naeffectivefighting.com/podcasts/the-dojo-collective-podcast A Life in Judo (book): https://amzn.to/4d3DtfB A Game of Throws (audiobook): https://amzn.to/4aA2WeJ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (09:13) - 1980 Olympics (26:35) - Judo explained (34:40) - Winning (52:54) - 1984 Olympics (1:01:55) - Lessons from losing (1:17:37) - Teddy Riner (1:37:12) - Training in Japan (1:52:51) - Jiu jitsu (2:03:59) - Training (2:27:18) - Advice for beginners

    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs

    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs
    Edward Gibson is a psycholinguistics professor at MIT and heads the MIT Language Lab. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Yahoo Finance: https://yahoofinance.com - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/edward-gibson-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Edward's X: https://x.com/LanguageMIT TedLab: https://tedlab.mit.edu/ Edward's Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=4FsWE64AAAAJ TedLab's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@Tedlab-MIT PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (10:53) - Human language (14:59) - Generalizations in language (20:46) - Dependency grammar (30:45) - Morphology (39:20) - Evolution of languages (42:40) - Noam Chomsky (1:26:46) - Thinking and language (1:40:16) - LLMs (1:53:14) - Center embedding (2:19:42) - Learning a new language (2:23:34) - Nature vs nurture (2:30:10) - Culture and language (2:44:38) - Universal language (2:49:01) - Language translation (2:52:16) - Animal communication

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones
    Andrew Callaghan is the host of Channel 5 on YouTube, where he does street interviews with fascinating humans at the edges of society, the so-called vagrants, vagabonds, runaways, outlaws, from QAnon adherents to Phish heads to O Block residents and much more. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ShipStation: https://shipstation.com/lex and use code LEX to get 60-day free trial - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/andrew-callaghan-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Channel 5 with Andrew Callaghan: https://www.youtube.com/channel5YouTube Andrew's Instagram: https://instagram.com/andreww.me Andrew's Website: https://andrew-callaghan.com/ Andrew's Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/channel5 This Place Rules: https://www.hbo.com/movies/this-place-rules Books Mentioned: On the Road: https://amzn.to/4aLPLHi Siddhartha: https://amzn.to/49rthKz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (08:53) - Walmart (10:24) - Early life (29:14) - Hitchhiking (40:49) - Couch surfing (49:50) - Quarter Confessions (1:07:33) - Burning Man (1:22:44) - Protests (1:28:17) - Jon Stewart (1:31:13) - Fame (1:44:31) - Jan 6 (1:48:15) - QAnon (1:54:00) - Alex Jones (2:10:52) - Politics (2:20:29) - Response to allegations (2:37:28) - Channel 5 (2:43:04) - Rap (2:44:51) - O Block (2:48:47) - Crip Mac (2:51:59) - Aliens

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame
    Bassem Youssef is an Egyptian-American comedian & satirist, referred to as the Jon Stewart of the Arab World. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/bassem-youssef-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Bassem's X: https://x.com/Byoussef Bassem's Instagram: https://instagram.com/bassem Bassem's Facebook: https://facebook.com/bassemyousseftv Bassem's Website: https://bassemyoussef.xyz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:30) - Oct 7 (36:59) - Two-state solution (52:37) - Holocaust (1:00:24) - 1948 (1:09:17) - Egypt (1:23:39) - Jon Stewart (1:25:51) - Going viral during the Arab Spring (1:49:55) - Arabic vs English (2:02:18) - Sam Harris and Jihad (2:07:25) - Religion (2:26:37) - TikTok (2:31:10) - Joe Rogan (2:33:07) - Joe Biden (2:37:33) - Putin (2:39:21) - War (2:44:17) - Hope

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