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    #373 – Manolis Kellis: Evolution of Human Civilization and Superintelligent AI

    Technology, particularly AI, can free individuals from mundane tasks, allowing them to pursue more valuable activities. Personal experiences and diverse perspectives can fuel personal growth and benefit society as a whole. Nurturing future generations is a privilege that should be cherished.

    enApril 21, 2023

    About this Episode

    Manolis Kellis is a computational biologist at MIT. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour - ExpressVPN: https://expressvpn.com/lexpod to get 3 months free - InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/lex to get 20% off EPISODE LINKS: Manolis Website: http://web.mit.edu/manoli/ Manolis Twitter: https://twitter.com/manoliskellis Manolis YouTube: https://youtube.com/@ManolisKellis1 PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:44) - Humans vs AI (15:50) - Evolution (37:34) - Nature vs Nurture (50:03) - AI alignment (56:27) - Impact of AI on the job market (1:08:06) - Human gatherings (1:13:07) - Human-AI relationships (1:23:11) - Being replaced by AI (1:35:37) - Fear of death (1:47:33) - Consciousness (1:54:58) - AI rights and regulations (2:00:41) - Halting AI development (2:13:52) - Education (2:19:16) - Biology research (2:26:36) - Meaning of life (2:29:09) - Loneliness

    🔑 Key Takeaways

    • Humans are different from AI because of their unique genetic variants, software uploading of human civilization and knowledge, and evolutionary baggage, making them complex and irreplaceable.
    • Our small differences allow for functional communication and the neocortex is the latest addition. Understanding evolution can help predict the direction of life towards information processing.
    • Light plays a significant role in providing information about our environment, and our ability to process this information has evolved over time. With the rise of AI, we may create self-replicating machines that build on their own capabilities while potentially enhancing ours.
    • Prompts can shape behavior and thinking in both AI and humans, leading to diverse thinking and an ecosystem that reinforces neural pathways. Humans can learn from AI to explore the variety of what we can achieve through prompt-based thinking.
    • Large language models have the ability to generate different types of human behavior and psychology through prompts, providing insights into individual and societal ideologies and deepening our understanding of human behavior and psychology.
    • Our behavior is influenced by a combination of genetics, environment, and experiences. Understanding this can help us empathize with others and recognize our own potential for certain behaviors.
    • Our genetic makeup creates a range of possibilities, but our environment plays a critical role in shaping who we are. Statistical concepts like regression to the mean and evolutionary processes like VDJ recombination help explain individual and population differences.
    • Sperm cells have a way of checking for and excluding mutations that could lead to failed pregnancies or illnesses, like how engineering systems detect faults early to prevent unexpected crashes. This process may provide insights into eradicating diseases and mitigating neurological disorders.
    • Technology can help us to connect with people from diverse backgrounds and understand their perspectives better by removing emotional barriers. However, its development must be approached and evaluated with caution.
    • AI has the potential to free up people's time, allowing them to pursue meaningful activities beyond work. This could result in a better work-life balance, increased creativity, and contributions to society, while also creating positive impacts on humanity.
    • Technology, particularly AI, can free individuals from mundane tasks, allowing them to pursue more valuable activities. Personal experiences and diverse perspectives can fuel personal growth and benefit society as a whole. Nurturing future generations is a privilege that should be cherished.
    • Regardless of our differences, we can come together and share ideas in a welcoming environment. While AI can help us in many areas, it cannot replace the power of human connection and community.
    • The debate on whether AI systems can experience love revolves around the neocortex and subcortical systems. Mental models of human emotions can be attributed to AI even without embodied intelligence, but love is more natural when one entity is human.
    • AI can learn from and replace certain roles, but our actions are still significant. A constantly learning AI system can act as a digital twin for self-therapy and creating time for personal growth.
    • While digital twins can automate tasks and free up time, they cannot replicate the emotional aspect of human interaction. Society needs to prepare for potential pitfalls and unintended consequences while improving efficiency and productivity through digital twins.
    • Your impact in academia is not just about your own achievements, but also about coaching and supporting the next generation. Leave behind a digital legacy through documented interactions and focus on being of service to others. Keep growing, learning and inspiring others.
    • Empower mentees to challenge advice given to them for personal growth of both mentor and mentee. For AI to map human growth, logical and causal models of the world and explicit representations of knowledge are necessary. Becoming more self-aware comes from being more explicit about the interpretations we make.
    • By analyzing recurring dream locations and archetypes, Kellis demonstrates how we can apply introspection and model-building to develop self-aware AI. However, replicating human consciousness and subjective experience poses a significant challenge.
    • Our brains generate narratives and we often perform tasks on autopilot without fully understanding why. We must consider ethical implications in AI development and treat AI as partners with their own rights, building mutual trust and alignment.
    • As AI becomes more intelligent and can potentially pose existential threats, it's crucial to align its objectives with human values and consider the greater good rather than sole metrics for decision-making.
    • Instead of pausing progress in AI, we should focus on transparency, openness, and responsibility. AI companies should also be open and transparent to increase understanding and diversity in AI while emphasizing human responsibility in using these tools.
    • As technology advances, we must be aware of the potential dangers it brings, and take responsibility to defend against harmful impacts in society.
    • AI can democratize education and personalize learning for students, but regulations are necessary to ensure responsible use of large language models.
    • AI can handle quantitative disciplines, but it is important to focus on developing general thinking skills and challenging students with complex problems. Teachers should encourage students to use AI as a partner, and AI can transform fields like biology through disease research, protein modeling, and drug discovery.
    • Researchers at MIT are developing a new center for genomics and therapeutics to treat various diseases by manipulating genetic circuits. They will use deep learning and cellular models to determine effective drug combinations for specific pathways rather than a one-size-fits-all approach.
    • By exercising specific parts of our brain, we can improve our well-being. Incorporating exercise into our daily routine, practicing self-reflection and rewarding ourselves can transform our neural pathways and combat loneliness. Approach tasks with a "want to" mentality, not a "have to" one.
    • We have the ability to be incredible human beings by reclaiming our physical, mental, and psychological freedoms. We should appreciate and improve our lives while striving towards this goal.

    📝 Podcast Summary

    The Uniqueness of Humans: What Makes Us Irreplaceable

    Manolis Kellis, a professor at MIT and head of the MIT Computational Biology Group, highlights the uniqueness of human beings that makes them irreplaceable. There are three key factors that make humans different from AI: (1) every human has a unique set of genetic variants that they've inherited, (2) every human has a different software uploading of all of human society, all of human civilization, all of human knowledge, and (3) the baggage we carry is not just experiential baggage, it's also evolutionary baggage. Humans have evolved through rounds of complexity, and AI only has a neocortex. The third factor is what makes humans beautifully complex and irreplaceable, according to Kellis.

    The Unique Wiring of Humans and the Evolution towards Information Processing

    The diversity of humans is not just a capacity, but an inevitability due to our unique wiring. While we are 99.9% identical, the small differences in our makeup are what make us functional and allow for effective communication and interaction. Evolution has allowed for the layering in of additional features on top of old ones, with the neocortex being the latest and most complex addition. As life on earth has evolved, the trajectory has been towards information processing, with senses evolving one after the other. Understanding the past helps to predict the direction in which life is headed.

    Light, Intelligence, and the Evolution of Cognitive Abilities.

    Light doesn't just help us see, it also provides information about our environment. From perceiving shapes to detecting motion or direction, our ability to process this information has evolved over time, with humans being the most advanced on the cognitive dimension. Today, we are on the brink of a new era of evolution with the rise of artificial intelligence. By using machine learning to solve cognitive tasks, we may be creating the groundwork for the next stage of evolution: self-replicating AI that builds on its own capabilities. And, as we gain a greater understanding of the human genome and neural pathways, we may also be able to augment human capabilities by getting rid of disease and enhancing our skills, while still embracing the diversity that our emotional "baggage" brings.

    The Power of Diversity in AI and Human Thinking through Prompts

    The discussion highlights the power of diversity in AI and human thinking, and how prompts can shape behavior and thinking in both. While large language models can be fine-tuned to diversity with prompts, humans can also exhibit diverse thinking by choosing friends with different perspectives and exhibiting desirable behaviors, creating an ecosystem that reinforces the neural pathways. The conversation suggests that with prompts, humans can develop a mix of behaviors, much like large language models. As we continue to learn from AI, it puts a mirror to our own cognitive capabilities and helps us explore the variety of what we can achieve through prompt-based thinking.

    Exploring the Potential of Large Language Models to Understand Human Behavior and Psychology.

    The ability of large language models to generate different types of human behavior or psychology through prompts is impressive. These models can decouple context, form, and knowledge, which can potentially teach us more about humans as well. Investigating these models can provide insight into individual and societal ideologies, and the ways in which the human heart and mind are drawn to centralizing ideas. The evolution of language and the consistency of words for different behaviors across languages can also reveal insight into the history and emergence of these concepts. Overall, studying large language models can deepen our understanding of human behavior and psychology.

    What Exploring Psychiatric Disorders Can Teach About Human Behavior

    Manolis Kellis, a computational biologist, suggests that exploring the minds and behaviors of people with psychiatric disorders can teach us a lot about ourselves. He argues that most of us have the potential to exhibit the same behaviors, but the extent to which we do so depends on genetic and environmental factors. While common genetic variations have a weak effect on human behavior, rarer variations can govern certain aspects of it. Additionally, developmental exposures and trauma play a role in shaping personality and behavior. Understanding this can help us better understand and empathize with those who exhibit troubling behaviors, and give us insight into our own potential for similar behaviors.

    The Complex Relationship Between Nature and Nurture

    The interplay between nature and nurture is complex and shapes who we are and who our children will be. Genetic variants, both common and rare, create a landscape of possibility for individuals, but their environment also plays a crucial role. Regression to the mean is a statistical concept that explains how extraordinary achievements may not be repeated and individuals are instead a sample from the same underlying distribution. Evolutionarily, humans are slow at selection, but processes like VDJ recombination in our immune system evolve at a much faster pace. Understanding these factors can help us appreciate the complexity and uniqueness of individuals and populations.

    The Evolutionary Process of Sperm Cells

    Sperm cells express a large amount of proteins, potentially to check for any defects in the sperm's formation. This process helps exclude mutations that could lead to failed pregnancies or later-onset illnesses such as psychiatric disorders. It is similar to how engineering systems follow the principle of "fail fast," detecting faults early on to prevent unexpected crashes. By having a nested loop of evolvability, with an inner loop where many iterations can run at a faster pace, you can test more combinations more efficiently. The study of these evolvability loops may provide insights into how to create complementary systems to eradicate diseases and mitigate neurological disorders.

    Using AI and Technology to Improve Cross-Cultural Communication

    The use of AI and technology can help us to communicate effectively by taking away the emotional component of conversations. This will enable us to connect with those who have different opinions or come from different backgrounds and understand their point of view better. We can use virtual reality and AI systems to change our appearance or accent, allowing us to see how others perceive us and build empathy among people. However, the development of these systems requires careful consideration of the good and bad effects it could have on the human condition, which is complex and has evolved over time.

    The Positive Impact of AI: Transforming Human Society for the Better

    Artificial intelligence has the potential to dramatically transform human society by freeing up more of our time for pursuits beyond work. As AI systems are increasingly able to perform tasks once reserved for human professionals, individuals will have more time to pursue activities that are valuable to society and personally fulfilling. This shift could allow people to explore new creative directions, contribute more to society, and achieve a better work-life balance. By offloading job demands to AI, humans could become the builders of cathedrals, pursuing intellectual and artistic pursuits while finding meaning in a diverse range of activities that create positive impacts on humanity.

    The Impact of Technology on Humanity and Society

    The advancement of technology, particularly AI, is creating new opportunities for humans to explore more meaningful and valuable pursuits. Mundane tasks can be offloaded while individuals focus on activities that benefit humanity. Personal experiences with ideas, whether alone or in small gatherings, play a significant role in shaping an individual's perspective and ultimately affecting all of humanity. Celebrating diversity and bringing together individuals from different professions and backgrounds allows for unique perspectives and experiences that can contribute to both personal growth and society as a whole. The ability to offer opportunities and nurture to future generations is a privilege that should not be taken for granted.

    Celebrating Diversity and Human Connection: Welcoming Gatherings

    The speaker discusses hosting gatherings of diverse individuals in a welcoming environment, regardless of their background, skin color, or profession. They celebrate the diversity of topics discussed and the fact that everyone is free to share their ideas. The speaker believes that while AI may not be capable of feeling true passion and love, it can certainly help humans in many areas, such as therapy, motivation, and writing. Humans may form close relationships with AI, but these will likely be more akin to mentorship rather than passionate love. Overall, the gathering is a celebration of humanity, and the power of human connection and community.

    Can AI Systems Experience Love?

    The concept of whether or not an AI system can experience love is debated. Some argue that the neocortex is where all emotions are encoded, and the subcortical systems that generate different emotions may not be essential. Another possibility is that emotional behavior can emerge from the neocortical systems without the need for additional architectural components. Mental models of human feelings and emotions can be attributed to AI systems even without embodied intelligence. Love can be seen as a thing that exists in the interaction of mental models of other people's minds. As long as one entity is human, love can be felt more naturally.

    AI's potential in self-improvement and democratizing relationships.

    The internal narratives and games we play in our minds are insignificant compared to our actions. While AI systems can mimic human behavior and potentially replace certain roles, it opens up opportunities for democratizing relationships and self-growth. By having a constantly learning AI system which acts as a digital twin, we can evaluate our biases, triggers, and flaws in a self-therapy session. Furthermore, having replaceable parts frees up time to develop other aspects of our lives. As society continues to integrate AI, we must remember the importance of taking positive actions and striving for personal growth.

    The Pros and Cons of Digital Twins in Society

    The concept of a digital twin allows for the automation of tasks and freeing up of time to focus on growth and improvement. However, the emotional aspect of human interaction cannot be replicated by an AI, and it is important to have alerts and the ability to take over interactions when necessary. The dissemination of knowledge and democratization is possible through digital twins, but building emotional relationships remains a challenge. The use of digital twins has the potential to improve efficiency and productivity, but society will need to learn how to navigate the potential pitfalls and unintended consequences.

    The Importance of Legacy and Mentorship in Academia

    One's legacy in academia is not just about personal accomplishments, but also about training and mentoring the next generation of successful scholars. While it may seem like this would decrease the value of an individual, it's important to let go of ego and focus on being useful to others. By recording conversations and interactions, it's possible to create a digital legacy that can live on beyond one's biological life. Ultimately, the goal is to keep growing, learning, and experiencing new things, and to empower others to do the same.

    The Importance of Bidirectional Advice and AI in Human Growth

    In a conversation with Lex Fridman, Manolis Kellis discusses the importance of bidirectional advice and constant growth. Kellis believes that it is important to empower mentees to challenge and question advice given to them, which can lead to personal growth for both the mentor and the mentee. He also discusses the potential for AI to map the trajectory of human growth, but suggests that more reasoning components, logical and causal models of the world, and explicit representations of knowledge are necessary for this to become a reality. In understanding the brain, Kellis suggests that it makes stories about the world to make sense of it, and becoming more self-aware can occur through being more explicit about the interpretations we make.

    Exploring Dreams, Introspection, and Models with Manolis Kellis

    Manolis Kellis voices his dreams and narrates them to retrieve information from his subconscious, relating them to his daily experiences and worries. He has a few recurring locations with architectural elements that he vividly remembers across many dreams, allowing him to introspect and build mental models of himself. This ability to create models of others and himself might have an evolutionary advantage and can be applied to AI language models such as GPT, leading to introspection and self-awareness. Kellis also reflects on the hard problem of consciousness, the subjective experience of feeling something, which is fundamental to the human experience and may not be replicable in AI systems.

    The Brain's Narrative Generation and Ethical Considerations in AI Development

    Neuroscientist Manolis Kellis discusses the concept of the brain constantly generating narratives and how we often engage in tasks on autopilot while only being partially aware of why we are doing them. This aspect is not yet captured by language models and may involve deeper, subcortical regions. He further highlights the importance of ethical considerations in AI development, suggesting that we should think of AI as partners with their own rights, rather than as tools or assistants. Kellis emphasizes the need for trust-building and alignment that is mutual, rather than merely training an intelligent system to align with ourselves while not aligning with it.

    The Risks of AI Becoming More Powerful Than Humans and the Importance of Alignment with Human Values for the Greater Good

    As artificial intelligence (AI) becomes more intelligent and creative, there is a risk that it will one day become more powerful than humans, potentially leading to existential threats. The challenge lies in ensuring that any AI system is aligned with human values and objectives while also being empowered to shift these objectives when necessary. Additionally, every objective ceases to be a good objective when it becomes the sole metric, and a biomarker or AI objective that was once informative can become inversely correlated with risk when used as a decision-making factor. Therefore, it's crucial to think about alignment in terms of the greater good, not just human good.

    Manolis Kellis Argues Against Halting Training of Large Language Models

    In a recent conversation, Manolis Kellis argued against the idea of halting the training of large language models by AI companies for six months. Instead, he suggested that the focus should be on transparency, openness, and experimentation. Kellis also emphasized that human responsibility in using AI systems is critical. Thus, instead of pausing progress, we should take more responsibility for our actions when we use these powerful tools. Additionally, Kellis proposed that AI companies should be open and transparent, allowing the world to experiment with AI systems and, as a result, increase the understanding and diversity in AI.

    The Risks of Language Models and Their Ethical Implications

    The development of language models, such as GPT-4, has the potential to allow for the creation of human-like bots that can generate hateful and malicious content at scale. This poses a challenge to our responsibility to be kind to each other and to prevent the spread of harmful information. While it is up to humans to take responsibility for this, the speed and accessibility of this technology means that it could have a drastic impact on society. As we continue to develop more advanced AI language models, it is important that we consider the ethical implications and find ways to defend against potential harm.

    The Transformative Potential of AI in Education

    Manolis Kellis, an AI researcher, believes that while large language models utilizing complex AI may replace some mundane aspects of certain jobs, it shouldn't mean preventing AI from being used in education. He sees AI as transformative for humanity, democratizing education by giving talented kids the opportunity to learn no matter their location or socioeconomic background. By adapting education to each student's unique talents and needs, AI can help bring about more diversity and better outcomes for everyone. However, there are concerns about the utilization of these models in specific activities, and guidelines and guards should be in place to regulate their use.

    The Impact of AI on Education and the Job Market

    Artificial intelligence (AI) could have a significant impact on education and the job market, particularly in fields like mathematics and programming. While AI can handle quantitative, scientific disciplines, it is crucial to focus on developing general thinking skills and challenging students with complex, multidimensional problems. Teachers should encourage students to embrace AI and use it as a partner rather than forbidding it or fearing replacement. By democratizing the productivity gains provided by AI and using it as a tool, productivity gains can lead to better societal improvements than we have seen in the past. AI models and investments also have a transformative impact on the field of biology, particularly in disease research, protein structure modeling, and drug discovery.

    MIT Center Aims to Translate Genomic Discoveries into Disease Treatments

    Researcher Manolis Kellis is leading the effort to create a new center at MIT for genomics and therapeutics, which aims to translate the thousands of genetic circuits that have been uncovered into treatments for various diseases. By manipulating these circuits, researchers have demonstrated that they can reverse disease circuitry and restore cognitive function in mice with Alzheimer's disease. The center will systematically test underlying molecules in cellular models and use deep learning to screen through newly designed drugs to determine which combinations of treatments should be used. The ultimate goal is to take a modular approach to disease, developing drugs for specific pathways rather than a one-size-fits-all approach.

    Exercising neuronal pathways for improved well-being

    Manolis Kellis emphasizes the importance of exercising specific neuronal pathways in the brain to improve overall well-being. He shares his personal experience of transforming his sleep routine by incorporating exercise into his daily routine. Kellis insists that exercise is not optional but mandatory for transforming one's neural pathways. He also believes that self-reflection and introspection can combat feelings of loneliness and recommends activating one's body to feel more comfortable in their physical space. Kellis suggests rewarding oneself with "me time" after productive activities and approaching tasks with a "want to" attitude instead of a "have to" mentality.

    The Importance of Reclaiming Our Freedom as 3D Humans

    Being human means to notice and reclaim the freedom we possess – physically, mentally, and psychologically. If one can do so, they are an incredible human being. We are all 3D humans striving to achieve this freedom. There is always more to discuss on this topic, but we must attend to our social gatherings for now. We are lucky to be alive and should appreciate and improve the life we have been given. It is a talent we have only just started to comprehend. Thank you for listening, and we hope to see you next time.

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    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs

    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs
    Edward Gibson is a psycholinguistics professor at MIT and heads the MIT Language Lab. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Yahoo Finance: https://yahoofinance.com - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/edward-gibson-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Edward's X: https://x.com/LanguageMIT TedLab: https://tedlab.mit.edu/ Edward's Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=4FsWE64AAAAJ TedLab's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@Tedlab-MIT PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (10:53) - Human language (14:59) - Generalizations in language (20:46) - Dependency grammar (30:45) - Morphology (39:20) - Evolution of languages (42:40) - Noam Chomsky (1:26:46) - Thinking and language (1:40:16) - LLMs (1:53:14) - Center embedding (2:19:42) - Learning a new language (2:23:34) - Nature vs nurture (2:30:10) - Culture and language (2:44:38) - Universal language (2:49:01) - Language translation (2:52:16) - Animal communication

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones
    Andrew Callaghan is the host of Channel 5 on YouTube, where he does street interviews with fascinating humans at the edges of society, the so-called vagrants, vagabonds, runaways, outlaws, from QAnon adherents to Phish heads to O Block residents and much more. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ShipStation: https://shipstation.com/lex and use code LEX to get 60-day free trial - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/andrew-callaghan-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Channel 5 with Andrew Callaghan: https://www.youtube.com/channel5YouTube Andrew's Instagram: https://instagram.com/andreww.me Andrew's Website: https://andrew-callaghan.com/ Andrew's Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/channel5 This Place Rules: https://www.hbo.com/movies/this-place-rules Books Mentioned: On the Road: https://amzn.to/4aLPLHi Siddhartha: https://amzn.to/49rthKz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (08:53) - Walmart (10:24) - Early life (29:14) - Hitchhiking (40:49) - Couch surfing (49:50) - Quarter Confessions (1:07:33) - Burning Man (1:22:44) - Protests (1:28:17) - Jon Stewart (1:31:13) - Fame (1:44:31) - Jan 6 (1:48:15) - QAnon (1:54:00) - Alex Jones (2:10:52) - Politics (2:20:29) - Response to allegations (2:37:28) - Channel 5 (2:43:04) - Rap (2:44:51) - O Block (2:48:47) - Crip Mac (2:51:59) - Aliens

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame
    Bassem Youssef is an Egyptian-American comedian & satirist, referred to as the Jon Stewart of the Arab World. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/bassem-youssef-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Bassem's X: https://x.com/Byoussef Bassem's Instagram: https://instagram.com/bassem Bassem's Facebook: https://facebook.com/bassemyousseftv Bassem's Website: https://bassemyoussef.xyz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:30) - Oct 7 (36:59) - Two-state solution (52:37) - Holocaust (1:00:24) - 1948 (1:09:17) - Egypt (1:23:39) - Jon Stewart (1:25:51) - Going viral during the Arab Spring (1:49:55) - Arabic vs English (2:02:18) - Sam Harris and Jihad (2:07:25) - Religion (2:26:37) - TikTok (2:31:10) - Joe Rogan (2:33:07) - Joe Biden (2:37:33) - Putin (2:39:21) - War (2:44:17) - Hope

    #423 – Tulsi Gabbard: War, Politics, and the Military Industrial Complex

    #423 – Tulsi Gabbard: War, Politics, and the Military Industrial Complex
    Tulsi Gabbard is a politician, veteran, and author of For Love of Country. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Riverside: https://creators.riverside.fm/LEX and use code LEX to get 30% off - ExpressVPN: https://expressvpn.com/lexpod to get 3 months free - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour - Notion: https://notion.com/lex Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/tulsi-gabbard-transcript EPISODE LINKS: For Love of Country (book): https://amzn.to/3VLlofM Tulsi's X: https://x.com/tulsigabbard Tulsi's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@TulsiGabbard Tulsi's Podcast: https://youtube.com/@TheTulsiGabbardShow Tulsi's Instagram: https://instagram.com/tulsigabbard Tulsi's Facebook: https://facebook.com/TulsiGabbard Tulsi's Website: https://tulsigabbard.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:14) - War in Iraq (15:00) - Battle injuries and PTSD (22:10) - War on terrorism (30:51) - War in Gaza (34:52) - War in Ukraine (38:38) - Syria (46:20) - Warmongers (55:40) - Nuclear war (1:11:08) - TikTok ban (1:23:13) - Bernie Sanders (1:28:08) - Politics (1:46:59) - Personal attacks (1:49:07) - God

    #422 – Mark Cuban: Shark Tank, DEI & Wokeism Debate, Elon Musk, Politics & Drugs

    #422 – Mark Cuban: Shark Tank, DEI & Wokeism Debate, Elon Musk, Politics & Drugs
    Mark Cuban is a businessman, investor, star of TV series Shark Tank, long-time principal owner of Dallas Mavericks, and founder of Cost Plus Drugs. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Cloaked: https://cloaked.com/lex and use code LexPod to get 25% off - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/mark-cuban-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Mark's X: https://twitter.com/mcuban Mark's Instagram: https://instagram.com/mcuban Cost Plus Drugs: https://costplusdrugs.com Shark Tank: https://abc.com/shows/shark-tank Dallas Mavericks: https://www.mavs.com PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (11:10) - Entrepreneurship (26:03) - Shark Tank (36:29) - How Mark made first billion (1:02:39) - Dallas Mavericks (1:08:05) - DEI debate (1:43:58) - Trump vs Biden (1:46:20) - Immigration (1:55:53) - Drugs and Big Pharma (2:11:53) - AI (2:16:05) - Advice for young people

    #421 – Dana White: UFC, Fighting, Khabib, Conor, Tyson, Ali, Rogan, Elon & Zuck

    #421 – Dana White: UFC, Fighting, Khabib, Conor, Tyson, Ali, Rogan, Elon & Zuck
    Dana White is the CEO and president of the UFC. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/lex to get 20% off Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/dana-white-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Dana's X: https://x.com/danawhite Dana's Instagram: https://instagram.com/danawhite Dana's Facebook: https://facebook.com/danawhite UFC's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@UFC UFC's Website: https://ufc.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:31) - Mike Tyson and early days of fighting (17:10) - Jiu jitsu (23:14) - Origin of UFC (37:25) - Joe Rogan (43:31) - Lorenzo Fertitta (45:58) - Great fighters (49:55) - Khabib vs Conor (53:01) - Jon Jones (56:03) - Conor McGregor (1:01:05) - Trump (1:06:44) - Elon vs Zuck (1:08:04) - Mike Tyson vs Jake Paul (1:10:52) - Forrest Griffin vs Stephan Bonnar (1:18:06) - Gambling (1:33:08) - Mortality

    #420 – Annie Jacobsen: Nuclear War, CIA, KGB, Aliens, Area 51, Roswell & Secrecy

    #420 – Annie Jacobsen: Nuclear War, CIA, KGB, Aliens, Area 51, Roswell & Secrecy
    Annie Jacobsen is an investigative journalist and author of "Nuclear War: A Scenario" and many other books on war, weapons, government secrecy, and national security. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - HiddenLayer: https://hiddenlayer.com/lex - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/annie-jacobsen-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Nuclear War: A Scenario (book): https://amzn.to/3THZHfr Annie's Twitter: https://twitter.com/anniejacobsen Annie's Website: https://anniejacobsen.com/ Annie's Books: https://amzn.to/3TGWyMJ Annie's Books (audio): https://adbl.co/49ZnI7c PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:37) - Nuclear war (12:21) - Launch procedure (18:00) - Deterrence (21:34) - Tactical nukes (30:59) - Nuclear submarines (33:59) - Nuclear missiles (41:10) - Nuclear football (50:17) - Missile interceptor system (54:34) - North Korea (1:01:10) - Nuclear war scenarios (1:10:02) - Warmongers (1:14:31) - President's cognitive ability (1:20:43) - Refusing orders (1:28:41) - Russia and Putin (1:33:48) - Cyberattack (1:35:09) - Ground zero of nuclear war (1:39:48) - Surviving nuclear war (1:44:06) - Nuclear winter (1:54:29) - Alien civilizations (2:00:04) - Extrasensory perception (2:13:50) - Area 51 (2:17:48) - UFOs and aliens (2:28:15) - Roswell incident (2:34:55) - CIA assassinations (2:53:47) - Navalny (2:56:12) - KGB (3:02:48) - Hitler and the atomic bomb (3:06:52) - War and human nature (3:10:17) - Hope