Logo

    #211 – Brian Muraresku: The Secret History of Psychedelics

    Psychedelics can potentially aid in religious experiences and offer a virtual map to the kingdom of heaven, but integration and other tools like meditation are necessary for lasting benefits. AI may also play a role in the future of spiritual exploration.

    enAugust 15, 2021

    About this Episode

    Brian Muraresku is the author of The Immortality Key. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/lex and use code Lex25 to get 25% off - GiveWell: https://www.givewell.org/ and use code LEX to get donation matched up to $1k - NI: https://www.ni.com/perspectives - Indeed: https://indeed.com/lex to get $75 credit - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lex to get 15% off EPISODE LINKS: Brian's Twitter: https://twitter.com/brianmuraresku Brian's website: https://www.brianmuraresku.com Immortality Key (book): https://amzn.to/3iNYBfB PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (09:46) - Who or what is God? (25:15) - Terence McKenna's DMT Trips (29:58) - Psychedelics were the source of collective intelligence (40:30) - Psychedelics in ancient alcohol (43:30) - The Immortality Key (46:16) - Jesus and psychedelic wine (58:56) - Role of rituals in human society (1:02:37) - Human confrontation with death (1:05:15) - The future of the human experience (1:17:07) - The role of religion in society (1:22:54) - The future of psychedelics research (1:26:05) - Fasting and meditation as religious experiences (1:29:44) - Neuralink and BCIs (1:36:42) - Is LSD a crutch or an aid in creative work (1:39:21) - Nietzsche said God is dead (1:41:48) - Creatures people meet while on psychedelics (1:47:18) - Consciousness (1:53:41) - Books or movies that made an impact (1:57:39) - Meaning of life

    🔑 Key Takeaways

    • Understanding the concept of God requires accepting its paradoxical nature and unlearning our preconceived notions. We can foster a relationship with God by identifying our true selves and accepting our ability to participate in divinity.
    • Poetry transcends religious beliefs, indicating a common understanding of detachment from self and pure awareness. Mystics and atheists both acknowledge the concept of divine nothingness, highlighting the exploration of God and myth as a human endeavor.
    • Ancient concepts like Lila and modern ideas like psychedelic experiences suggest the existence of discarnate entities controlling our reality. These entities could be semi-physical or autonomous fragments of psychic energy.
    • Some believe that non-physical beings may have guided human self-expression and contributed to important phases in human history. The stoned ape theory suggests that psychedelics could have played a role in human evolution, but testing is difficult.
    • The use of modern technology may reveal more about ancient human diets and potential psychedelic consumption, shedding light on the development of spiritual experiences and religions in ancient cultures.
    • Alcohol has played a significant role in human history, and while evidence is lacking, it is believed that beer and wine may have been used in the administration of psychedelics. "The Immortality Key" explores the ritual use of psychedelics in ancient Greece, Rome, and early Christianity through hard scientific data.
    • Wine was more than just fermented grapes in ancient times, it was often mixed with compounds and used as a medicinal elixir or sacrament. Understanding its role is important in understanding paleo-Christianity.
    • Ancient Greeks believed in consuming divinity to connect with the divine. Rituals and sacramental consumption were essential to their society and culture, and lasted through pagan times to early Christianity.
    • The ancient philosophers, mystics, and saints valued an intense encounter with death as a means of transformation. Balancing acceptance of mortality with seeking transformation through religious and psychedelic experiences may be a path forward.
    • The use of psychedelic drugs, such as psilocybin, is predicted to revive religion by allowing individuals to achieve self-transcendence, answering existential questions, and creating a deeper understanding of nature.
    • Science and religion both contribute to human understanding, but in different ways. Feeling and meaning are important, and ancient religious experiences can be observable and testable. The debate about religion's role in society continues, but science and religion can intersect to reveal the ultimate reality.
    • Psychedelics such as psilocybin and MDMA have shown to have positive effects on mental health conditions and a single dose of psilocybin can impact a person's sense of meaning and spirituality. However, much is still being learned about these effects and their potential impact on religious freedom.
    • Psychedelics can potentially aid in religious experiences and offer a virtual map to the kingdom of heaven, but integration and other tools like meditation are necessary for lasting benefits. AI may also play a role in the future of spiritual exploration.
    • Prior experience, anticipation, and incorporating rituals and mythology are crucial in having a successful psychedelic experience. Consider using AI and technology as a tool for a positive trip. Psychedelics may enhance creativity, but should be approached with scientific caution.
    • As society moves away from traditional religion, new forms of spirituality will continue to emerge, such as the use of psychedelics for spiritual introspection and the longing for connection with intelligent beings like aliens.
    • The idea of aliens communicating with us may not just be physical, but also in the form of consciousness. Understanding consciousness and its communication with us is fundamental, and ancient practices may offer insight.
    • Psychedelics and ancient techniques can help tap into a higher state of consciousness beyond life and death, inspiring the engineering of consciousness. Recommended reading includes books by Graham Hancock, Daniel Pinchbeck, and Peter Kingsley.
    • Life's meaning is subjective and influenced by emotions. Instead of searching for meaning, focus on experiencing life. Surrendering to love can lead to spiritual encounters. Psychedelics can shape our perspectives.

    📝 Podcast Summary

    Exploring the Evolution of God throughout History

    In this conversation between Lex Fridman and Brian Muraresku, they explore the concept of God and how it's evolved throughout history. They discuss the paradox of God being both outside our ability to comprehend and also a part of us. Muraresku explains that while we use poetic language to talk about God, it's a thought or idea that refers to something beyond our ability to conceive. Additionally, they touch upon the idea that humans can participate with divinity and even embody God. The conversation highlights the importance of unlearning and identifying our true selves to foster a relationship with God.

    The Universal Truth of Poetry and Mysticism

    The continuity of poetry across different religions and belief systems suggests that there is an underlying truth to the concept of pure awareness and detachment from the self. Mystics and atheists both believe in the concept of divine nothingness, but the mystics spell it with a capital N. One perspective is that humans or conscious beings are a tool that the universe or God uses to understand itself. The idea of simulation and virtual reality raises questions about the nature of reality and creation. Ultimately, the exploration of God and myth is a project that centers on the human mind, and the arts and poetry are important in conveying this message.

    The Divine Dance: Exploring Discarnate Entities Through Psychedelics and Philosophy

    The ancient concept of Lila or divine dance suggests that existence is ultimately playful. The invisible world or symbiosis we have with higher intent or purpose is hinted at in both ancient philosophical literature and psychedelic experiences. Discarnate entities, such as icons, archetypes, and even aliens, are seen as puppet masters controlling our reality, creating a cosmic dance. The psychedelic experience can provide a glimpse into a reality that is more real than real, a space where discarnate entities exist. Terence McKenna developed a taxonomy for analyzing these entities, suggesting they could be semi-physical or autonomous fragments of psychic energy.

    The Possible Existence of Non-Physical Beings and Their Influence on Human History

    The concept of non-physical, autonomous beings that exist in a real place is a high speculation that has been discussed throughout history by notable figures such as Descartes, John D, and even priest Socratics. Some believe that these beings could have influenced the human species in a significant way, guiding our self-expression and even contributing to important phase shifts throughout human history. This includes the stoned ape theory, which suggests that the ingestion of psychedelics over millions of years could have played a role in the evolution of language and human consciousness. While difficult to test, the hypothesis is worth investigating and could shed light on the mysterious origins of intelligence and life on Earth.

    The Immortality Key author advocates for technology to test the Stone Tape theory of ancient psychedelic use.

    Brian Muraresku, author of The Immortality Key, proposes using technology such as gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and proteomics to test the Stone Tape theory. This theory suggests that ancient cultures may have ingested psychoactive substances, leading to spiritual experiences and the development of religions. While not all evidence points to psychedelic consumption, researchers have found plants with medicinal properties in the dental calculus of Neanderthals and evidence of ritual consumption of psychedelics associated with cave art. However, the field of archeochemistry is still in its infancy and lacks a dedicated team of researchers. As technology advances, it may be possible to uncover more about the ancient human diet and potential psychedelic use.

    The Role of Alcohol in Ancient Civilization and the Search for Psychedelic Rituals

    Alcohol has played a significant role in the development of human civilization throughout history. While there is no hard data on the use of psychedelics in ancient times, it is believed that alcohol, specifically beer and wine, may have been used as vehicles for their administration. Ancient beers and wines were cocktails fortified with fruits, herbs, and plants, making them very different from what we drink today. Brian Muraresku's book, "The Immortality Key," chronicles his 12-year search for hard scientific data on the ritual use of psychedelics in classical antiquity, specifically among the ancient Greeks and Romans and the early Christians. The book unravels two key pieces of data showing the ritual use of a psychedelic beer in Ibiza and a psychedelic wine outside Pompeii.

    The Use of Wine in Ancient Times

    The use of wine in ancient times was not just the way we think of it today, as fermented grapes. Instead, wine was routinely mixed with different compounds, including spices and sometimes dangerous substances. In ancient Greek, wine was often referred to as a drug, and it was used as a medicinal elixir that could either harm or heal the drinker, or as a sacrament to put them in touch with their God. Wine played an essential role in religion and was interpreted as consuming the god itself to become one with the divine. Understanding the ancient Greek language and the use of wine is essential to understanding paleo-Christianity.

    Ritual and Sacramental Consumption in Ancient Greece

    The ancient Greeks had a complex understanding of the role of ritual and consumption of substances in their spiritual and intellectual growth. The god Dionysus, who was associated with madness and delirium, was worshipped particularly by women called the "mind ads." They would consume sacramental wine to get in touch with the god, even at the theater of diagnosis where comedy, tragedy, poetry, and music were born. The Greeks believed in consumption of divinity to become channeled with the divine. These rituals were key to the society and culture, and the continuity of these practices was perpetuated through a multitude of generations from the pagan world into early Christianity.

    The Mystery Religion of Eleusis and Embracing Death for Transformational Encounters.

    The Mystery Religion of Eleusis, which survived for 2000 years, was a central part of Greek life and considered by Cicero to be "the most exceptional and divine thing that Athens ever produced." The pilgrimage to Eleusis was a confrontation with mortality and an experience of death before death. An intense, transformational encounter with death was valued by the ancient philosophers, mystics, and saints. The fear of death and the desire to escape it may have been a creative force behind human society, but running towards death was valued by the ancients. The hope for the future of religious and psychedelic experiences is a balance between embracing death and seeking transformation, and performance-enhancing pharmaca may be part of this path forward.

    Exploring the Future of Religion and Psychedelic Drugs

    In a podcast discussion between Lex Fridman and Brian Muraresku, they explore the future of religion and how it is connected to psychedelic drugs such as psilocybin. Aldous Huxley, in his 1958 op-ed, predicted a revival of religion through the use of biochemical discoveries, allowing individuals to achieve a radical self-transcendence and a deeper understanding of nature. Religion is defined as binding individuals to a meaningful tradition or source and creating a deep existential insight, answering the question of why humans are here and the meaning of life. The understanding of reality is complex and includes emotions, experiences, and intuition, but ultimately, religion makes one feel like they know the point behind existence.

    The Intersection of Science and Religion: Exploring the Complex Relationship

    The conversation between Lex Fridman and Brian Muraresku explores the complex relationship between science and religion. While science offers a quantifiable reality, feelings and emotions are also an essential part of human experience and cannot be easily measured. Religion provides a set of ideas that give meaning, and ancient mysteries have shown that some religious experiences can be observable, testable, and falsifiable. The debate about the role of religion in society continues with some arguing that it impedes human potential while others believe that it provides value through rituals, traditions, and the ideas it propagates. Ultimately, the intersection of science and religion offers a way to identify the ultimate reality, also known as God.

    Exploring the Potential Benefits of Psychedelics on Mental Health and Spirituality

    Psychedelics, such as psilocybin and MDMA, have been shown to have significant positive effects on mental health conditions such as anxiety, depression, PTSD, and addiction. Research has also shown that a single dose of psilocybin can have a profound impact on a person's sense of meaning and spirituality. Studies continue to explore the potential benefits of these substances in treating an even wider range of mental health conditions. However, there is still much to be learned about the mechanisms behind these effects, and the language used to describe them straddles the line between science and religion. As psychedelics move towards FDA regulation, their potential impact on religious freedom is also being considered.

    Incorporating Psychedelics into Religious Practices for Spiritual Exploration

    Brian Muraresku proposes the idea of incorporating psychedelics into current religious practices, viewing it as a catalyst for spiritual investigation. He compares the use of psychedelics to Google maps for the kingdom of heaven, helping to orient the mind, body, and soul towards the irrational states that were prized throughout antiquity. However, he emphasizes the importance of integration after the psychedelic experience and suggests that other tools, such as meditation, fasting, and brain-computer interfaces, could also be essential to the religious experience. Muraresku regards shamans as scientists and high magicians of the past and future, and acknowledges the potential value of AI paired with the sacred recovery of consciousness.

    The Importance of Ritual and Mythology in Psychedelic Experiences

    The key takeaway from this section is that incorporating ritual and mythology is a crucial aspect of having a successful psychedelics experience. The author emphasizes the importance of having a lifetime of expectation and anticipation before experiencing psychedelics to fully understand and appreciate the experience. The conversation also explores the idea of incorporating AI and technology to help steer the trip in a positive direction. Additionally, the conversation touches on the idea of using psychedelics as a tool for maximizing creativity potential, but acknowledges that it may not work for everyone. Overall, the discussion highlights the need for a safe and scientific approach to exploring the potential benefits of psychedelics.

    The Rise of Psychedelics and the Decline of Organized Religion

    The rise of psychedelic substances and the decline of organized religion in society has prompted the search for new ways of finding spiritual meaning. Psychedelics can act as mind expanders and catalyzers for spiritual introspection, revealing the contents of the mind in the absence of certain experiences. With church membership at a minority and a rise in the unaffiliated or spiritual but not religious individuals, it appears that the God of old is dying. However, this does not signify the end of spirituality as new forms of spirituality will continue to emerge. One such form is the longing for connection with other intelligent beings such as aliens which has a religious aspect to it.

    Ancient Texts and Myths Reveal a Different Form of Communication with Aliens

    The UFO phenomenon may not be just about physical alien beings in nuts and bolts spaceships. Ancient texts such as Homer's epics invoke an alien intelligence and discarnate entities exist in folklore mythology across different societies. This suggests that aliens could be thoughts, ideas, or even consciousness itself communicating with us in a different form. The concept of consciousness is fundamental and difficult to understand, with the hard problem of self-awareness being an unknowable unknown. Ancient incubatory practices aimed at getting in touch with consciousness may offer insight into this fundamental aspect of human existence.

    Exploring the Engineering of Consciousness through Psychedelics and Ancient Techniques

    The conversation between Lex Fridman and Brian Muraresku explores the concept of consciousness and the possibility of engineering it. They discuss the use of psychedelics to tap into a state of awareness beyond life and death and how this could inspire the engineering of consciousness. Fridman proposes an "engineering approach" where consciousness is built by "faking it till you make it." Muraresku recommends books such as Graham Hancock's "Supernatural" and Daniel Pinchbeck's "Breaking Open the Head" which explore the potential of psychedelic compounds. Peter Kingsley's books "In the Dark Places of Wisdom" and "Reality" are also recommended, as they examine ancient techniques for exploring the irrational.

    The Meaning of Life and the Importance of Being Alive

    In a conversation with Lex Fridman, Brian Muraresku explains that the meaning of life is subjective and not quantifiable. He believes that rather than finding the meaning of life, we should strive for an experience of being alive. This experience is the primary factor in meaning-making, and it is a subjective process heavily influenced by emotions and feelings. Falling in love is surrendering to an intelligence beyond us, which can lead to encountering the divine in other people and things in our lives. Muraresku emphasizes the importance of irrational states, such as those induced by psychedelics, in shaping our experiences and perspectives.

    Recent Episodes from Lex Fridman Podcast

    #429 – Paul Rosolie: Jungle, Apex Predators, Aliens, Uncontacted Tribes, and God

    #429 – Paul Rosolie: Jungle, Apex Predators, Aliens, Uncontacted Tribes, and God
    Paul Rosolie is a naturalist, explorer, author, and founder of Junglekeepers, dedicating his life to protecting the Amazon rainforest. Support his efforts at https://junglekeepers.org Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ShipStation: https://shipstation.com/lex and use code LEX to get 60-day free trial - Yahoo Finance: https://yahoofinance.com - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get $350 off - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/paul-rosolie-2-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Paul's Instagram: https://instagram.com/paulrosolie Junglekeepers: https://junglekeepers.org Paul's Website: https://paulrosolie.com Mother of God (book): https://amzn.to/3ww2ob1 PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (12:29) - Amazon jungle (14:47) - Bushmaster snakes (26:13) - Black caiman (44:33) - Rhinos (47:47) - Anacondas (1:18:04) - Mammals (1:30:10) - Piranhas (1:41:00) - Aliens (1:58:45) - Elephants (2:10:02) - Origin of life (2:23:21) - Explorers (2:36:38) - Ayahuasca (2:45:03) - Deep jungle expedition (2:59:09) - Jane Goodall (3:01:41) - Theodore Roosevelt (3:12:36) - Alone show (3:22:23) - Protecting the rainforest (3:38:36) - Snake makes appearance (3:46:47) - Uncontacted tribes (4:00:11) - Mortality (4:01:39) - Steve Irwin (4:09:18) - God
    Lex Fridman Podcast
    enMay 15, 2024

    #428 – Sean Carroll: General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Black Holes & Aliens

    #428 – Sean Carroll: General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Black Holes & Aliens
    Sean Carroll is a theoretical physicist, author, and host of Mindscape podcast. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - HiddenLayer: https://hiddenlayer.com/lex - Cloaked: https://cloaked.com/lex and use code LexPod to get 25% off - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/sean-carroll-3-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Sean's Website: https://preposterousuniverse.com Mindscape Podcast: https://www.preposterousuniverse.com/podcast/ Sean's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@seancarroll Sean's Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/seanmcarroll Sean's Twitter: https://twitter.com/seanmcarroll Sean's Instagram: https://instagram.com/seanmcarroll Sean's Papers: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=Lfifrv8AAAAJ Sean's Books: https://amzn.to/3W7yT9N PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (11:03) - General relativity (23:22) - Black holes (28:11) - Hawking radiation (32:19) - Aliens (41:15) - Holographic principle (1:05:38) - Dark energy (1:11:38) - Dark matter (1:20:34) - Quantum mechanics (1:41:56) - Simulation (1:44:18) - AGI (1:58:42) - Complexity (2:11:25) - Consciousness (2:20:32) - Naturalism (2:24:49) - Limits of science (2:29:34) - Mindscape podcast (2:39:29) - Einstein

    #427 – Neil Adams: Judo, Olympics, Winning, Losing, and the Champion Mindset

    #427 – Neil Adams: Judo, Olympics, Winning, Losing, and the Champion Mindset
    Neil Adams is a judo world champion, 2-time Olympic silver medalist, 5-time European champion, and often referred to as the Voice of Judo. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ZipRecruiter: https://ziprecruiter.com/lex - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/neil-adams-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Neil's Instagram: https://instagram.com/naefighting Neil's YouTube: https://youtube.com/NAEffectiveFighting Neil's TikTok: https://tiktok.com/@neiladamsmbe Neil's Facebook: https://facebook.com/NeilAdamsJudo Neil's X: https://x.com/NeilAdamsJudo Neil's Website: https://naeffectivefighting.com Neil's Podcast: https://naeffectivefighting.com/podcasts/the-dojo-collective-podcast A Life in Judo (book): https://amzn.to/4d3DtfB A Game of Throws (audiobook): https://amzn.to/4aA2WeJ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (09:13) - 1980 Olympics (26:35) - Judo explained (34:40) - Winning (52:54) - 1984 Olympics (1:01:55) - Lessons from losing (1:17:37) - Teddy Riner (1:37:12) - Training in Japan (1:52:51) - Jiu jitsu (2:03:59) - Training (2:27:18) - Advice for beginners

    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs

    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs
    Edward Gibson is a psycholinguistics professor at MIT and heads the MIT Language Lab. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Yahoo Finance: https://yahoofinance.com - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/edward-gibson-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Edward's X: https://x.com/LanguageMIT TedLab: https://tedlab.mit.edu/ Edward's Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=4FsWE64AAAAJ TedLab's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@Tedlab-MIT PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (10:53) - Human language (14:59) - Generalizations in language (20:46) - Dependency grammar (30:45) - Morphology (39:20) - Evolution of languages (42:40) - Noam Chomsky (1:26:46) - Thinking and language (1:40:16) - LLMs (1:53:14) - Center embedding (2:19:42) - Learning a new language (2:23:34) - Nature vs nurture (2:30:10) - Culture and language (2:44:38) - Universal language (2:49:01) - Language translation (2:52:16) - Animal communication

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones
    Andrew Callaghan is the host of Channel 5 on YouTube, where he does street interviews with fascinating humans at the edges of society, the so-called vagrants, vagabonds, runaways, outlaws, from QAnon adherents to Phish heads to O Block residents and much more. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ShipStation: https://shipstation.com/lex and use code LEX to get 60-day free trial - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/andrew-callaghan-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Channel 5 with Andrew Callaghan: https://www.youtube.com/channel5YouTube Andrew's Instagram: https://instagram.com/andreww.me Andrew's Website: https://andrew-callaghan.com/ Andrew's Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/channel5 This Place Rules: https://www.hbo.com/movies/this-place-rules Books Mentioned: On the Road: https://amzn.to/4aLPLHi Siddhartha: https://amzn.to/49rthKz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (08:53) - Walmart (10:24) - Early life (29:14) - Hitchhiking (40:49) - Couch surfing (49:50) - Quarter Confessions (1:07:33) - Burning Man (1:22:44) - Protests (1:28:17) - Jon Stewart (1:31:13) - Fame (1:44:31) - Jan 6 (1:48:15) - QAnon (1:54:00) - Alex Jones (2:10:52) - Politics (2:20:29) - Response to allegations (2:37:28) - Channel 5 (2:43:04) - Rap (2:44:51) - O Block (2:48:47) - Crip Mac (2:51:59) - Aliens

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame
    Bassem Youssef is an Egyptian-American comedian & satirist, referred to as the Jon Stewart of the Arab World. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/bassem-youssef-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Bassem's X: https://x.com/Byoussef Bassem's Instagram: https://instagram.com/bassem Bassem's Facebook: https://facebook.com/bassemyousseftv Bassem's Website: https://bassemyoussef.xyz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:30) - Oct 7 (36:59) - Two-state solution (52:37) - Holocaust (1:00:24) - 1948 (1:09:17) - Egypt (1:23:39) - Jon Stewart (1:25:51) - Going viral during the Arab Spring (1:49:55) - Arabic vs English (2:02:18) - Sam Harris and Jihad (2:07:25) - Religion (2:26:37) - TikTok (2:31:10) - Joe Rogan (2:33:07) - Joe Biden (2:37:33) - Putin (2:39:21) - War (2:44:17) - Hope

    #423 – Tulsi Gabbard: War, Politics, and the Military Industrial Complex

    #423 – Tulsi Gabbard: War, Politics, and the Military Industrial Complex
    Tulsi Gabbard is a politician, veteran, and author of For Love of Country. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Riverside: https://creators.riverside.fm/LEX and use code LEX to get 30% off - ExpressVPN: https://expressvpn.com/lexpod to get 3 months free - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour - Notion: https://notion.com/lex Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/tulsi-gabbard-transcript EPISODE LINKS: For Love of Country (book): https://amzn.to/3VLlofM Tulsi's X: https://x.com/tulsigabbard Tulsi's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@TulsiGabbard Tulsi's Podcast: https://youtube.com/@TheTulsiGabbardShow Tulsi's Instagram: https://instagram.com/tulsigabbard Tulsi's Facebook: https://facebook.com/TulsiGabbard Tulsi's Website: https://tulsigabbard.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:14) - War in Iraq (15:00) - Battle injuries and PTSD (22:10) - War on terrorism (30:51) - War in Gaza (34:52) - War in Ukraine (38:38) - Syria (46:20) - Warmongers (55:40) - Nuclear war (1:11:08) - TikTok ban (1:23:13) - Bernie Sanders (1:28:08) - Politics (1:46:59) - Personal attacks (1:49:07) - God

    #422 – Mark Cuban: Shark Tank, DEI & Wokeism Debate, Elon Musk, Politics & Drugs

    #422 – Mark Cuban: Shark Tank, DEI & Wokeism Debate, Elon Musk, Politics & Drugs
    Mark Cuban is a businessman, investor, star of TV series Shark Tank, long-time principal owner of Dallas Mavericks, and founder of Cost Plus Drugs. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Cloaked: https://cloaked.com/lex and use code LexPod to get 25% off - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/mark-cuban-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Mark's X: https://twitter.com/mcuban Mark's Instagram: https://instagram.com/mcuban Cost Plus Drugs: https://costplusdrugs.com Shark Tank: https://abc.com/shows/shark-tank Dallas Mavericks: https://www.mavs.com PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (11:10) - Entrepreneurship (26:03) - Shark Tank (36:29) - How Mark made first billion (1:02:39) - Dallas Mavericks (1:08:05) - DEI debate (1:43:58) - Trump vs Biden (1:46:20) - Immigration (1:55:53) - Drugs and Big Pharma (2:11:53) - AI (2:16:05) - Advice for young people

    #421 – Dana White: UFC, Fighting, Khabib, Conor, Tyson, Ali, Rogan, Elon & Zuck

    #421 – Dana White: UFC, Fighting, Khabib, Conor, Tyson, Ali, Rogan, Elon & Zuck
    Dana White is the CEO and president of the UFC. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/lex to get 20% off Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/dana-white-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Dana's X: https://x.com/danawhite Dana's Instagram: https://instagram.com/danawhite Dana's Facebook: https://facebook.com/danawhite UFC's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@UFC UFC's Website: https://ufc.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:31) - Mike Tyson and early days of fighting (17:10) - Jiu jitsu (23:14) - Origin of UFC (37:25) - Joe Rogan (43:31) - Lorenzo Fertitta (45:58) - Great fighters (49:55) - Khabib vs Conor (53:01) - Jon Jones (56:03) - Conor McGregor (1:01:05) - Trump (1:06:44) - Elon vs Zuck (1:08:04) - Mike Tyson vs Jake Paul (1:10:52) - Forrest Griffin vs Stephan Bonnar (1:18:06) - Gambling (1:33:08) - Mortality

    #420 – Annie Jacobsen: Nuclear War, CIA, KGB, Aliens, Area 51, Roswell & Secrecy

    #420 – Annie Jacobsen: Nuclear War, CIA, KGB, Aliens, Area 51, Roswell & Secrecy
    Annie Jacobsen is an investigative journalist and author of "Nuclear War: A Scenario" and many other books on war, weapons, government secrecy, and national security. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - HiddenLayer: https://hiddenlayer.com/lex - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/annie-jacobsen-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Nuclear War: A Scenario (book): https://amzn.to/3THZHfr Annie's Twitter: https://twitter.com/anniejacobsen Annie's Website: https://anniejacobsen.com/ Annie's Books: https://amzn.to/3TGWyMJ Annie's Books (audio): https://adbl.co/49ZnI7c PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:37) - Nuclear war (12:21) - Launch procedure (18:00) - Deterrence (21:34) - Tactical nukes (30:59) - Nuclear submarines (33:59) - Nuclear missiles (41:10) - Nuclear football (50:17) - Missile interceptor system (54:34) - North Korea (1:01:10) - Nuclear war scenarios (1:10:02) - Warmongers (1:14:31) - President's cognitive ability (1:20:43) - Refusing orders (1:28:41) - Russia and Putin (1:33:48) - Cyberattack (1:35:09) - Ground zero of nuclear war (1:39:48) - Surviving nuclear war (1:44:06) - Nuclear winter (1:54:29) - Alien civilizations (2:00:04) - Extrasensory perception (2:13:50) - Area 51 (2:17:48) - UFOs and aliens (2:28:15) - Roswell incident (2:34:55) - CIA assassinations (2:53:47) - Navalny (2:56:12) - KGB (3:02:48) - Hitler and the atomic bomb (3:06:52) - War and human nature (3:10:17) - Hope