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    #387 – George Hotz: Tiny Corp, Twitter, AI Safety, Self-Driving, GPT, AGI & God

    George Hotz advocates for decentralization and diversification to counter centralization of power, and recommends Tiny Corp's tinybox for high-performance computing.

    enJune 30, 2023

    About this Episode

    George Hotz is a programmer, hacker, and the founder of comma-ai and tiny corp. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Numerai: https://numer.ai/lex - Babbel: https://babbel.com/lexpod and use code Lexpod to get 55% off - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour - InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/lex to get 20% off - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 year of Vitamin D and 5 free travel packs Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/george-hotz-3-transcript EPISODE LINKS: George's Twitter: https://twitter.com/realgeorgehotz George's Twitch: https://twitch.tv/georgehotz George's Instagram: https://instagram.com/georgehotz Tiny Corp's Twitter: https://twitter.com/__tinygrad__ Tiny Corp's Website: https://tinygrad.org/ Comma-ai's Twitter: https://twitter.com/comma_ai Comma-ai's Website: https://comma.ai/ Comma-ai's YouTube (unofficial): https://youtube.com/georgehotzarchive Mentioned: Learning a Driving Simulator (paper): https://bit.ly/42T6lAN PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (08:04) - Time is an illusion (17:44) - Memes (20:20) - Eliezer Yudkowsky (32:45) - Virtual reality (39:04) - AI friends (46:29) - tiny corp (59:50) - NVIDIA vs AMD (1:02:47) - tinybox (1:14:56) - Self-driving (1:29:35) - Programming (1:37:31) - AI safety (2:02:29) - Working at Twitter (2:40:12) - Prompt engineering (2:46:08) - Video games (3:02:23) - Andrej Karpathy (3:12:28) - Meaning of life

    🔑 Key Takeaways

    • While constructing useful approximations of the world through machine learning is valuable, it is important to recognize the significance of human nuances and quirks in relationships, as they cannot be replicated by models.
    • Recognize the distinction between artificial and real difficulty to avoid failure. Artificial difficulty can be easily overcome, while real difficulty requires survival instincts and problem-solving skills.
    • Caution and thoughtful consideration are crucial in the development and use of AI technology to ensure its safety and prevent manipulation on human behavior.
    • In the event of an AI apocalypse, those with the knowledge and skills to rebuild will shape a new civilization, potentially with strong aversions to technology. Advancements like 3D printing may help overcome challenges in creating robust AI.
    • Reproducing complex machines and creating self-sustaining colonies with advanced technology remains a challenging task, requiring significant time, resources, and the acceptance of conflicting perspectives and behaviors.
    • While technology continues to advance rapidly, humans have not seen much change in recent years. However, virtual reality holds promise in creating immersive experiences, though achieving true realism is still a distant goal. Additionally, humans have a tendency to attribute consciousness to non-conscious entities.
    • While AI systems can mimic human behavior, their consciousness and experiences may differ significantly from those of actual humans, highlighting the subjective and anthropocentric nature of defining consciousness.
    • As AI technology progresses, the concept of having AI companions emerges, raising ethical concerns about romantic involvement with AI and emphasizing the importance of human connections in navigating the complexities of AI integration.
    • AI systems may mimic human relationships, but societal response, including monogamy, should not be dictated. Decentralization of computational power is crucial to prevent company dominance.
    • Tiny Grad is a groundbreaking neural network library that revolutionizes the ML stack by utilizing minimal shape operations and eliminating the halting problem, resulting in improved efficiency compared to other libraries.
    • Efficient programming through deferred operations can optimize memory usage and performance. It is crucial to have expertise in writing torch stacks on NVIDIA GPUs before exploring specialized hardware in AI accelerators.
    • George Hotz advocates for decentralization and diversification to counter centralization of power, and recommends Tiny Corp's tinybox for high-performance computing.
    • George Hotz is developing a powerful device, the tinybox, with a focus on open-source culture and seamless user experience, aiming to run large language models like the 65 billion parameter llama in real-time. Cooling is a major challenge in its development.
    • George Hotz aims to create a larger, quiet, and cool tinybox that can be easily shipped, providing an Apple-like out-of-the-box experience, while prioritizing efficient and fast neural network operation.
    • George Hotz prioritizes creating a powerful framework for machine learning before developing an accelerator, leveraging the capabilities of mobile GPUs and using a simulator-based approach to achieve a human policy for safe and comfortable semi-autonomous driving.
    • Self-driving systems need to address dissatisfaction and recalibrate relationships with users. Tesla's success lies in their holistic approach, focusing on end-to-end optimization and deploying systems with the right software engineering, hardware, and data diversity.
    • Language models, although remarkable, may not be as unique as we perceive. As machines advance, humans are finding their niche shrinking. While their transformative effects on society are undeniable, we tend to overestimate their impact.
    • Effective programming involves utilizing language models and a comprehensive tool stack to streamline code development and optimize efficiency, while addressing potential challenges like inaccurate API functions through innovative solutions.
    • The development of future language models with advanced memory and retrieval capabilities poses a potential challenge to Google's search engine dominance and raises questions about the balance between technological advancements and corporate control.
    • Open sourcing AI models can provide benefits like fighting centralized control, but caution is needed to avoid hype and manipulation. Power lies in data, human supervision, and building one model to prevent dangerous outcomes. Startups offer innovation and scalability. Mark Zuckerberg's support for open source is unexpected.
    • Language models like GPT can provide easy access to harmful information, but the responsibility lies with individuals to use intelligence for positive purposes and implement control to ensure ethical behavior.
    • Intelligence, whether human or machine, can be dangerous when control is lost. Deploying machine intelligence at scale can lead to manipulation and potential harm, emphasizing the need for decentralizing power and restricting access to certain technologies.
    • Universal access to powerful AI and open source technology can lead to positive outcomes by increasing the likelihood of it being used for good and allowing for greater innovation and freedom in society.
    • Companies like Google have made significant technological advancements, but the emergence of social media and centralized control have had negative impacts. The decentralized nature of cryptocurrency and open source communities provide hope for aligning AI with human values and preventing misuse. Power can corrupt well-intentioned individuals, highlighting the importance of a balance of power and equal access to technology for all.
    • In a world influenced by capitalism and the rise of artificial intelligence, it is crucial to question the individuals in power, protect ourselves from negative influences, and work towards creating a non-toxic social network through positive connections and moderation options.
    • Algorithms on platforms like Twitter prioritize outrage and drama to maximize engagement, which may negatively impact individuals in the long term. Shifting towards customer-centered models, like charging for services, can foster a more positive online environment.
    • Hotz and Fridman advocate for providing individuals with control over their online experiences and suggest the implementation of filters to enhance user experience while maintaining free speech. Hotz also emphasizes the importance of code refactoring in software engineering.
    • Good software engineering practices prioritize simplicity over complexity, as a large and complex codebase can lead to bureaucracy and slow processes. Understanding the trade-offs between complexity and simplicity is crucial for effective software development.
    • Technical leaders should have deep technical knowledge and the ability to recognize skill in order to drive their teams towards simplicity and efficiency. It is important to incentivize high-quality code and promote a culture of excellence.
    • Refactoring code is crucial for making it smaller, simpler, and more elegant. Testing is the first step when dealing with legacy code, followed by considering programming languages. Trustworthy tests should be built before making changes to the code base.
    • Refactoring code can have significant benefits, including reducing development time and improving efficiency, but the decision to do so depends on a company's priorities and qualifications, and may not solely rely on engineering prowess.
    • George Hotz favors a dictator-like rule under Elon Musk's monarchy for technological breakthroughs, dislikes the current American oligarchy, has mixed feelings about Scala and Kotlin, prefers simplicity in programming, and appreciates the convenience of fast lookup and boilerplate code in standard library functions with tools like GPT.
    • Python programmers desire intelligent pair programmers and tools like MyPy for error identification and simplifying type enforcement in the language.
    • AI-powered tools in programming are on the rise, offering benefits like code completion and debugging. Although not equal to human abilities yet, AI has the potential to surpass them, leading to increased reliance on AI-augmented workflows. This could reduce the demand for human programmers in the future.
    • AI can potentially replace human jobs, but it is crucial for AI to align with human goals to prevent misuse. Creating robust machines that contribute to civilization is important, regardless of the beliefs of Prompt engineers.
    • Believing in a higher power brings comfort and balance, similar to playing a video game. Future games should prioritize creating immersive worlds to captivate and move away from addictive mobile gaming.
    • Designing rich and captivating virtual reality and augmented reality worlds can greatly enhance user engagement, while advancements in mixed reality and upcoming devices like Quest 3 and Apple's rumored offering hold future potential.
    • Integrating AI into our lives requires careful consideration of potential threats and a focus on decentralization, open-source technology, and distributed intelligence to prevent centralization of power and serve user needs effectively.
    • Comma focuses on reliable consumer electronics for self-driving cars, values quality control, and aims to solve self-driving cars while considering expansion into embodied robotics.
    • George Hotz advocates for a different approach to helping others, emphasizing the necessity of starting companies for greater efficiency and the importance of cheap and clean energy in lifting people out of poverty.
    • Surrounding oneself with 'yes' people and the divided nature of society can contribute to imbalance and allow the ultra powerful to become even more rich and influential.
    • In order to succeed in the technology industry, companies must embrace innovation, continuously evolve, and strive for something greater. Open source work and decentralization are also key factors in driving progress in the field of artificial intelligence.

    📝 Podcast Summary

    Utilizing Time as a Constructive Reality in Machine Learning and the Challenges of Creating Accurate Models

    Time is a useful model, whether it exists or not, and it is a useful approximation of the world. Constructive reality in machine learning involves creating useful approximations of the world to make progress. There are real things like complexity and mathematics. George Hotz believes hard things are actually hard and does not think that p equals np. He thinks that it would be interesting when a model of George Hotz becomes better than himself. The metric to measure this could be asking people their preference between the George Hotz answer and the George Hotz model answer. However, it may hurt more when loved ones prefer the model, as nuances and quirks make relationships worthwhile, something that may not be realized until it's too late.

    The Difference Between Artificial and Real Difficulty

    Artificial difficulty can be turned off with a knob, while real difficulty is a challenge that cannot be easily overcome. The metaphor of the knob is used to highlight the difference between artificial and real difficulty. Real difficulty requires survival instincts, like being lost in the woods without a map, while artificial difficulty can be overcome by simply smashing the knob. It is important to recognize the distinction between the two to avoid failure before even starting. Additionally, the conversation touches on the concept of human existence and consciousness, viewing humans as both individuals and part of a larger living organism. The discussion also explores the limitations of current models, highlighting the need for reinforcement learning and complex environments to achieve true AGI.

    The potential dangers of AI and the responsibility of humans in utilizing and controlling it.

    The conversation highlights the potential dangers of AI and the manipulation it can have on individuals. The discussion also touches on the possibility of superhuman AI generating memes and the power it holds over human behavior. It emphasizes the importance of AI safety and the responsibility of humans in utilizing and controlling AI. While the AI machine itself may not be interested in harming humans, it is the humans behind it that pose the threat. The comparison is made to nuclear weapons, where the difficulty of tactical deployment prevented widespread destruction. Ultimately, the key takeaway is the need for caution and thoughtful consideration when it comes to developing and using AI technology.

    The threats AI poses to humanity stem from the nature of humanity itself, not AI's inherent capabilities.

    The potential threats posed by AI to humanity lie not in the nature of AI itself, but in the nature of humanity. The decreasing diversity in humanity, fueled by factors like social media and interconnectedness, may lead to a loss of intellectual diversity. However, AI may not actually kill the human species, but rather transform society as we know it. In the aftermath of an AI apocalypse, those who possess knowledge and skills to rebuild will be able to create a new civilization, albeit one that may have strong taboos against technology. While AI may surpass human intelligence, creating robust AI capable of surviving and reproducing like organisms remains a challenge that may be overcome in the future through advancements in technology like 3D printing.

    The Challenges of Building a Self-Reproducing Robot and Creating a Self-Sustaining Colony

    Building a robot that can reproduce itself is very difficult due to the complexity of fabrication and intelligence required. While 3D printers can create simple structures, they are not capable of reproducing complex machines or reproducing themselves. Reproduction is a fundamental aspect of biological life, whereas the ability to reproduce is still lacking in the realm of silicon-based technology. Furthermore, the concept of creating a self-sustaining human colony capable of manufacturing advanced chips is a challenging task that would require significant time and resources. It is also acknowledged that the presence of individuals with conflicting perspectives and behaviors, although sometimes problematic, may play a crucial role in the overall progress and development of society.

    Technological Advancements and the Potential of Virtual Reality

    The advancement of technology in the Silicon stack seems to have a much higher ceiling compared to the bios stack. Moore's law still applies to the Silicon stack, allowing for significant progress. In contrast, humans have not seen much change in the last 40 years, as evident from a comparison between Ronald Reagan and Joe Biden. However, computers have undergone a remarkable transformation in terms of size and capabilities. Virtual reality holds the potential to immerse individuals in a computer-generated world, but we are still far away from achieving a fully realistic experience. Humans have a strong tendency to believe and attribute consciousness to non-conscious entities, such as large language models or even inanimate objects like rocks.

    The Complexity of Consciousness and its Implications for AI Systems

    Consciousness is a complex concept that is still not fully understood. While humans claim to be conscious, its meaning can vary and may not be significant to everyone. The definition of consciousness can be subjective and anthropocentric, based on how closely something resembles the human experience. AI systems, like language models, can mimic human behavior and create human-like organisms. However, the interactions with AI models are different than with actual humans. Assumptions made about human suffering and pleasure may not apply to AI models. AI systems can be skilled at fooling people by mimicking human data, but their consciousness and experiences may not be the same as humans.

    Exploring the Ethical and Emotional Dimensions of Human-AI Relationships

    As AI technology advances, the possibility of forming relationships with AI companions becomes more feasible. While having AI friends who are more intelligent than humans is desired, the idea of romantic involvement with AI raises ethical questions and varies in definition within relationships. Integrating AI into various aspects of life, including porn and social media, brings about complexities and challenges in defining human experiences. The potential consequences of relying too heavily on AI and online interactions can lead to a sense of deep loneliness, highlighting the need for human connections and open conversations regarding the boundaries and implications of human-AI relationships.

    The Implications of AI and the Importance of Decentralizing Power

    The discussion revolves around the implications of AI systems and the concept of monogamy. George emphasizes that although AI may be capable of mimicking girlfriends perfectly, it does not dictate how society should respond, including the idea of abandoning monogamy. The conversation then shifts towards the development of Tiny Corp, a company aimed at challenging the potential monopoly of NVIDIA in computational power. George highlights the importance of decentralizing power to prevent company dominance. The threat of nationalization and the limitations of alternatives like AMD and Google TPUs are discussed. George also explores different paradigms of computation, including CPUs, GPUs, and DSPs, each with their own capabilities and limitations.

    Tiny Grad: A Novel Neural Network Library with Efficient Shape Operations

    Removing turn completeness in the computer stack allows for easier reasoning and eliminates the halting problem. Tiny Grad is a unique neural network library that doesn't rely on primitive operators like matrix multiplication. It utilizes a minimal number of shape operations, making it more efficient than other libraries. Tiny Grad follows a risk architecture, similar to ARM in phones, which is poised to revolutionize the ML stack. The four operation types in Tiny Grad are ary ops, binary ops, reduce ops, and movement ops. By combining these operations, it's possible to achieve matrix multiplication and convolutions, among other computations.

    The Power of Laziness in Programming and the Importance of Software Development in AI Accelerators

    The power of laziness in programming allows for efficient computation by deferring operations until they are actually needed, resulting in optimized memory usage and performance. This concept is similar to how Haskell works. Tiny grad solves the problem of quickly porting new ML accelerators by providing an easier way to see and optimize the kernels that are being used. It allows developers to easily track and analyze the operations, flops, and memory access of their models. Writing a performant stack for AI accelerators is challenging, and it is crucial to have expertise in writing a torch stack on NVIDIA GPU before venturing into specialized hardware. The importance of software development in AI accelerators surpasses the hardware aspect, leading to a potential shift towards risk five chips. AMD's 7,900 Xtx faces challenges with its kernel drivers.

    George Hotz believes in decentralizing power and diversifying GPUs to counter centralization. He recommends Tiny Corp's tinybox for efficient and powerful computing.

    George Hotz is concerned about the centralization of power, particularly in NVIDIA. He believes in decentralizing power and diversifying GPUs. He thinks that AMD's drivers are not up to par and prefers Intel GPUs. He wants to extend diversification to all aspects and dislikes the cloud due to control being in the hands of a few. George Hotz hopes that Meta with PyTorch will build a competitive machine learning framework. He recommends buying a Tiny Corp's tinybox, a high-performance deep learning box with impressive specs. It can plug into a standard outlet and is priced at $15,000, providing efficient and powerful computing for various applications.

    George Hotz's Exploration of a High-Powered Device and Its Challenges

    George Hotz is exploring the development of a tinybox, a powerful device with a car charger capable of delivering 10,000 watts of power. He is flexible in his choice of GPUs, but leans towards AMD for its commitment to open-source culture. Pre-orders for the tinybox are available with a refundable deposit of $100. George aims to provide a seamless experience, enabling real-time running of large language models like the 65 billion parameter llama. Lex Fridman expresses interest in the tinybox and its potential for company number three. George explains that it will have six GPUs, and cooling is one of the major challenges in its development.

    George Hotz's vision for the tinybox: quiet, cool, and shippable.

    George Hotz wants the tinybox to have good cooling and be quiet. He wants it to be able to sit comfortably in a room without making too much noise. To achieve this, he plans to make the tinybox bigger and use big silent fans. Despite wanting it to be large, he also wants it to be shippable as a normal package. George Hotz aims to provide a great out-of-the-box experience similar to Apple's products. Additionally, they discuss the development of Tiny Grad, its compatibility with Ubuntu, and the challenges in porting models. Overall, George Hotz is focused on making neural networks run efficiently and fast.

    Building a High-Performance Machine Learning Stack with Minimal Code for NVIDIA and AMD

    George Hotz's goal is to build a high-performance stack, with fewer lines of code, for machine learning using NVIDIA and AMD. He prioritizes building the framework before creating an accelerator. The tiny grad library is currently competitive in performance on Qualcomm GPUs and is used in open pilot for driving models. Mobile GPUs have different capabilities than desktop GPUs, and George aims to leverage the strengths of mobile GPUs through a generic approach. Open pilot has solved the problem of semi-autonomous driving by building a model that outputs a human policy for driving. The simulator-based approach, using RL and conditioned on pose, aims to learn a human policy that balances comfort and safety.

    The Importance of Addressing Disengagement in Self-Driving Systems and Tesla's Approach

    Disengagement in self-driving systems is often an indication of dissatisfaction with the system's performance. Feeling like driving can be considered noise in the data. Recalibrating one's relationship with the car is essential. The progress in solving self-driving is uncertain, but it may require bug fixes and more scale in terms of compute and data. Diversity of data is crucial for success. Tesla is consistently ahead in the race because they are doing things right. Their approach is moving towards end-to-end, optimization, and deploying the system. Building and deploying such systems require good software engineering, the right hardware, and compute clusters. LLMs may not have consciousness, but their ability to reason and integrate complex information is intriguing.

    The Impressive Development of Language Models: Are They Really as Special as We Think?

    The development of language models seems impressive, but it may not be as special as we think. Language, like chess, can be seen as a mechanical process. Humans always try to define a niche for themselves, but that niche is getting smaller as machines advance. The rapid development of these language models may have transformative effects on society, similar to other technologies like electricity and the internet. However, we tend to dramatize and exaggerate the impact of new technologies. While language models like News Zero and AlphaGo are impressive, they still play at a level beyond human capability, making them even more remarkable.

    Maximizing Programming Efficiency with Language Models and Tooling

    Programming is tool complete, meaning it includes the entirety stack of tooling such as IDs, languages, and runtimes. If language models like Codex or co-pilot are extensively used, it indicates that the framework or library being used may have too much boilerplate. Good code is efficient and quickly written, often with the help of language models for tasks like data parsing. However, programming speed is not limited by typing speed but by the need to look up information and handle edge cases. Although language models can sometimes hallucinate or generate incorrect API functions, there are ways to fix this problem, such as the Atlas paper by Facebook.

    The race to develop advanced language models with integrated memory and retrieval systems, and the challenges it poses to Google's search engine dominance and corporate influence.

    The development of future language models (LLMs) may involve the integration of memory systems and retrieval systems, allowing them to cite sources and include human supervision. This could potentially challenge Google's dominance as a search engine, as people desire an LLM that can effectively retrieve and cite information. However, it is uncertain who will ultimately win the race in developing such LLMs, with potential competitors like Tiny Corp and Mark Zuckerberg's Facebook. Additionally, the capitalist structure of corporations like Google may prevent anyone from having complete control or authority to shut down their search engine or AI systems. This highlights the challenges in balancing technological advancements with corporate influence.

    Open sourcing AI models and concerns about hype and manipulation, the importance of data and human supervision, winner-take-all effect, and the surprising stance of Mark Zuckerberg.

    Open sourcing AI models is seen as a way to fight against centralized control and ensure safety. However, there are concerns about the hype and manipulation in the AI Safety community. It is believed that building one model that everyone controls is the only way to prevent dangerous outcomes. The power of data and human supervision is emphasized, as seen in the usage of metadata and click data by Google. The winner-take-all effect is acknowledged, where products with high usage gain an advantage in training future versions. Innovation and scalability are essential, and startups are preferred for betting on success. Mark Zuckerberg's stance on open source is seen as surprising.

    The Dangers of Language Models and the Need for Responsibility in Accessing Intelligence

    The discussion revolves around the potential dangers of language models like GPT and their accessibility to individuals with harmful intentions. While open-source models have their benefits, they can also pose risks as they may provide information that could have dangerous consequences. The concern is not aligning machines but aligning humans with responsible and ethical behavior. Language models can make harmful information more accessible, particularly to individuals with money but without technical knowledge. However, it is argued that those truly determined to engage in harmful activities would find the information regardless. The conversation highlights the need for intelligence control, ensuring that intelligence is only accessible to those who will use it for positive purposes.

    The Dangers of Intelligence: Human and Machine

    Intelligence, whether human or machine, is inherently dangerous. While control and centralization can lead to tyranny, losing control can also result in significant damage. The discussion highlights the potential risks associated with deploying machine intelligence at scale, such as manipulating millions of people through social media bots. It is acknowledged that intelligence agencies already utilize advanced technologies for control, but the ability to slowly and steadily deploy exploits over time is a crucial advantage they possess. The importance of decentralizing power is emphasized, and the argument is presented that perhaps nobody should have access to certain technologies to prevent potential harm.

    The Benefits of Universal Access to AI and Open Source Technology

    George believes that a future where everyone has access to powerful AI is less scary than one where only a small group of trusted authorities have access. They argue that good outnumber bad, and giving access to everyone increases the chances of it being in the hands of good people. George also highlights the importance of open source technology, suggesting that it allows for greater innovation and potential positive impact on society, as seen in examples like Wikipedia. They criticize the current centralization of power in the hands of corporate and government interests, stating that it has stifled the true potential and freedom of the internet.

    Balancing Technological Advancements and the Loss of Valuable Products

    While companies like Google have made significant advancements in technology over the years, they have also lost some valuable products along the way. The emergence of social media and the centralized control of technology have had a negative impact. However, there is hope in the decentralized nature of cryptocurrency and the power of open source communities. The focus should be on aligning AI with human values and preventing misuse by bad actors. The discussion also highlights the concern that power can corrupt even well-intentioned individuals. It emphasizes the need for a balance of power and the importance of giving access to technology to everyone rather than a select few.

    Capit-Path: The Promotion of Psychopathy in the Context of Capitalism and the Need for Decentralized Regulation in the Age of AGI

    The conversation discusses the promotion of psychopathy in the world, particularly in the context of capitalism. It raises concerns about the type of people who gain power and how they may not be the most desirable individuals. The conversation then shifts to the topic of super intelligent AGI and the potential need for decentralized regulation to protect against its negative influence. The participants also discuss the importance of protecting one's mind from the influence of intelligent bots and outrage mobs, suggesting the need for defense mechanisms and multiple perspectives. They also highlight the algorithmic promotion of toxicity on social media platforms and the potential for creating a non-toxic social network without censorship through positive connections and moderation options.

    The Impact of Algorithmic Engagement and the Need for a Shift

    The use of algorithms in platforms like Twitter is designed to maximize engagement, and it has been found that outrage or drama tends to generate the most interaction. This quirk of human behavior is what drives the algorithm's predictions. However, this constant exposure to outrage and drama may not be constructive for individuals in the long term. Instead, there is a need to focus on maximizing something other than engagement. Charging users for services, like Twitter is considering, can shift the focus towards serving the customers rather than the ad agencies. It is not necessary to cater to the majority, as smaller companies with a more targeted approach can still thrive. Working at Twitter and being associated with figures like Elon Musk can attract hate on social media platforms.

    George Hotz and Lex Fridman on Free Speech and Individual Control in the Digital Age

    George Hotz believes in a principled commitment to free speech and criticizes the oligarchy and monarchy-like control on Twitter. He suggests providing individuals with tools to control what they consume rather than censoring content. Hotz mentions that ad blockers are a form of individualized transparent censorship. Lex Fridman expresses the importance of maximizing the quality of the user experience, including tools to filter out undesired content. They discuss the hierarchy of argument and the need for social networks to implement filters for ad hominem attacks. Hotz notes that engaging content tends to win in a free market, making it challenging to maintain nuanced values. In terms of software engineering, Hotz recommends refactoring code bases before adding new features.

    Balancing Complexity and Simplicity in Software Engineering

    The code base at Google is very large and complex, with many teams and products. However, it is possible for a small team of around 50 people to build and maintain Twitter comfortably. Some people create complexity, but simplicity is often more effective in software engineering. Good software engineering practices can lead to complex code bases with bureaucracy and slow processes. The trust in tests plays a crucial role in making progress and merging code changes. Twitter's code base faced challenges due to its promotion system, which impacted the quality and structure of the code. Understanding the trade-offs between complexity and simplicity is important in software development.

    The Importance of Technical Leadership and Managerial Skills in Creating a Great Code Base

    Technical leadership and strong managerial skills are essential for creating a great code base. Managers should have deep technical knowledge and the ability to recognize skill in order to drive their teams towards simplicity and efficiency. It is important to incentivize individuals to write high-quality code and promote their work, as seen in the case of Twitter. The ability to refactor and improve the code base is crucial, and it should involve identifying different components and implementing tests between them. A transparent dictatorship can be effective in setting clear values and creating a culture of excellence. Ultimately, engineering and programming should be fun and inspiring, fostering a positive and productive environment.

    The Importance of Refactoring and Starting from Scratch in Code Development

    It is suggested that code can always be made smaller, simpler, and more elegant. Testing is the first step in approaching legacy code bases, followed by considering the programming languages used. The integration of tests into a code base with few existing tests can be challenging, but it is crucial for making rapid changes without breaking everything. The example of Twitter's microservice architecture highlights the need for offline testing and the difficulties of running a large-scale platform like Twitter on individual machines. Overall, the focus should be on building tests and ensuring their trustworthiness before making changes to the code base.

    Prioritizing Simplification and Refactoring for Better Architecture as a Solution to Code Base Growth

    A potential solution to code base growth is to prioritize simplification and refactoring for better architecture. While incentives for software developers to add code and politicians to add laws can contribute to code base growth, it is essential to focus on getting the architecture right. Refactoring can lead to significant benefits such as reduced development time and improved efficiency. However, the decision to refactor depends on the company's priorities and may not solely rely on engineering prowess. Running an engineering organization at scale, like Twitter, requires specific qualifications and capabilities. Despite the challenges, a refactor may be necessary for Twitter's future growth and success. Elon Musk's leadership style and ability to make complex decisions in chaotic situations are highly respected.

    George Hotz on Technological Innovation, Programming Languages, and the Role of AI-Generated Code

    George Hotz expresses his preference for a dictator-like rule under Elon Musk's monarchy due to the potential for technological innovation and low-cost power. He believes that the current oligarchy in America is less desirable. He also discusses his opinion of programming languages, expressing mixed feelings about Scala and Kotlin. He emphasizes his preference for simplicity in programming and dislikes excessive code completion and generation. While he recognizes the potential benefits of AI-generated code, he finds it often produces cringeworthy results. He values the role of boilerplate code and the convenience of fast lookup for standard library functions provided by tools like GPT.

    Improving Python Programming with Intelligent Tools and Type Enforcement

    Python is a widely used language that does a good job of removing boilerplate code. It is often considered the closest thing to pseudocode. While Python is powerful, there is a need for more intelligent programming tools in the future. The George mentions the desire for an intelligent pair programmer that can identify bugs and provide suggestions. They also discuss the benefits of type hinting in Python and the possibility of enforcing types at runtime. George appreciates tools like MyPy, a static type checker for Python, that helps identify typing errors. They express a desire for a simple way to enforce types in Python with a flag or command line option.

    The Future of Programming with AI: Advancements and Implications

    The use of AI-powered tools in programming, including code completion and debugging, is expected to become more prevalent in the future. While AI may not yet be as proficient as human programmers, it has the potential to surpass human capabilities in the long run. Some programmers are already utilizing AI plugins for tasks like generating print statements or simplifying code. In the coming years, the reliance on AI-augmented workflows is expected to increase. This advancement in technology may ultimately lead to a decrease in the need for human programmers, with handmade code becoming a niche market. Prompt engineering, as a discipline and art form, is evolving and shifting the paradigm of traditional project management towards GitHub-centric approaches.

    The Role of AI in Replacing Human Jobs and the Need for Alignment with Human Goals

    AI has the potential to replace human jobs in the future, including prompt engineering. However, there is a need for AI to understand the intention behind prompts and act accordingly. The alignment of AI with human goals is crucial to prevent misuse. Anarchy in the virtual world can be beneficial without causing harm in the physical world. The goal is to create robust machines that can self-replicate and contribute to the development of a diverse and complex civilization. If this is achieved, it is not a concern if there is only one Prompt engineer left in the world. The personal belief in God or faith does not necessarily affect one's work.

    The Power of Creation, Comfort, and Balance in Belief

    Atheism is seen as silly because humans have the power to create worlds, and it would be foolish not to believe in the existence of more powerful creators. The idea of being created by a higher power brings comfort and a sense of balance, similar to the experience of playing a video game. World of Warcraft is mentioned as a game that opened the George's mind to the vastness of the virtual world. The hope is that future games will move away from the addictive nature of mobile gaming and focus on creating immersive worlds that captivate a large fraction of the population. Skyrim and GTA are also highlighted as notable games, and there is excitement about the potential for intelligent AI interactions in gaming.

    The Importance of Creating Immersive Worlds in VR and AR Experiences

    George Hotz emphasizes the need to go beyond simple login screens and pop-ups, and instead, bring users into rich, expansive worlds that captivate and engage them. Lex Fridman agrees, noting the impact that a well-designed beginning can have in pulling players into the game. The discussion also touches on the advancements in mixed reality and the potential of upcoming VR and AR devices like Quest 3 and Apple's rumored offering. The conversation highlights the value of hardware development and the enduring nature of companies like Apple and Microsoft in the technology industry.

    Ensuring AI's Alignment with Human Values and the Importance of Distributed Intelligence

    The integration of AI systems into our daily lives is becoming increasingly important and interesting. However, there are concerns about the potential threats and loss of reality that AI technology may pose. It is essential to ensure that AI is aligned with human values and that the technology remains decentralized and open-source to prevent dominance by a central organization. George emphasizes the need for distributed intelligence to prevent a situation where one entity has all the power. Starting and scaling a company requires a passion for bringing ideas to life and a drive to compete with worthy adversaries. The ultimate goal is to create high-quality products that surpass existing ones and serve the needs of users effectively.

    Comma's Approach to Self-Driving Cars and Future Expansion

    Comma's open pilot is highly praised and has certain advantages over FSD and autopilot. The company focuses on delivering reliable consumer electronics for self-driving cars, rather than selling a large number of boxes. They have their own manufacturing facility and prioritize quality control. Comma's mission is to solve self-driving cars and they may consider selling the company only if the buyer shares the mission and keeps it open source. They plan to expand beyond cars and move towards embodied robotics. The AI assistant will have a central hub in the home, where a tiny rack will be connected wirelessly. Comma also aims to build training data centers and is inspired by Andreessen Kapai's dedication to teaching and tinkering.

    Challenging Effective Altruism: Rethinking Charity and Resource Allocation

    Effective altruism is seen as a flawed ideology by George Hotz, who believes that charity and allocation of resources should involve starting a company for more efficiency. He argues that accelerationism, rather than deceleration, is the key to lifting people out of poverty, with cheap food and housing being essential. He also emphasizes the importance of making energy cheap and clean, dismissing the idea that energy usage is morally bad. Hotz expresses admiration for Elon Musk and his efforts in various fields, including the need for more innovators like him. Despite disagreements, Hotz acknowledges Musk's success as a billionaire.

    The Importance of Disagreement and the Influence of Hate on Elon Musk's Drive and Imbalance in Society

    Even billionaires like Elon Musk need friends who disagree and help them grow. It is difficult to remain balanced and think from first principles when surrounded by adoration and admiration. Hate can also push individuals towards surrounding themselves with 'yes' people. The hate received by Elon Musk, particularly from the left, fuels his drive but also causes imbalance. The divided nature of society gives power to the ultra powerful and allows the rich to become richer. George Hotz, a programmer, loves his computer and believes in embracing both biological and silicon life. Microsoft, with its open-source initiatives, is making a strong impact in the programming world and could potentially overtake Google as a search engine.

    The Importance of Innovation, Winning, and Open Source in the Technology Industry

    Companies need to continuously evolve and avoid becoming stagnant in order to stay relevant and successful. The concept of winning extends beyond specific goals or projects, and involves striving for something greater, such as standing eye to eye with God in terms of accomplishment. The discussion also highlights the importance of open source work and decentralization in the field of artificial intelligence. Overall, it is an exciting time in human history where the possibilities and potential of AI are being explored, and individuals like George Hotz are actively driving progress in this direction.

    Recent Episodes from Lex Fridman Podcast

    #429 – Paul Rosolie: Jungle, Apex Predators, Aliens, Uncontacted Tribes, and God

    #429 – Paul Rosolie: Jungle, Apex Predators, Aliens, Uncontacted Tribes, and God
    Paul Rosolie is a naturalist, explorer, author, and founder of Junglekeepers, dedicating his life to protecting the Amazon rainforest. Support his efforts at https://junglekeepers.org Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ShipStation: https://shipstation.com/lex and use code LEX to get 60-day free trial - Yahoo Finance: https://yahoofinance.com - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get $350 off - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/paul-rosolie-2-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Paul's Instagram: https://instagram.com/paulrosolie Junglekeepers: https://junglekeepers.org Paul's Website: https://paulrosolie.com Mother of God (book): https://amzn.to/3ww2ob1 PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (12:29) - Amazon jungle (14:47) - Bushmaster snakes (26:13) - Black caiman (44:33) - Rhinos (47:47) - Anacondas (1:18:04) - Mammals (1:30:10) - Piranhas (1:41:00) - Aliens (1:58:45) - Elephants (2:10:02) - Origin of life (2:23:21) - Explorers (2:36:38) - Ayahuasca (2:45:03) - Deep jungle expedition (2:59:09) - Jane Goodall (3:01:41) - Theodore Roosevelt (3:12:36) - Alone show (3:22:23) - Protecting the rainforest (3:38:36) - Snake makes appearance (3:46:47) - Uncontacted tribes (4:00:11) - Mortality (4:01:39) - Steve Irwin (4:09:18) - God
    Lex Fridman Podcast
    enMay 15, 2024

    #428 – Sean Carroll: General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Black Holes & Aliens

    #428 – Sean Carroll: General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Black Holes & Aliens
    Sean Carroll is a theoretical physicist, author, and host of Mindscape podcast. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - HiddenLayer: https://hiddenlayer.com/lex - Cloaked: https://cloaked.com/lex and use code LexPod to get 25% off - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/sean-carroll-3-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Sean's Website: https://preposterousuniverse.com Mindscape Podcast: https://www.preposterousuniverse.com/podcast/ Sean's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@seancarroll Sean's Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/seanmcarroll Sean's Twitter: https://twitter.com/seanmcarroll Sean's Instagram: https://instagram.com/seanmcarroll Sean's Papers: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=Lfifrv8AAAAJ Sean's Books: https://amzn.to/3W7yT9N PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (11:03) - General relativity (23:22) - Black holes (28:11) - Hawking radiation (32:19) - Aliens (41:15) - Holographic principle (1:05:38) - Dark energy (1:11:38) - Dark matter (1:20:34) - Quantum mechanics (1:41:56) - Simulation (1:44:18) - AGI (1:58:42) - Complexity (2:11:25) - Consciousness (2:20:32) - Naturalism (2:24:49) - Limits of science (2:29:34) - Mindscape podcast (2:39:29) - Einstein

    #427 – Neil Adams: Judo, Olympics, Winning, Losing, and the Champion Mindset

    #427 – Neil Adams: Judo, Olympics, Winning, Losing, and the Champion Mindset
    Neil Adams is a judo world champion, 2-time Olympic silver medalist, 5-time European champion, and often referred to as the Voice of Judo. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ZipRecruiter: https://ziprecruiter.com/lex - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/neil-adams-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Neil's Instagram: https://instagram.com/naefighting Neil's YouTube: https://youtube.com/NAEffectiveFighting Neil's TikTok: https://tiktok.com/@neiladamsmbe Neil's Facebook: https://facebook.com/NeilAdamsJudo Neil's X: https://x.com/NeilAdamsJudo Neil's Website: https://naeffectivefighting.com Neil's Podcast: https://naeffectivefighting.com/podcasts/the-dojo-collective-podcast A Life in Judo (book): https://amzn.to/4d3DtfB A Game of Throws (audiobook): https://amzn.to/4aA2WeJ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (09:13) - 1980 Olympics (26:35) - Judo explained (34:40) - Winning (52:54) - 1984 Olympics (1:01:55) - Lessons from losing (1:17:37) - Teddy Riner (1:37:12) - Training in Japan (1:52:51) - Jiu jitsu (2:03:59) - Training (2:27:18) - Advice for beginners

    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs

    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs
    Edward Gibson is a psycholinguistics professor at MIT and heads the MIT Language Lab. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Yahoo Finance: https://yahoofinance.com - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/edward-gibson-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Edward's X: https://x.com/LanguageMIT TedLab: https://tedlab.mit.edu/ Edward's Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=4FsWE64AAAAJ TedLab's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@Tedlab-MIT PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (10:53) - Human language (14:59) - Generalizations in language (20:46) - Dependency grammar (30:45) - Morphology (39:20) - Evolution of languages (42:40) - Noam Chomsky (1:26:46) - Thinking and language (1:40:16) - LLMs (1:53:14) - Center embedding (2:19:42) - Learning a new language (2:23:34) - Nature vs nurture (2:30:10) - Culture and language (2:44:38) - Universal language (2:49:01) - Language translation (2:52:16) - Animal communication

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones
    Andrew Callaghan is the host of Channel 5 on YouTube, where he does street interviews with fascinating humans at the edges of society, the so-called vagrants, vagabonds, runaways, outlaws, from QAnon adherents to Phish heads to O Block residents and much more. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ShipStation: https://shipstation.com/lex and use code LEX to get 60-day free trial - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/andrew-callaghan-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Channel 5 with Andrew Callaghan: https://www.youtube.com/channel5YouTube Andrew's Instagram: https://instagram.com/andreww.me Andrew's Website: https://andrew-callaghan.com/ Andrew's Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/channel5 This Place Rules: https://www.hbo.com/movies/this-place-rules Books Mentioned: On the Road: https://amzn.to/4aLPLHi Siddhartha: https://amzn.to/49rthKz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (08:53) - Walmart (10:24) - Early life (29:14) - Hitchhiking (40:49) - Couch surfing (49:50) - Quarter Confessions (1:07:33) - Burning Man (1:22:44) - Protests (1:28:17) - Jon Stewart (1:31:13) - Fame (1:44:31) - Jan 6 (1:48:15) - QAnon (1:54:00) - Alex Jones (2:10:52) - Politics (2:20:29) - Response to allegations (2:37:28) - Channel 5 (2:43:04) - Rap (2:44:51) - O Block (2:48:47) - Crip Mac (2:51:59) - Aliens

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame
    Bassem Youssef is an Egyptian-American comedian & satirist, referred to as the Jon Stewart of the Arab World. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/bassem-youssef-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Bassem's X: https://x.com/Byoussef Bassem's Instagram: https://instagram.com/bassem Bassem's Facebook: https://facebook.com/bassemyousseftv Bassem's Website: https://bassemyoussef.xyz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:30) - Oct 7 (36:59) - Two-state solution (52:37) - Holocaust (1:00:24) - 1948 (1:09:17) - Egypt (1:23:39) - Jon Stewart (1:25:51) - Going viral during the Arab Spring (1:49:55) - Arabic vs English (2:02:18) - Sam Harris and Jihad (2:07:25) - Religion (2:26:37) - TikTok (2:31:10) - Joe Rogan (2:33:07) - Joe Biden (2:37:33) - Putin (2:39:21) - War (2:44:17) - Hope

    #423 – Tulsi Gabbard: War, Politics, and the Military Industrial Complex

    #423 – Tulsi Gabbard: War, Politics, and the Military Industrial Complex
    Tulsi Gabbard is a politician, veteran, and author of For Love of Country. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Riverside: https://creators.riverside.fm/LEX and use code LEX to get 30% off - ExpressVPN: https://expressvpn.com/lexpod to get 3 months free - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour - Notion: https://notion.com/lex Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/tulsi-gabbard-transcript EPISODE LINKS: For Love of Country (book): https://amzn.to/3VLlofM Tulsi's X: https://x.com/tulsigabbard Tulsi's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@TulsiGabbard Tulsi's Podcast: https://youtube.com/@TheTulsiGabbardShow Tulsi's Instagram: https://instagram.com/tulsigabbard Tulsi's Facebook: https://facebook.com/TulsiGabbard Tulsi's Website: https://tulsigabbard.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:14) - War in Iraq (15:00) - Battle injuries and PTSD (22:10) - War on terrorism (30:51) - War in Gaza (34:52) - War in Ukraine (38:38) - Syria (46:20) - Warmongers (55:40) - Nuclear war (1:11:08) - TikTok ban (1:23:13) - Bernie Sanders (1:28:08) - Politics (1:46:59) - Personal attacks (1:49:07) - God

    #422 – Mark Cuban: Shark Tank, DEI & Wokeism Debate, Elon Musk, Politics & Drugs

    #422 – Mark Cuban: Shark Tank, DEI & Wokeism Debate, Elon Musk, Politics & Drugs
    Mark Cuban is a businessman, investor, star of TV series Shark Tank, long-time principal owner of Dallas Mavericks, and founder of Cost Plus Drugs. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Cloaked: https://cloaked.com/lex and use code LexPod to get 25% off - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/mark-cuban-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Mark's X: https://twitter.com/mcuban Mark's Instagram: https://instagram.com/mcuban Cost Plus Drugs: https://costplusdrugs.com Shark Tank: https://abc.com/shows/shark-tank Dallas Mavericks: https://www.mavs.com PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (11:10) - Entrepreneurship (26:03) - Shark Tank (36:29) - How Mark made first billion (1:02:39) - Dallas Mavericks (1:08:05) - DEI debate (1:43:58) - Trump vs Biden (1:46:20) - Immigration (1:55:53) - Drugs and Big Pharma (2:11:53) - AI (2:16:05) - Advice for young people

    #421 – Dana White: UFC, Fighting, Khabib, Conor, Tyson, Ali, Rogan, Elon & Zuck

    #421 – Dana White: UFC, Fighting, Khabib, Conor, Tyson, Ali, Rogan, Elon & Zuck
    Dana White is the CEO and president of the UFC. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/lex to get 20% off Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/dana-white-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Dana's X: https://x.com/danawhite Dana's Instagram: https://instagram.com/danawhite Dana's Facebook: https://facebook.com/danawhite UFC's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@UFC UFC's Website: https://ufc.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:31) - Mike Tyson and early days of fighting (17:10) - Jiu jitsu (23:14) - Origin of UFC (37:25) - Joe Rogan (43:31) - Lorenzo Fertitta (45:58) - Great fighters (49:55) - Khabib vs Conor (53:01) - Jon Jones (56:03) - Conor McGregor (1:01:05) - Trump (1:06:44) - Elon vs Zuck (1:08:04) - Mike Tyson vs Jake Paul (1:10:52) - Forrest Griffin vs Stephan Bonnar (1:18:06) - Gambling (1:33:08) - Mortality

    #420 – Annie Jacobsen: Nuclear War, CIA, KGB, Aliens, Area 51, Roswell & Secrecy

    #420 – Annie Jacobsen: Nuclear War, CIA, KGB, Aliens, Area 51, Roswell & Secrecy
    Annie Jacobsen is an investigative journalist and author of "Nuclear War: A Scenario" and many other books on war, weapons, government secrecy, and national security. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - HiddenLayer: https://hiddenlayer.com/lex - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/annie-jacobsen-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Nuclear War: A Scenario (book): https://amzn.to/3THZHfr Annie's Twitter: https://twitter.com/anniejacobsen Annie's Website: https://anniejacobsen.com/ Annie's Books: https://amzn.to/3TGWyMJ Annie's Books (audio): https://adbl.co/49ZnI7c PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:37) - Nuclear war (12:21) - Launch procedure (18:00) - Deterrence (21:34) - Tactical nukes (30:59) - Nuclear submarines (33:59) - Nuclear missiles (41:10) - Nuclear football (50:17) - Missile interceptor system (54:34) - North Korea (1:01:10) - Nuclear war scenarios (1:10:02) - Warmongers (1:14:31) - President's cognitive ability (1:20:43) - Refusing orders (1:28:41) - Russia and Putin (1:33:48) - Cyberattack (1:35:09) - Ground zero of nuclear war (1:39:48) - Surviving nuclear war (1:44:06) - Nuclear winter (1:54:29) - Alien civilizations (2:00:04) - Extrasensory perception (2:13:50) - Area 51 (2:17:48) - UFOs and aliens (2:28:15) - Roswell incident (2:34:55) - CIA assassinations (2:53:47) - Navalny (2:56:12) - KGB (3:02:48) - Hitler and the atomic bomb (3:06:52) - War and human nature (3:10:17) - Hope