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    #378 – Anna Frebel: Origin and Evolution of the Universe, Galaxies, and Stars

    The study of the thorium and uranium abundance in stars helps to shed light on the rapid neutron capture process that created heavy elements and how the universe evolved into the complex and beautiful place we know today.

    enMay 18, 2023

    About this Episode

    Anna Frebel is an astronomer and astrophysicist at MIT. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Hexclad Cookware: https://hexclad.com/lex and use code LEX to get 10% off - Numerai: https://numer.ai/lex - House of Macadamias: https://houseofmacadamias.com/lex and use code LEX to get 20% off your first order EPISODE LINKS: Anna's Twitter: https://twitter.com/annafrebel Anna's Instagram: https://instagram.com/annafrebel Anna's Book - Searching for the Oldest Stars: https://amzn.to/3pi2Ci6 PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (05:26) - First elements (12:35) - Milky Way (16:11) - Alien worlds (19:16) - Protogalaxies (24:29) - Black holes (29:27) - Stellar archeology (38:42) - Oldest stars (46:32) - Metal-poor stars (1:02:05) - Neutron capture (1:07:01) - Neutron stars (1:12:30) - Dwarf galaxies (1:17:10) - Star observation (1:45:27) - James Webb Space Telescope (1:51:17) - Future of space observation (1:54:26) - Age of the universe (2:07:34) - Most beautiful idea in astronomy (2:11:23) - Advice for young people (2:20:17) - Meaning of life

    🔑 Key Takeaways

    • Annabell uses the oldest surviving stars to understand the conditions of the early universe. Explosions of massive stars led to the formation of smaller stars like the sun. Heavier elements appeared around 100-300 million years after the Big Bang.
    • Through advanced cosmological techniques, we have learned how galaxies grow hierarchically by absorbing smaller ones. The Milky Way is a spiral disc galaxy with most of its stars and material in the disc, making exploration from Earth possible.
    • Our understanding of star and planet formation is limited, but the James Webb Space Telescope could lead to surprising discoveries. The process is diverse and complex, and the role of black holes in galaxy formation remains a major topic of research.
    • Observational cosmology through advanced telescopes like JWST is helping scientists understand the formation and evolution of galaxies, including the onset of early super massive black holes. Collaboration between scientific fields is key to solving complex problems.
    • Stellar archeology studies old stars to learn about the chemical evolution of the universe, including the earliest generations of stars. It complements observational cosmology and simulations to provide multiple approaches to understand the universe.
    • All elements on the periodic table come from supernova explosions and other processes. Heavy elements are not made through fusion but through neutron capture processes. Observing the chemical composition of stars can unveil the early universe's processes and events.
    • Early universe stars give hints about special events and origins through their chemical makeup and movement. Undergraduates can participate in research, and it's a scientist's job to interpret data.
    • Studying the chemical composition of metal poor stars can reveal their age and generation, providing insight into the early universe. Scientific discoveries require boldness, experience, and a 3D perspective, as well as the power of storytelling.
    • Two newly discovered stars with unusual features challenged previous theories of supernova explosions and shed light on the nature of the universe's first stars. This discovery raises questions and will undoubtedly fuel further research into early galaxy formation.
    • Carbon played a crucial role in the formation of the first stars and the evolution of the universe, ultimately leading to the development of humans. Carbon also has amazing properties demonstrated by Millie Dresselhaus.
    • The study of the thorium and uranium abundance in stars helps to shed light on the rapid neutron capture process that created heavy elements and how the universe evolved into the complex and beautiful place we know today.
    • Neutron stars merging can create heavy elements through the R process, and studying the environmental information of dwarf galaxies that contain these elements can enhance our understanding of the origins of heavy elements in the universe.
    • Research on ancient stars in ultra faint dwarf galaxies provides valuable information on early universe processes and environmental factors. Powerful telescopes are essential, and astronomers commonly work long nights conducting observations.
    • Being personally present while observing stars and galaxies allows astronomers to escape distractions and appreciate the unity between nature and humanity, leading to a deeper understanding of the universe.
    • Humans are still in the beginning stages of exploring the universe, and technology like spectroscopy has allowed us to discover ancient stars and gain insight into the origins of the universe.
    • Astronomers analyze the chemical composition of stars using spectrographs to uncover patterns and identify unique characteristics. This method has led to important discoveries about the universe and may result in even more exciting finds.
    • Analyzing spectra of stars in the sky is a painstaking process, but Anna Frebel and her team developed a new technique to successfully detect signs of low metal city stars using images taken with narrow filters.
    • Resilience and patience are key in astronomy as unpredictable events can lead to groundbreaking discoveries. Future telescopes like James Webb's space telescope will enhance detection precision.
    • Researchers studying the first billion years of the universe use metal-poor stars to gain insights. Taking a hands-on approach and acknowledging outliers improves data quality, while technology advances will shape the future of the field.
    • Discovering more metal-poor stars is not enough, filling in new details and using new search techniques is necessary for a deeper understanding of our universe. Math and physics can be correct but must make sense for true understanding.
    • Mathematics can go beyond the limitations of physics and explore the origins of the universe. It reveals the early chemical evolution and contributions of women in the study of stars.
    • Women such as Annie Jump Cannon and Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin made significant strides in stellar astronomy, despite facing discrimination and obstacles. Their legacies should be acknowledged and celebrated.
    • Follow your passions, trust your knowledge, and pursue one thing wholeheartedly to become an expert and excel in it. A fulfilling life is often found in a singular pursuit.
    • Don't be afraid to take risks and commit to something meaningful. Embrace hard work and challenges, trust your instincts, and use art to make science accessible and human. Leave a positive legacy for future generations.
    • Anna Frebel emphasizes the importance of using art to convey the human struggles and pursuit of answers in scientific discovery. By studying ancient stars, we can uncover the secrets of our origins and better understand the evolution of the universe and ourselves.

    📝 Podcast Summary

    Studying the Oldest Stars to Trace the Evolution of the Milky Way.

    Annabell, an astrophysicist from M I T, studies the oldest stars in the Milky Way to analyze the chemical and physical conditions of the early universe and trace the formation and evolution of our galaxy. The universe was mostly made of hydrogen, helium, and tiny amounts of lithium after the Big Bang, making it hard to form stars or any structure. The very first stars that formed were massive stars, exploding after a few million years, providing the heavier elements to the universe, marking a critical transition. These explosions led to the formation of small stars such as the sun, with long lifetimes, allowing Annabell to analyze the oldest surviving stars to study the early universe's conditions. The universe is 13.8 billion years old, and the timeline of the earliest clumps of heavier elements is 100-300 million years after the Big Bang.

    The Formation and Growth of Galaxies and the Milky Way

    The estimate of the formation of the earliest stars and galaxies has mostly converged due to more precise techniques used in precision cosmology, such as mapping out the cosmic microwave background and gravitational waves. Galaxies grow hierarchically by absorbing smaller neighbors, and the old stars are found in the outskirts while the new stars are closer to the middle of the galaxy. The Milky Way is a spiral disc galaxy that contains 200 to 400 billion stars, with most of the material and stars in the disc. Looking at the night sky, the Milky Way band is the inner spiral arm, and the next inner spiral arm is backlit by the galactic center, making it look different in the southern hemisphere. While it may be sad that humans may never travel there, exploring space from our vantage point with telescopes and sensors is a possibility.

    Exploring the Mysteries of Star and Planet Formation.

    The universe is vast and varied, with potentially endless possibilities for life forms and planetary conditions. However, our understanding of both star and planet formation is still limited, with the dynamics of the clumping process and the role of supermassive black holes in galaxy formation remaining major research topics. While technology and extended lifetimes may reduce our need for patience in exploring these mysteries, the subtleties of diversity in formation processes and the chicken-or-egg problem of galaxy-black hole formation continue to challenge astronomers. The James Webb Space Telescope offers hope for uncovering surprising new results in the ongoing quest to understand the universe.

    Advancements in Telescopes and the Study of Black Holes in Dwarf Galaxies

    Observational cosmology through advanced telescopes like JWST promise to shed light on the formation and evolution of galaxies, including the onset of early super massive black holes. Dwarf galaxies have been studied and found to not contain black holes, indicating the presence of bigger structures like proto-galaxies. However, probing further into the dynamics and formation of these structures becomes increasingly difficult as systems become smaller and dimmer. Theoretical physics and experimental astrophysics are two different flavors of the same mystery around black holes and astronomical phenomena. Collaboration and communication between different scientific fields can lead to big discoveries when tackling complex problems.

    Understanding the Universe through Old, Efficient, and Preserved Stars

    Stellar archeology is the study of old stars in the universe to understand their chemical composition and the early stages of evolution. These small stars are highly efficient and have burned hydrogen to helium for billions of years, preserving the information from the Big Bang to present day in their outer atmosphere. By observing these stars, scientists can learn about the chemical evolution of the universe and determine when they formed as some of the earliest generations of stars. Stellar archeology complements observational cosmology and simulation in helping to understand the universe from different approaches.

    The Origin of Elements and Their Connection to Stars

    Over time, all the elements in the periodic table have been built up through supernova explosions and other processes, creating heavier and more complex elements which are the 'spice of life'. The sun was formed from a gas cloud that was enriched by roughly thousand generations of supernova explosions, leading to its chemical composition along with the planets. Stars carry the signature from all their progenitor events, and by observing their chemical composition, we can unravel the processes and events that occurred in the early universe. Heavy elements are not fusion-made but are typically made through neutron capture processes, with supernova-made elements being very good seed nuclei. It is possible to estimate the number of generations that resulted in these stars by observing the amounts of heavy elements present.

    Clues from Early Universe Stars

    Stars in the early universe provide clues to special events and their origins through chemical and kinematic signatures. Low abundances in heavy elements suggest they must have occurred early on or in special environments. Retrograde motion of stars is a clear sign of accretion suggesting they came into the galaxy from somewhere else, most likely early on in the proto galaxy. Undergraduates can be integrated into the research process with a structured and organized framework. A scientist's job is to find the story in the numbers and interpret the results.

    Anna Frebel on the Discovery of the Oldest, Chemically Pristine Stars

    Anna Frebel discusses the discovery of the oldest stars and the importance of finding chemically pristine ones. These metal poor stars give us a glimpse into the early universe before elements were fully formed. By studying the chemical abundance of the stars, researchers can determine their generation and age. Anna emphasizes the importance of storytelling in scientific discoveries and how it requires boldness, experience, and an ability to see the universe in 3D. She also shares her excitement for teaching a specialty class on the topic and having eight women sign up who were so passionate about it that they decided to try and publish their work.

    The Discovery of Stars with Iron Deficiency and High Carbon Levels

    Anna Frebel discusses the discovery of two significant stars, HT 1327 and HE 2359-2844, which were important to understanding the nature of the very first stars in the universe. These stars were iron deficient and had high levels of carbon, indicating that they must have exploded in a different way than previously thought. Theoretical models were used to explain this and a fallback mechanism was proposed, where some of the material falls back onto a black hole during a supernova explosion. This discovery spurs further research into the first stars and their implications for early proto galaxies.

    The Importance of Carbon in the Evolution of the Universe

    Carbon is a crucial element in the universe and played a pivotal role in the formation of the first stars, leading to the creation of low-mass stars and ultimately, the development of humans. The lower the iron abundance of the stars, the higher the carbon abundance, making it a key element in the evolution of the universe. Millie Dresselhaus, a material scientist, pioneered carbon nano work and demonstrated the amazing properties of carbon. We are made of stardust and it is a mystery how so much had to happen to create the complexity of the universe we see today, a testament to the wonder and beauty of the cosmos.

    Understanding the Chemical Evolution of the Universe through Uranium and Thorium

    The chemical evolution of the universe facilitated biological evolution on Earth. The increasing complexity and beauty observed in the universe suggest a momentum towards such attributes. Studying the early universe through measurement of thorium and uranium abundance in stars can reveal important information about the rapid neutron capture process that created heavy elements. The r process creates heavy, neutron-rich nuclei through bombardment and decay in a timescale of just two seconds. These processes provide insight into the origin of heavy elements and the formation of the universe.

    Neutron Star Mergers and the Origin of Heavy Elements in Dwarf Galaxies

    Neutron star mergers are one site where the R process for creating heavy elements occurs, and the collision of two neutron stars creates a super neutron star and produces a gravitational wave signature and an electromagnetic counterpart. Reticulum 2, an ancient dwarf galaxy orbiting the Milky Way, has stars with the signature of the R process, indicating that a neutron star merger occurred and polluted the gas from which the stars formed. Environmental information from dwarf galaxies helps us understand the origins of heavy elements in the universe.

    Studying Ancient Stars in Dwarf Galaxies for Early Universe Insights

    Researchers can study ancient stars in dwarf galaxies that were not consumed by the Milky Way, helping to establish constraints on early universe processes. These ultra faint dwarf galaxies, consisting of just a few thousand stars, were unable to continue forming stars after being heated up and losing their gas during reionization. Studying these stars requires powerful telescopes, such as the 6.5 meter Magellan telescopes in Chile, and yields crucial information on environmental factors, including site information. While the data on stars in the Milky Way is better due to their brightness and proximity, data on stars in dwarf galaxies provides valuable information on early universe processes and constraints. Observations are often carried out all night long, making for late nights for astronomers.

    The Importance of Active Data Collection in Astronomy

    Astronomers must actively collect data from the universe, as it is their only experiment. Despite the convenience of staff-operated observatories, being personally present to witness the magical environment creates a feeling of belonging to the universe. While observing stars and galaxies for hours, the astronomer is focused solely on data collection and can escape distractions from the outside world. The dark skies and bright stars provide a serene and breathtaking view, reminding astronomers of the unity between nature and humanity. By taking an active role in data collection, astronomers are able to appreciate and understand the universe on a deeper level.

    The Exploration and Discovery of the Universe through Spectroscopy

    Humans are in the early stages of exploration and thousands of years from now we could be exploring the vast unknown of the universe. The discovery of life, even in the form of bacteria or dead matter, would confirm that life exists in various environmental conditions, and challenge our human-centric perspective. Spectroscopy allows astronomers to analyze the starlight and determine which elements and how much of each element is present in a star. This technology has led to the discovery of ancient stars and provides insight into the origins of our universe.

    Using spectrographs to discover the secrets of stars

    Astronomers like Anna Frebel use spectrographs to determine the chemical composition of stars and search for unique patterns in their spectra. This helps them identify stars with low iron abundance or other interesting characteristics that may be worth further observation. The process is tedious and time-consuming, but has led to important discoveries about the universe. By analyzing the spectra of multiple stars, astronomers can identify patterns and create a population of similar stars, potentially leading to even more discoveries. Remote observing and telescopes with high resolution spectrograph capabilities make the process more efficient, but the search for new stars and their secrets remains a challenging and exciting pursuit for astronomers.

    Anna Frebel Discovers Low Metal City Stars

    Anna Frebel's work involves discovering low metal city stars by analyzing spectra of stars in the sky, which requires painstaking work and using approximations to find high resolution spectra. She developed a new technique using images of stars in the sky taken with narrow filters to detect signs of low metal city stars successfully. However, finding these stars and getting data to calculate their iron lines is a challenge due to noise. The discovery of he 1327 was one of the most exciting moments for Anna and her team. They often have false positives and need to make sure their findings are valid before continuing the observation.

    Discovering the First R-Process Galaxy: Anna Frebel's Journey

    Anna Frebel shares her experience in discovering the first R-process (rapid neutron capture) galaxy and the serendipitous nature of the discovery. Despite facing challenges such as bad weather and poor data quality, the team managed to detect the enhancement of heavy elements due to the extreme nature of the absorption lines in the data, leading to the discovery. Frebel also expresses excitement for future telescopes like James Webb's space telescope that would enhance the precision of detecting celestial objects and events. She emphasizes the importance of resilience and patience in astronomy, where unpredictable events can lead to surprising discoveries.

    Exploring the Early Universe through Stellar Archeology

    Stellar archeology is a rapidly growing field that explores the first billion years of the universe. Anna Frebel and her colleagues use different methods to understand the earliest galaxies and systems. Metal-poor stars hold the key to unlocking insights into the early universe, and every observation contributes to the cumulative knowledge. By taking a hands-on approach and observing stars individually, the quality of data and interpretations is improved. While big data and statistical analysis have their place, it is essential to formulate the right questions and acknowledge the outliers to achieve quality results. The future of the field will undoubtedly be shaped by large spectroscopic surveys and other advancements in technology.

    The Next Level of Discovery for Metal-Poor Stars

    Anna Frebel discusses the future of discoveries in the field of metal poor stars and how filling in the details is the next level of discovery. While individual discoveries are important, discovering 50 or 100 more of them will not move the needle. Instead, new search techniques and surveys that allow for discovering stars two magnitudes up and new details will lead to the next level of discovery. Discoveries become less and less when they are easy. Scientists need to make discoveries that make it airtight and make them say they fully understand something. Discoveries need to focus on filling in details for a deeper understanding of the big picture of our universe. Anna Frebel doesn't consider stars when thinking about the Big Bang because stars only probe the time when they were formed. She uses her work to explain the difference between math and physics and how calculations can be correct but not make sense.

    The Limitless Potential of Mathematics in Understanding the Universe

    Physicists use mathematics to calculate numbers and determine whether it makes sense. However, math can go further than physics because it is not limited by our physical nature. Math is judgment-free, as opposed to physicists who are labeled as judgmental. Math can go into more dimensions than four dimensions, and it can explore the origins of the universe. It reveals the early chemical evolution of the universe. Observing data involves looking at old light on old data. Stars that are thousands of years old are still alive and kicking. The study of stars reveals major contributions by many women.

    Women's contributions to astronomy through the Harvard computers

    Despite being often excluded and under-credited, women have made significant contributions to astronomy and understanding the universe. This is exemplified by the Harvard computers, a group of women hired a century ago to process data and make discoveries in stellar astronomy. Women like Annie Jump Cannon and Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin made groundbreaking discoveries, including the classification of stars based on temperature and the composition of the sun. However, these women often faced the challenges of gender discrimination, low wages, and lack of formal education. Nonetheless, their contributions to astronomy have paved the way for subsequent discoveries and progress in nuclear astrophysics. Despite the complexities of credit assignment and the Nobel Prize system, their legacies should be celebrated and recognized.

    Pursuing Passion and Contributing to Cosmic History

    Anna Frebel discovered her passion for old stars and element creation, which she has been working on for 20 years. She follows her hunches and trusts her knowledge, allowing her to contribute in meaningful ways to our knowledge of cosmic history. She encourages young people to find their own passion and pursue it wholeheartedly, even if it means missing out on other things. A fulfilling life is likely to be discovered in a singular pursuit of one thing, becoming an expert and excelling in it.

    Pursuing Meaningful Work and Leaving a Positive Legacy

    Anna Frebel emphasizes the importance of pursuing something meaningful and leaving a legacy for our children, humanity, and the planet. Young people should not be afraid to take risks and commit to something they feel passionate about. Hard work and taking on challenges is where the fun lies, and it's important to trust the magic in what you notice. Anna also highlights the value of art in revealing the human side of science and making it accessible to a wider audience by sharing the journey of discovery and the emotional experience of scientific work.

    The Intersection of Science and Art in the Search for Life's Meaning

    Anna Frebel, a renowned astrophysicist, highlights the importance of portraying human struggles and the yearning for answers through art. She believes that the meaning of life could possibly be a consequence of the way the universe works based on chemical, physical, biological, and psychological evolution. Anna's work involves studying the most ancient stars, which helped in uncovering the secrets of where we come from and how we got here. She hopes to make her findings more accessible by turning them into a digitized version. Through her work, Anna inspires scientists to focus not only on discoveries but also on the human side of science.

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    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs

    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs
    Edward Gibson is a psycholinguistics professor at MIT and heads the MIT Language Lab. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Yahoo Finance: https://yahoofinance.com - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/edward-gibson-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Edward's X: https://x.com/LanguageMIT TedLab: https://tedlab.mit.edu/ Edward's Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=4FsWE64AAAAJ TedLab's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@Tedlab-MIT PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (10:53) - Human language (14:59) - Generalizations in language (20:46) - Dependency grammar (30:45) - Morphology (39:20) - Evolution of languages (42:40) - Noam Chomsky (1:26:46) - Thinking and language (1:40:16) - LLMs (1:53:14) - Center embedding (2:19:42) - Learning a new language (2:23:34) - Nature vs nurture (2:30:10) - Culture and language (2:44:38) - Universal language (2:49:01) - Language translation (2:52:16) - Animal communication

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones
    Andrew Callaghan is the host of Channel 5 on YouTube, where he does street interviews with fascinating humans at the edges of society, the so-called vagrants, vagabonds, runaways, outlaws, from QAnon adherents to Phish heads to O Block residents and much more. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ShipStation: https://shipstation.com/lex and use code LEX to get 60-day free trial - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/andrew-callaghan-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Channel 5 with Andrew Callaghan: https://www.youtube.com/channel5YouTube Andrew's Instagram: https://instagram.com/andreww.me Andrew's Website: https://andrew-callaghan.com/ Andrew's Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/channel5 This Place Rules: https://www.hbo.com/movies/this-place-rules Books Mentioned: On the Road: https://amzn.to/4aLPLHi Siddhartha: https://amzn.to/49rthKz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (08:53) - Walmart (10:24) - Early life (29:14) - Hitchhiking (40:49) - Couch surfing (49:50) - Quarter Confessions (1:07:33) - Burning Man (1:22:44) - Protests (1:28:17) - Jon Stewart (1:31:13) - Fame (1:44:31) - Jan 6 (1:48:15) - QAnon (1:54:00) - Alex Jones (2:10:52) - Politics (2:20:29) - Response to allegations (2:37:28) - Channel 5 (2:43:04) - Rap (2:44:51) - O Block (2:48:47) - Crip Mac (2:51:59) - Aliens

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame
    Bassem Youssef is an Egyptian-American comedian & satirist, referred to as the Jon Stewart of the Arab World. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/bassem-youssef-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Bassem's X: https://x.com/Byoussef Bassem's Instagram: https://instagram.com/bassem Bassem's Facebook: https://facebook.com/bassemyousseftv Bassem's Website: https://bassemyoussef.xyz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:30) - Oct 7 (36:59) - Two-state solution (52:37) - Holocaust (1:00:24) - 1948 (1:09:17) - Egypt (1:23:39) - Jon Stewart (1:25:51) - Going viral during the Arab Spring (1:49:55) - Arabic vs English (2:02:18) - Sam Harris and Jihad (2:07:25) - Religion (2:26:37) - TikTok (2:31:10) - Joe Rogan (2:33:07) - Joe Biden (2:37:33) - Putin (2:39:21) - War (2:44:17) - Hope

    #423 – Tulsi Gabbard: War, Politics, and the Military Industrial Complex

    #423 – Tulsi Gabbard: War, Politics, and the Military Industrial Complex
    Tulsi Gabbard is a politician, veteran, and author of For Love of Country. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Riverside: https://creators.riverside.fm/LEX and use code LEX to get 30% off - ExpressVPN: https://expressvpn.com/lexpod to get 3 months free - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour - Notion: https://notion.com/lex Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/tulsi-gabbard-transcript EPISODE LINKS: For Love of Country (book): https://amzn.to/3VLlofM Tulsi's X: https://x.com/tulsigabbard Tulsi's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@TulsiGabbard Tulsi's Podcast: https://youtube.com/@TheTulsiGabbardShow Tulsi's Instagram: https://instagram.com/tulsigabbard Tulsi's Facebook: https://facebook.com/TulsiGabbard Tulsi's Website: https://tulsigabbard.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:14) - War in Iraq (15:00) - Battle injuries and PTSD (22:10) - War on terrorism (30:51) - War in Gaza (34:52) - War in Ukraine (38:38) - Syria (46:20) - Warmongers (55:40) - Nuclear war (1:11:08) - TikTok ban (1:23:13) - Bernie Sanders (1:28:08) - Politics (1:46:59) - Personal attacks (1:49:07) - God

    #422 – Mark Cuban: Shark Tank, DEI & Wokeism Debate, Elon Musk, Politics & Drugs

    #422 – Mark Cuban: Shark Tank, DEI & Wokeism Debate, Elon Musk, Politics & Drugs
    Mark Cuban is a businessman, investor, star of TV series Shark Tank, long-time principal owner of Dallas Mavericks, and founder of Cost Plus Drugs. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Cloaked: https://cloaked.com/lex and use code LexPod to get 25% off - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/mark-cuban-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Mark's X: https://twitter.com/mcuban Mark's Instagram: https://instagram.com/mcuban Cost Plus Drugs: https://costplusdrugs.com Shark Tank: https://abc.com/shows/shark-tank Dallas Mavericks: https://www.mavs.com PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (11:10) - Entrepreneurship (26:03) - Shark Tank (36:29) - How Mark made first billion (1:02:39) - Dallas Mavericks (1:08:05) - DEI debate (1:43:58) - Trump vs Biden (1:46:20) - Immigration (1:55:53) - Drugs and Big Pharma (2:11:53) - AI (2:16:05) - Advice for young people

    #421 – Dana White: UFC, Fighting, Khabib, Conor, Tyson, Ali, Rogan, Elon & Zuck

    #421 – Dana White: UFC, Fighting, Khabib, Conor, Tyson, Ali, Rogan, Elon & Zuck
    Dana White is the CEO and president of the UFC. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/lex to get 20% off Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/dana-white-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Dana's X: https://x.com/danawhite Dana's Instagram: https://instagram.com/danawhite Dana's Facebook: https://facebook.com/danawhite UFC's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@UFC UFC's Website: https://ufc.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:31) - Mike Tyson and early days of fighting (17:10) - Jiu jitsu (23:14) - Origin of UFC (37:25) - Joe Rogan (43:31) - Lorenzo Fertitta (45:58) - Great fighters (49:55) - Khabib vs Conor (53:01) - Jon Jones (56:03) - Conor McGregor (1:01:05) - Trump (1:06:44) - Elon vs Zuck (1:08:04) - Mike Tyson vs Jake Paul (1:10:52) - Forrest Griffin vs Stephan Bonnar (1:18:06) - Gambling (1:33:08) - Mortality

    #420 – Annie Jacobsen: Nuclear War, CIA, KGB, Aliens, Area 51, Roswell & Secrecy

    #420 – Annie Jacobsen: Nuclear War, CIA, KGB, Aliens, Area 51, Roswell & Secrecy
    Annie Jacobsen is an investigative journalist and author of "Nuclear War: A Scenario" and many other books on war, weapons, government secrecy, and national security. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - HiddenLayer: https://hiddenlayer.com/lex - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/annie-jacobsen-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Nuclear War: A Scenario (book): https://amzn.to/3THZHfr Annie's Twitter: https://twitter.com/anniejacobsen Annie's Website: https://anniejacobsen.com/ Annie's Books: https://amzn.to/3TGWyMJ Annie's Books (audio): https://adbl.co/49ZnI7c PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:37) - Nuclear war (12:21) - Launch procedure (18:00) - Deterrence (21:34) - Tactical nukes (30:59) - Nuclear submarines (33:59) - Nuclear missiles (41:10) - Nuclear football (50:17) - Missile interceptor system (54:34) - North Korea (1:01:10) - Nuclear war scenarios (1:10:02) - Warmongers (1:14:31) - President's cognitive ability (1:20:43) - Refusing orders (1:28:41) - Russia and Putin (1:33:48) - Cyberattack (1:35:09) - Ground zero of nuclear war (1:39:48) - Surviving nuclear war (1:44:06) - Nuclear winter (1:54:29) - Alien civilizations (2:00:04) - Extrasensory perception (2:13:50) - Area 51 (2:17:48) - UFOs and aliens (2:28:15) - Roswell incident (2:34:55) - CIA assassinations (2:53:47) - Navalny (2:56:12) - KGB (3:02:48) - Hitler and the atomic bomb (3:06:52) - War and human nature (3:10:17) - Hope