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    #350 – Betül Kaçar: Origin of Life, Ancient DNA, Panspermia, and Aliens

    Nature's code is incredibly resilient and can be used to describe all life on Earth, unlocking the secrets of evolution from a molecular perspective.

    enDecember 29, 2022

    About this Episode

    Betül Kaçar is an astrobiologist at University of Wisconsin. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - House of Macadamias: https://houseofmacadamias.com/lex and use code LEX to get 20% off your first order - Mizzen+Main: https://mizzenandmain.com and use code LEX to get $35 off - Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - ExpressVPN: https://expressvpn.com/lexpod to get 3 months free - GiveDirectly: https://givedirectly.org/lex to get gift matched up to $1000 - Blinkist: https://blinkist.com/lex to get 25% off premium EPISODE LINKS: Betül's Twitter: https://twitter.com/betulland Betül's Instagram: https://instagram.com/betul.kacar.astro/ Kacar Lab: https://kacarlab.org/ Betül's TED Talk: https://go.ted.com/betulkacar PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (08:20) - History of life on Earth (16:25) - Origin of life (39:11) - Genetic language of life (52:08) - Life and energy (1:02:50) - Ancient DNA (1:21:48) - Evolution (1:33:19) - Alien life (2:01:19) - Panspermia (2:07:41) - Restarting life on Earth (2:20:23) - Where ideas come from (2:27:54) - Science and language (2:36:31) - Love (2:37:55) - Advice to young people (2:42:29) - Meaning of life

    🔑 Key Takeaways

    • By studying the evolution of life, we can gain insight into the connectedness of all living things.
    • Studying the Tree of Life can provide us with valuable insights into evolution and the origin of life.
    • By studying bacteria, we can gain insights into ancient organisms and discover the secrets of our own origins.
    • To understand the fundamentals of life, we must explore the intricate functions of cells and the elements that form the cocktail of life.
    • The nitrogenase enzyme is essential to life, being used to produce food, fertilizer, and make up 50% of our bodies.
    • Translation is a complex and incredible process that is responsible for the ability of life to exist.
    • Chemistry is essential for life as it forms the foundation of the complex machinery that makes life possible.
    • The harmony between the four main steps of the machinery of transition is essential for life on Earth, and requires careful consideration of its chemistry rate constant, information systems, and other components.
    • Genetic code degeneracy gives life robustness and resilience, allowing it to survive and exist despite errors.
    • Life is created with only four letters, which are represented in a RNA colored table and are capable of forming all the words and sentences needed to form life.
    • Nature's code is incredibly resilient and can be used to describe all life on Earth, unlocking the secrets of evolution from a molecular perspective.
    • We all evolved from one common ancestor, LUCA, a single-celled organism that existed billions of years ago.
    • Evolution is essential in understanding the complexity of the learning process and its components.
    • By understanding the mechanisms of life, we can unlock the potential to create life ourselves.
    • Exploring other planets for life requires more than just a "smoking gun" - researchers will have to rely on other methods to discover life beyond Earth.
    • Life is a complex combination of chemistry, physics, and biology, and the combination of all three is what makes our planet so special.
    • Evolution is an ongoing process of change and adaptation that can be studied to gain insight into how organisms can improve multiple components of themselves at once.
    • Adding modern genes from ancient organism's cousins and ancestors can trigger biophysics and biochemistry processes that can be used to understand the evolutionary process of improvement.
    • Evolution is an incredible force that can take existing parts of an organism and create improved versions, even after traveling back in time for billions of years.
    • By experimenting with different selection pressures, we can gain insight into how organisms respond to changing environments.
    • Understand the resilience of a cell in order to effectively introduce changes and reach its optimal performance.
    • Evolution allows organisms to adapt to difficult environments, creating fascinating and complex behaviors that can be observed and appreciated.
    • Life's journey on Earth is an incredible story of evolution, adaptation, and invention that should be celebrated and appreciated.
    • It is important to explore science in order to understand our place in the universe and make new discoveries.
    • Appreciate the incredible complexity of our world and the species that make it up, and take care of the planet and each other to ensure that this collective journey continues.
    • Life exists in many forms and can be used to find solutions to chemistry problems, uncovering benefits that can help us get to where we are today.
    • Studying the chemistry of a planet and its properties is essential to determining if life can emerge on other planets.
    • Seeding a planet with life requires careful consideration of all the potential risks and benefits.
    • We have a responsibility to explore the possibility of creating life forms beyond Earth in a respectful manner, as the question of suffering reveals a lot about our perspective.
    • We can find hope in the next generations as they continue to learn and understand the issues facing the world.
    • Technology and the internet have opened doors to understanding things that were previously unimaginable, and we should use this to cultivate a greater responsibility to protect and appreciate what we have.
    • Mistakes can lead to remarkable discoveries and a better understanding of the dynamics of life.
    • Experimentation is essential to understanding the parameters of early Earth and the possibilities of life in the universe.
    • Although we may assume that all the ingredients for the origin of life are here on earth, it's still worth considering the possibility that something may be missing from somewhere else.
    • Exploring the origin of life requires us to consider the timing, frequency and intensity of geological events and how they shape the tree of life.
    • The environment does not always dictate the evolution of life forms and can be shaped in unexpected ways.
    • Life is determined by a combination of chemical systems and randomness, and understanding what is important and what isn't is key to unlocking its mysteries.
    • Life on Earth is an incredible and fragile journey of luck, chances and changes that led to the complexity of humans.
    • To make progress in science, we need to be willing to accept the possibility of failure and trust our instincts when taking calculated risks.
    • Understand that failure is a necessary part of scientific progress and don't let your ego get in the way of long-term success.
    • To gain knowledge and benefit from all human power, it is essential to understand the importance of translation.
    • Combining the right ingredients is essential to understanding the language of science.
    • Being mindful of others, no matter where they are from, and recognizing the importance of human connection is key in living consciously.
    • Leverage our knowledge to spread hope, love, and a new beginning to those in need and create a better future for all.
    • Life may not be fair, but it is up to us to decide how we view it and to choose to see the beauty in it.
    • Embrace suffering and strive to leave the world better than you found it - a meaningful outlook on life.

    📝 Podcast Summary

    Tracing the Phylogenetic Tree of Life: Uncovering the Diversity of Life

    Studying the evolution of life is a fascinating concept that can help us understand our connectedness to every living thing.By tracing the phylogenetic tree of life, we can study the ancient gene sequences of all living beings and start to move backwards in time.This tree starts with the branches and moves inward to the roots.By looking at what exists today, we can gain insight into the entire tree and the diversity of life that it encompasses.This concept of relatedness and connectedness is an ever-evolving notion that is beautiful and romantic.

    Unveiling the Secrets of the Tree of Life

    Biologists examine the tree of life to understand when certain organisms and their ancestors are believed to have merged.Depending on the tools used, researchers can reconstruct the ancestors at the gene or species level.By looking at the tree of life, researchers can gain insight into different events, such as when organisms exchanged DNA during the course of evolution.To gain further understanding, researchers can study the origin of life and the first cells, as well as how the environment has impacted the planet in major ways to enable humans to exist.

    Unravelling the Secrets of Bacteria: A Journey Through Time

    We have limited knowledge about the biological innovations that happened on the planet in the past, as we mainly rely on fossil records and other geological imprints to piece together the puzzle.We can look back to a few billion years ago and try to infer what happened, however, it is a foggy picture, as we are only studying the survivors and their DNA.Bacteria is one of the organisms that give us hints about ancient organisms.In the lab, we can study a variety of bacteria depending on the questions asked and we can even engineer bacteria to answer certain questions.We owe a lot to bacteria, for it was a great ancestor of ours and is still present in our everyday lives.

    Unveiling the Secrets of Early Life: The Cocktail of Life

    Biology and geology have been studied for billions of years to understand the early life and fundamental innovations.Cyanobacteria and E.coli bacteria are some of the organisms which are studied in labs to understand the functions of cells.Nitrogen is a triple bond gas which is abundant in the atmosphere but it cannot be used directly by cells.It needs to be converted to ammonia to be used for downstream cellular functions.This process of conversion is called nitrogen fixing, which is essential for life as we know it.Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur are the elements which make up the cocktail of life.

    Unveiling The Power of Nitrogenase - A Biological Chemical System

    Life relies on five elements that were established on our planet.Around World War I, humans found a way to biotically convert nitrogen into ammonia, which is used to produce food, fertilizer, and make up 50% of our bodies.This process is much more sophisticated than the one humans created, as it relies on a single enzyme called nitrogenase.It is an informatic computing biological chemical system that is operating at the heart of the cell.This system is so important that it is considered that the entire cell is hopelessly addicted to it.

    Unveiling the Fascinating World of Chemical Decoding

    Translation is a process in which the genetic information within RNA is converted into a 3D protein structure.It is a complex process of deciphering information, involving multiple steps such as initiation, elongation, termination, and recycling, and different disciplines including chemistry, physics, informatics, and biology.It is like a chemical decoding device, with variability and inheritance coming from imperfect replication.It is a fascinating world and chemists have been able to study each part of the process in detail.Translation is a unique and incredible process which is responsible for making life possible.

    Unravelling the Complexity of Chemistry: The Foundation of Life

    Chemistry is essential for life - it is the foundation of the machinery that makes life possible.Through the manipulation of molecules, chemists have developed single pot chemistries that involve adding all the necessary ingredients together in a test tube and manipulating the environment to create a desired outcome.The process is mathematical, with a rigid input-output system, and requires a deep understanding of chemistry.It is through this process that enzymes and proteins are created, that can break down energy using TP or GTP.In total, there are around a hundred different components that make up the machinery, and it is this complexity that allows for mistakes to be handled and for life to be resilient.Chemistry is fundamental to life - without it, none of this would be possible.

    Unraveling the Harmonious Machinery of Transition

    The machinery of transition is fascinating and essential for understanding life on Earth.It involves four main steps which are conserved in all life and involve chemistry, biology, biochemistry, and computer systems.The chemistry rate constant for these proteins must be just right - too fast or too slow and the system collapses.It's almost like a jazz ensemble, requiring the different components to come together in harmony.These systems can even work in a cell-free environment, and researchers are working on evolving a translation machinery in the lab.It's a complex process that requires understanding information systems to fully comprehend.

    Unlocking the Degeneracy of Genetic Code

    Chemistry and information processing come together to form life.Through the combination of four nucleotide letters, 64 possible states can be formed.Life only uses 20 of those states, which are encoded in triplets.This means that of the 64 possible states, only one third are used to create 20 amino acids.This is known as genetic code degeneracy and it gives the system robustness and resilience, meaning that errors can be made and the message will still get through.This is crucial for life to exist as it is today.

    Unveiling the Four Letters That Create Life

    Enzymes are fascinating as they are the building blocks of life.We use them to understand ancient languages and cultures, as well as ancient environments.Enzymes are made up of four letters, which are represented in a RNA colored table.This table has an outer shell and an inner shell, and with these four letters we can make up all of the acids.What is even more amazing is that all life starts with the same start code - this is what tells the cell to start the function.And when the stop code arrives, the cell knows to stop the function.It is incredible that with only four letters, we can create all the words and sentences needed to form life!

    Unlocking Nature's Resilient Code of Life

    The language of life is written in the four letters of DNA, which, when combined, create a code that determines the 20 amino acids that make up proteins.This code is incredibly resilient to errors, meaning that even if some of the letters are incorrect, the amino acid created is still the same.We don't fully understand why this is the case, but we do know that it helps life on Earth evolve and survive.This code has been narrowed down by nature, and is based on the elements of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur.So biologists can use this code to understand how life evolved from a molecular perspective.This language is incredibly powerful and can be used to describe all life on Earth.

    Uncovering the Evolution of Life - From LUCA to Us

    The story starts 3.8 billion years ago, when a group of organisms evolved from a single-celled ancestor.This common ancestor was the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) of all living organisms.Over time, this ancestor developed a highly optimized chemical and information code.This code is like a bridge that connects the earliest cells to LUCA.Although we don't know the exact details, it is believed that a lot of Darwinian evolution and selection pressure happened before the emergence of LUCA.This means that we all evolved from one common ancestor - a single-celled organism that existed billions of years ago.

    Unlocking the Secrets of Evolutionary Learning

    Learning is a complex process that involves many different components.Lex and Betül's discussion demonstrates the importance of each component in the learning process.Starting from a single cell, Lex explains how the organism evolved over billions of years and achieved the level of intelligence needed to tweet and engage in conversation.He then explains how translation is the heart of the cellular activities and that disrupting it can kill the cell.Finally, he talks about the inefficiency of the process compared to a computer, but emphasizes that a computer cannot imitate the natural process.This conversation highlights the importance of understanding the components of learning and the role of evolution in achieving intelligence.

    Unlocking the Mystery of Life Through Translation, Metabolism, and Self-Replication

    Learning about life and the origin of life is an exciting and fascinating topic.It involves understanding the attributes of life, such as translation, metabolism and self-replication.Metabolism is a way to process materials, while translation is a more sophisticated process that is both dynamic and repetitive.Additionally, life has been operating at a very efficient energy level for 4 billion years.Understanding these mechanisms could help us to create life ourselves.

    Unraveling The Mysterious Definition of Life

    Life is a difficult concept to pin down and measure.Life on Earth relies on energy to exist and the way it uses that energy is incredibly efficient.There are various definitions of life, including NASA's, but none of them are universally accepted.Therefore it is difficult to determine if a thing is living when exploring other planets.It is unlikely to be an obvious sign like a smoking gun, so researchers will have to rely on other methods to discover life outside of Earth.

    Exploring the Wonders of Chemistry, Physics, and Biology

    Life is a complex combination of chemistry, physics, and biology.Our planet Earth is the only place in the universe where we can observe and understand biology.It is a result of a combination of chemistry and physics that has been explored and maintained over billions of years.Memory is an important component of life as it allows us to retain solutions and build upon them.The rules of natural selection act on the level of biology, resulting in changes over time that enable life to thrive.This shows that life is much more than just chemistry and physics, but a combination of all three that makes our planet so special.

    Exploring the Wonders of Evolution Through Elongation

    Evolution is an ongoing process of change and adaptation, and scientists are constantly learning more about it.In this research, Betül Kaçar was studying how evolution works.She wanted to understand how organisms can improve multiple components of themselves at once.To do this, she meddled with a part of the organism called elongation, which is responsible for the creation of proteins.She replaced this part with an ancient version and studied the results.What she found was that the ancient and modern versions of the organism could both survive, but the modern version was more successful.This research provides insight into how evolution works, and it is likely that we will learn more about it in the future.

    Unlocking the Evolutionary Process of Improvement through Biophysics and Biochemistry

    Scientists discovered an ancient organism and decided to alter it by adding modern gene from its cousins and ancestors.The process was like taking a new car and putting an old engine into it, but it was more complex than that.They wanted to understand how a cell responds to change and the outcome showed that the protein was triggered by biophysics and biochemistry.It showed how the enzyme used energy to release the information and the protein hopped in and hopped out leaving the information behind.It was a great way to understand the evolutionary process of improvement.

    Exploring the Power of Evolution to Create Improved Versions

    Evolution is a powerful force that is able to work with the parts of the parts of organisms to create improved versions.For example, when bacteria was subjected to evolution in the lab, the researchers noticed that the cell was not as healthy and was not growing as well.This situation was created to see how they would cooperate with each other to fix the problem.After a few generations, the researchers observed that the cells had adapted to the situation, with up to 70% level identity being conserved across the modern versions.This demonstrates how evolution is able to mess with the parts and come up with improved versions.Even when traveling back in time, the identity is still seen to decrease, yet the shared information remains at a high level even after 4 billion years.

    Uncovering the Secrets of Evolution in the Lab

    Experimenting with evolution in the lab can help us understand the changes an organism can make to survive.We did this by introducing different selection pressures and making sure the environment, temperature, food and carbon source stayed the same.We repeated this experiment for 150 days, collecting bacteria and freezing them at each step.We then looked at the sequence changes that had occurred in response to the variation we had introduced.We discovered that the stronger the selection pressure, the more likely the organism was to make changes in the area we had targeted.This helps us to understand how organisms respond to changing environments.

    Unveiling the Resilience of a Cell to Changes

    We can learn from this conversation that when a cell is "hit" with a change, the bigger the evolutionary distance, the more drastic the consequences.Like a web of networks or an airport, if a problem is introduced in the most populated hub, the traffic system will be messed up more drastically.We can also learn that the cell is resilient up to a point, and that it is possible to introduce mutations that help the cell perform its task better, but it may require a few more mutations to reach its optimal performance.This conversation teaches us about the importance of understanding the resilience of a cell and how it responds to changes.

    Exploring the Fascinating Variety of Life Through Evolution

    Evolution is an incredible process that shapes the variety of life on Earth.It works on the principle of fixing the most immediate problem, focusing on one module at a time and not trying to go beyond what it needs to.As a result, organisms can find solutions to difficult problems that might not be obvious to us.For example, they can adapt to a variety of environments and are able to survive even when conditions are challenging.Evolution also creates complex, beautiful organisms with different capabilities, allowing them to interact with each other in interesting ways.This is why we can observe the fascinating behaviors of animals in the wild and why we can enjoy watching the amazing variety of life on YouTube.

    Celebrating the Inspiring Journey of Life on Earth

    The history of life on Earth is filled with amazing discoveries and astonishing inventions.Over billions of years, life has evolved from self-replicating bacteria to complex organisms.Scientists have identified a few key singularities, or major events, that have shaped the course of evolution.These include the emergence of translation, the development of cyanobacteria, and the emergence of eukaryotes.Through these singularities, life has learned to use the environment to its advantage and reach heights of complexity that were unimaginable in the past.Even today, scientists are still amazed by the incredible leaps of invention that have allowed us to evolve into homo sapiens.Despite this, some people have become skeptical of science in general, fuelled by the pandemic and the failure of institutions.Nevertheless, life's journey on Earth is an inspiring story that should be celebrated.

    Exploring Our Place in the Universe Through Science

    Understanding how life began is one of the great mysteries in science.It can be difficult to comprehend how two organisms can be talking about their place in the universe, but this is a unique ability that humans possess.There is a lack of opportunity in education to truly understand the importance of science and how it works.This conversation encourages us to step back and realize there is still much to be discovered and understood, which can be both fascinating and sobering.It takes us further to think about the potential for new discoveries in the future and how we can continue to learn about our place in the universe.

    A Collective Journey Through Time and Space

    We are incredibly lucky to be living on a planet with a long history of life.Even though we have yet to solve many of the mysteries of life, we need to appreciate the incredible complexity of our world and the species that make it up.We should be humbled by how far life has come and how much more there is to explore.Life is a collective experience, with each organism playing a part in the grand puzzle of existence.We should be filled with curiosity about the universe and our place in it, whether we are alone or part of a greater network of life.No matter what, we should take care of the planet and each other, so that this incredible journey can continue.

    Exploring Solutions Through Viruses and Microbes

    The origin of life is an extremely complicated problem.But once it is initiated, new and more intelligent solutions are created and complex things can be solved.Life exists in many forms and it is possible to find solutions to chemistry problems in the form of other organisms.We should be open to exploring these solutions as they are full of benefits, and can be found in different environments.Viruses and microbes are incredibly fascinating and have many uses.We should not forget that without them, we would not be in the place we are today.

    Unlocking the Secrets of Life Beyond Earth

    We can learn from this conversation that understanding the origin of life and how it functions on Earth can help us to comprehend how life may emerge on other planets.To understand this, we must study the chemistry of a planet and its properties to decide if it is close enough to its own chemical revolution.We must also consider if the planet is missing any essential ingredients, and if so, if adding these can propel it to be able to instigate its own life.This is a thought-provoking and complex question, and it is inspiring that scientists are considering this possibility.

    Exploring the Complexities of Seeding a Planet with Life

    Lex Fridman and Betül Kacar discussed the potential of seeding a planet with life.Lex was in favor of the idea, while Betül questioned the potential consequences of such an undertaking.She raised the issue of the potential suffering of complex life forms that could come about as a result.Lex acknowledged this responsibility, and brought up the ethical element of seeding a planet with life.The conversation demonstrated that seeding a planet with life is a complex issue requiring careful consideration of all the potential risks and benefits.

    Respectfully Exploring the Possibility of Creating Life Beyond Earth

    Creating life forms can be a worrying prospect as it brings up the possibility of creating something dangerous.However, the more pressing concern is creating conscious beings that can suffer.We have the responsibility to propagate the same chemistry found on Earth, and to explore the possibility of creating conditions on other planets.It's important that our efforts be respectful of the planet's chemistry, and not about colonization or occupation.This question reveals a lot about how we view suffering, and how deeply troubled we are by it - even though it has been a part of life on Earth for millennia.

    A New Generation of Hope for a Better World

    Humans have made a lot of mistakes throughout history, and there is still a lot of suffering in the world.However, we are learning quickly and becoming more aware of what is right and wrong.Every year we are interacting with the younger generations in classrooms, and they are already showing a generational difference in their awareness and understanding of issues.This gives us hope that future generations will continue to learn and make the world a better place.

    Can Technology and the Internet Lead to a Greater Responsibility?

    The pursuit of knowledge is a never-ending journey, and scientists know that their work may one day be disproved.This understanding of the fragility of knowledge should lead to humility and optimism.It should also encourage us to explore our place in the universe and to have a greater responsibility to protect and appreciate what we have.Technology and the internet have opened doors to understanding things that were previously unimaginable.We should not let fear or pain stop us from achieving great things.Finally, we should remember that life and intelligence exists all around us and we simply need to be aware and open to it.

    Can Mistakes Push Us to the Boundaries of Knowledge?

    We all make mistakes, but that's okay! Mistakes can push us to the boundaries of knowledge.How life originated on earth is a fascinating and complex question.Scientists have done many experiments to understand the building blocks of life, such as the Miller Ure Experiment, which is over 60 years old.We are now able to understand the chemistry and networks involved in life, and have even begun to see emergent properties.Scientists are close to understanding the dynamics of life, such as its ability to sense and respond to the environment, mutate and sustain itself.This is an exciting time for research, which could lead to remarkable discoveries in the lab.

    Exploring the Possibilities of Life Through Experimental Flask Simulations

    We can learn that it is possible to simulate the conditions of early Earth, such as radiation, temperature, and a mix of both, in a flask experimentally.This experiment can help us to understand the parameters and create models, but ultimately we need to experiment.Although quantum mechanical simulation is difficult, it is inspiring to see that we can solve difficult biological problems.We can also learn that the idea of spreading chemical ingredients, rather than life, is a possibility.This can help us to think of new approaches when discussing the possibilities of life in the universe.

    Exploring the Possibility of Life Beyond Earth

    Pan Peria is an idea that suggests that life on earth may have come from somewhere else.This idea is difficult to answer scientifically as it removes the problem away from the planet and we can't recreate it in a lab or through models.We can however, explore the possibility through exploration and science, looking outside of earth and understanding the fundamentals of chemistry and physics.Although we may assume that all the ingredients for the origin of life are here on earth, it's still interesting to consider the possibility that there may be something missing from somewhere else.

    Unravelling the Mystery of Life's Origin

    The exploration of life's origin is a complex and fascinating topic.We know that the clues to life's origin may not be found in the ingredients we use in our experiments.However, the experiments are still useful as they allow us to understand biology and chemistry deeply.It is also interesting to consider if life is a solution to a chemistry problem, would the tree of life be different if we reran Earth a million times? We need to consider the timing, frequency and intensity of geological events and if these remain the same or if they become more random.This can be used to help us better understand the complexity of life's origin.

    Unveiling the Complexity and Potential of Evolution

    Evolution is an incredible process, showing the power of life to adapt and survive, even to extreme and changing environments.This process is not one-sided, however, and a recent study has explored the influence of the environment on the evolution of life forms.It was found that the environment does not always dictate what adaptation a life form takes, and it is not always the abundance of resources that determine what is successful.In some cases, other elements, even those not present in the environment, can still be used.Stephen J.Gould's book "Wonderful Life" explored this concept, and showed how environmental conditions can shape the evolution of life in unexpected ways.All of this is evidence of the incredible complexity and potential of the process of evolution.

    Chemistry or Randomness: Uncovering Life's Most Important Elements

    Lex and Betül were discussing the idea of whether life could be recorded on a linear chain of events.Lex speculated that randomness played an important role in the evolution of life, and Betül suggested that chemistry might ultimately define the destination, even with environmental and random changes.They then discussed the other living organisms in the room, noting that they and the microbes were all chemical systems that were operating and responding to their environment.Ultimately, the conversation came back to figuring out what is important and what isn't in life.

    The Miraculous Story of Life: From Dust to Complex Organisms

    Life on Earth is the result of a series of incredibly lucky events.Starting from nothing but dust, the planet went through a series of changes which ultimately led to the development of complex organisms.From the early stages of single-celled microbes, through to the development of eyes, symmetry and oxygen, the story of life is one of small chances that had to be taken in order to create the world we know today.It is amazing to think that something as complex as humans can be traced back to such simple beginnings, and it is a reminder that the world is a fragile yet miraculous place.

    Taking Calculated Risks for Scientific Progress

    Scientific ideas can come from anywhere, and it's often difficult to decide which ideas are worth taking the risk on.We need to be willing to accept the possibility of failure in order to move forward in our work, and sometimes it is best to trust our instincts and not pursue ideas that we don't find inspiring.Even though it can be daunting to take risks, it is necessary to make progress in science.To make sure we are working on the right ideas, we need to approach our work with curiosity and trust our intuition.Taking calculated risks can ultimately be very rewarding.

    Patience and Perseverance: Mastering the Science of Problem Solving

    Science is a method of problem solving that anyone can learn, and those who understand it can create long-term change and impact.It is important not to become attached to mistakes, and instead move onto something new.This can be difficult, especially in an age of immediate feedback through social media and attention economies.It is important to take the long-term view and be patient with our ideas and not be driven by what others find exciting.Lastly, it is important to tame our ego and understand that failure is a part of scientific progress.

    The Power and Process of Translating Science

    Translation in science and life is a complex process and can be difficult to understand.It is important to learn and appreciate the sense of time it takes to build something and trust your gut feeling to progress.It is not only about defining a problem, but also systematically solving it over the course of decades.Additionally, science is another language and needs to be translated in order to gain knowledge and benefit from all human power.This can be challenging, but by understanding the importance of translation, we can gain a better understanding of the world.

    Unlocking the Language of Science: A Smoothie, Not a Fruit Salad

    Having access to opportunities is key to success.Language is an important part of opportunity, as it gives us access to different cultures, perspectives, and ways of exploring ideas.Learning a language is not enough to understand the language of science, which is a combination of different disciplines, and needs to be approached like a smoothie, not a fruit salad.Combining the wrong ingredients can ruin the mix, so it's important to understand the different disciplines that go into scientific language.

    Living Consciously - Honoring Our Neighbours Across Cultures

    Betül Kaçar is from Istanbul, Turkey and is proud of her culture.She has fond memories of growing up in Turkey, where they have the saying "Don't go to bed full if your neighbour is hungry" which emphasizes the importance of human connection and being conscious of others.Betül believes these values are something to carry with herself, especially when moving to a new place that may not share the same attributes.This is an important lesson to remember when interacting with people, no matter where they are from.

    Uncovering the Brilliance of the World Through Love

    Love is an essential human condition and can be learned.We all have the opportunity to learn and practice love, which can be given to anyone, not just people.The 21st century has opened up many opportunities to unlock the brilliance of the world.As scientists, we have the responsibility to use our knowledge to spread hope, love, and a new beginning to those who need it.We should strive to give back to those who are less fortunate and create a better future for all.

    Embrace Yourself and Choose to See the Beauty in Life

    Young people should be encouraged to break free from whatever they want to and use their voice, no matter what others may think.It is important to learn to respect and love yourself and have trust in yourself.Life may not be fair, but we can learn from it.The beauty in life is something we choose to see - it is not predetermined.Ultimately, it is up to us to decide how we view the world.

    Understanding Life's Suffering and Flourishing Through Perspective

    Life is a journey of suffering and flourishing.We all have the capacity to introspect, understand and appreciate the life left around us.This appreciation can be intensified by our suffering and, in turn, can be a source of hope and love.In a random moment of wisdom, we can learn from a Turkish bathroom sign to "leave it as you want to find it", reminding us that our actions define us, and that we should strive to leave the world better than we found it.This can be our own meaningful outlook on life and a reminder of the beauty that can be found in the darkest of places.

    Recent Episodes from Lex Fridman Podcast

    #429 – Paul Rosolie: Jungle, Apex Predators, Aliens, Uncontacted Tribes, and God

    #429 – Paul Rosolie: Jungle, Apex Predators, Aliens, Uncontacted Tribes, and God
    Paul Rosolie is a naturalist, explorer, author, and founder of Junglekeepers, dedicating his life to protecting the Amazon rainforest. Support his efforts at https://junglekeepers.org Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ShipStation: https://shipstation.com/lex and use code LEX to get 60-day free trial - Yahoo Finance: https://yahoofinance.com - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get $350 off - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/paul-rosolie-2-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Paul's Instagram: https://instagram.com/paulrosolie Junglekeepers: https://junglekeepers.org Paul's Website: https://paulrosolie.com Mother of God (book): https://amzn.to/3ww2ob1 PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (12:29) - Amazon jungle (14:47) - Bushmaster snakes (26:13) - Black caiman (44:33) - Rhinos (47:47) - Anacondas (1:18:04) - Mammals (1:30:10) - Piranhas (1:41:00) - Aliens (1:58:45) - Elephants (2:10:02) - Origin of life (2:23:21) - Explorers (2:36:38) - Ayahuasca (2:45:03) - Deep jungle expedition (2:59:09) - Jane Goodall (3:01:41) - Theodore Roosevelt (3:12:36) - Alone show (3:22:23) - Protecting the rainforest (3:38:36) - Snake makes appearance (3:46:47) - Uncontacted tribes (4:00:11) - Mortality (4:01:39) - Steve Irwin (4:09:18) - God
    Lex Fridman Podcast
    enMay 15, 2024

    #428 – Sean Carroll: General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Black Holes & Aliens

    #428 – Sean Carroll: General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Black Holes & Aliens
    Sean Carroll is a theoretical physicist, author, and host of Mindscape podcast. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - HiddenLayer: https://hiddenlayer.com/lex - Cloaked: https://cloaked.com/lex and use code LexPod to get 25% off - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/sean-carroll-3-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Sean's Website: https://preposterousuniverse.com Mindscape Podcast: https://www.preposterousuniverse.com/podcast/ Sean's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@seancarroll Sean's Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/seanmcarroll Sean's Twitter: https://twitter.com/seanmcarroll Sean's Instagram: https://instagram.com/seanmcarroll Sean's Papers: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=Lfifrv8AAAAJ Sean's Books: https://amzn.to/3W7yT9N PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (11:03) - General relativity (23:22) - Black holes (28:11) - Hawking radiation (32:19) - Aliens (41:15) - Holographic principle (1:05:38) - Dark energy (1:11:38) - Dark matter (1:20:34) - Quantum mechanics (1:41:56) - Simulation (1:44:18) - AGI (1:58:42) - Complexity (2:11:25) - Consciousness (2:20:32) - Naturalism (2:24:49) - Limits of science (2:29:34) - Mindscape podcast (2:39:29) - Einstein

    #427 – Neil Adams: Judo, Olympics, Winning, Losing, and the Champion Mindset

    #427 – Neil Adams: Judo, Olympics, Winning, Losing, and the Champion Mindset
    Neil Adams is a judo world champion, 2-time Olympic silver medalist, 5-time European champion, and often referred to as the Voice of Judo. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ZipRecruiter: https://ziprecruiter.com/lex - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/neil-adams-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Neil's Instagram: https://instagram.com/naefighting Neil's YouTube: https://youtube.com/NAEffectiveFighting Neil's TikTok: https://tiktok.com/@neiladamsmbe Neil's Facebook: https://facebook.com/NeilAdamsJudo Neil's X: https://x.com/NeilAdamsJudo Neil's Website: https://naeffectivefighting.com Neil's Podcast: https://naeffectivefighting.com/podcasts/the-dojo-collective-podcast A Life in Judo (book): https://amzn.to/4d3DtfB A Game of Throws (audiobook): https://amzn.to/4aA2WeJ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (09:13) - 1980 Olympics (26:35) - Judo explained (34:40) - Winning (52:54) - 1984 Olympics (1:01:55) - Lessons from losing (1:17:37) - Teddy Riner (1:37:12) - Training in Japan (1:52:51) - Jiu jitsu (2:03:59) - Training (2:27:18) - Advice for beginners

    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs

    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs
    Edward Gibson is a psycholinguistics professor at MIT and heads the MIT Language Lab. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Yahoo Finance: https://yahoofinance.com - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/edward-gibson-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Edward's X: https://x.com/LanguageMIT TedLab: https://tedlab.mit.edu/ Edward's Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=4FsWE64AAAAJ TedLab's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@Tedlab-MIT PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (10:53) - Human language (14:59) - Generalizations in language (20:46) - Dependency grammar (30:45) - Morphology (39:20) - Evolution of languages (42:40) - Noam Chomsky (1:26:46) - Thinking and language (1:40:16) - LLMs (1:53:14) - Center embedding (2:19:42) - Learning a new language (2:23:34) - Nature vs nurture (2:30:10) - Culture and language (2:44:38) - Universal language (2:49:01) - Language translation (2:52:16) - Animal communication

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones
    Andrew Callaghan is the host of Channel 5 on YouTube, where he does street interviews with fascinating humans at the edges of society, the so-called vagrants, vagabonds, runaways, outlaws, from QAnon adherents to Phish heads to O Block residents and much more. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ShipStation: https://shipstation.com/lex and use code LEX to get 60-day free trial - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/andrew-callaghan-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Channel 5 with Andrew Callaghan: https://www.youtube.com/channel5YouTube Andrew's Instagram: https://instagram.com/andreww.me Andrew's Website: https://andrew-callaghan.com/ Andrew's Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/channel5 This Place Rules: https://www.hbo.com/movies/this-place-rules Books Mentioned: On the Road: https://amzn.to/4aLPLHi Siddhartha: https://amzn.to/49rthKz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (08:53) - Walmart (10:24) - Early life (29:14) - Hitchhiking (40:49) - Couch surfing (49:50) - Quarter Confessions (1:07:33) - Burning Man (1:22:44) - Protests (1:28:17) - Jon Stewart (1:31:13) - Fame (1:44:31) - Jan 6 (1:48:15) - QAnon (1:54:00) - Alex Jones (2:10:52) - Politics (2:20:29) - Response to allegations (2:37:28) - Channel 5 (2:43:04) - Rap (2:44:51) - O Block (2:48:47) - Crip Mac (2:51:59) - Aliens

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame
    Bassem Youssef is an Egyptian-American comedian & satirist, referred to as the Jon Stewart of the Arab World. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/bassem-youssef-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Bassem's X: https://x.com/Byoussef Bassem's Instagram: https://instagram.com/bassem Bassem's Facebook: https://facebook.com/bassemyousseftv Bassem's Website: https://bassemyoussef.xyz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:30) - Oct 7 (36:59) - Two-state solution (52:37) - Holocaust (1:00:24) - 1948 (1:09:17) - Egypt (1:23:39) - Jon Stewart (1:25:51) - Going viral during the Arab Spring (1:49:55) - Arabic vs English (2:02:18) - Sam Harris and Jihad (2:07:25) - Religion (2:26:37) - TikTok (2:31:10) - Joe Rogan (2:33:07) - Joe Biden (2:37:33) - Putin (2:39:21) - War (2:44:17) - Hope

    #423 – Tulsi Gabbard: War, Politics, and the Military Industrial Complex

    #423 – Tulsi Gabbard: War, Politics, and the Military Industrial Complex
    Tulsi Gabbard is a politician, veteran, and author of For Love of Country. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Riverside: https://creators.riverside.fm/LEX and use code LEX to get 30% off - ExpressVPN: https://expressvpn.com/lexpod to get 3 months free - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour - Notion: https://notion.com/lex Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/tulsi-gabbard-transcript EPISODE LINKS: For Love of Country (book): https://amzn.to/3VLlofM Tulsi's X: https://x.com/tulsigabbard Tulsi's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@TulsiGabbard Tulsi's Podcast: https://youtube.com/@TheTulsiGabbardShow Tulsi's Instagram: https://instagram.com/tulsigabbard Tulsi's Facebook: https://facebook.com/TulsiGabbard Tulsi's Website: https://tulsigabbard.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:14) - War in Iraq (15:00) - Battle injuries and PTSD (22:10) - War on terrorism (30:51) - War in Gaza (34:52) - War in Ukraine (38:38) - Syria (46:20) - Warmongers (55:40) - Nuclear war (1:11:08) - TikTok ban (1:23:13) - Bernie Sanders (1:28:08) - Politics (1:46:59) - Personal attacks (1:49:07) - God

    #422 – Mark Cuban: Shark Tank, DEI & Wokeism Debate, Elon Musk, Politics & Drugs

    #422 – Mark Cuban: Shark Tank, DEI & Wokeism Debate, Elon Musk, Politics & Drugs
    Mark Cuban is a businessman, investor, star of TV series Shark Tank, long-time principal owner of Dallas Mavericks, and founder of Cost Plus Drugs. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Cloaked: https://cloaked.com/lex and use code LexPod to get 25% off - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/mark-cuban-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Mark's X: https://twitter.com/mcuban Mark's Instagram: https://instagram.com/mcuban Cost Plus Drugs: https://costplusdrugs.com Shark Tank: https://abc.com/shows/shark-tank Dallas Mavericks: https://www.mavs.com PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (11:10) - Entrepreneurship (26:03) - Shark Tank (36:29) - How Mark made first billion (1:02:39) - Dallas Mavericks (1:08:05) - DEI debate (1:43:58) - Trump vs Biden (1:46:20) - Immigration (1:55:53) - Drugs and Big Pharma (2:11:53) - AI (2:16:05) - Advice for young people

    #421 – Dana White: UFC, Fighting, Khabib, Conor, Tyson, Ali, Rogan, Elon & Zuck

    #421 – Dana White: UFC, Fighting, Khabib, Conor, Tyson, Ali, Rogan, Elon & Zuck
    Dana White is the CEO and president of the UFC. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/lex to get 20% off Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/dana-white-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Dana's X: https://x.com/danawhite Dana's Instagram: https://instagram.com/danawhite Dana's Facebook: https://facebook.com/danawhite UFC's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@UFC UFC's Website: https://ufc.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:31) - Mike Tyson and early days of fighting (17:10) - Jiu jitsu (23:14) - Origin of UFC (37:25) - Joe Rogan (43:31) - Lorenzo Fertitta (45:58) - Great fighters (49:55) - Khabib vs Conor (53:01) - Jon Jones (56:03) - Conor McGregor (1:01:05) - Trump (1:06:44) - Elon vs Zuck (1:08:04) - Mike Tyson vs Jake Paul (1:10:52) - Forrest Griffin vs Stephan Bonnar (1:18:06) - Gambling (1:33:08) - Mortality

    #420 – Annie Jacobsen: Nuclear War, CIA, KGB, Aliens, Area 51, Roswell & Secrecy

    #420 – Annie Jacobsen: Nuclear War, CIA, KGB, Aliens, Area 51, Roswell & Secrecy
    Annie Jacobsen is an investigative journalist and author of "Nuclear War: A Scenario" and many other books on war, weapons, government secrecy, and national security. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - HiddenLayer: https://hiddenlayer.com/lex - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/annie-jacobsen-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Nuclear War: A Scenario (book): https://amzn.to/3THZHfr Annie's Twitter: https://twitter.com/anniejacobsen Annie's Website: https://anniejacobsen.com/ Annie's Books: https://amzn.to/3TGWyMJ Annie's Books (audio): https://adbl.co/49ZnI7c PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:37) - Nuclear war (12:21) - Launch procedure (18:00) - Deterrence (21:34) - Tactical nukes (30:59) - Nuclear submarines (33:59) - Nuclear missiles (41:10) - Nuclear football (50:17) - Missile interceptor system (54:34) - North Korea (1:01:10) - Nuclear war scenarios (1:10:02) - Warmongers (1:14:31) - President's cognitive ability (1:20:43) - Refusing orders (1:28:41) - Russia and Putin (1:33:48) - Cyberattack (1:35:09) - Ground zero of nuclear war (1:39:48) - Surviving nuclear war (1:44:06) - Nuclear winter (1:54:29) - Alien civilizations (2:00:04) - Extrasensory perception (2:13:50) - Area 51 (2:17:48) - UFOs and aliens (2:28:15) - Roswell incident (2:34:55) - CIA assassinations (2:53:47) - Navalny (2:56:12) - KGB (3:02:48) - Hitler and the atomic bomb (3:06:52) - War and human nature (3:10:17) - Hope