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    #247 – Jamie Metzl: Lab Leak Theory

    More transparency and examination is needed for research conducted at places like the Wuhan Institute of Virology. The ethics of this type of research should be thoughtfully considered and full access to records and databases should be required before funding is provided.

    enDecember 08, 2021

    About this Episode

    Jamie Metzl is an author specializing in topics of genetic engineering, biotechnology, and geopolitics. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Mizzen+Main: https://mizzenandmain.com and use code LEX to get $35 off - NI: https://www.ni.com/perspectives - GiveDirectly: https://givedirectly.org/lex to get gift matched up to $300 - Indeed: https://indeed.com/lex to get $75 credit - Blinkist: https://blinkist.com/lex and use code LEX to get 25% off premium EPISODE LINKS: Jamie's Twitter: https://twitter.com/JamieMetzl Jamie's Website: https://jamiemetzl.com/ Jamie's lab leak blog post: https://jamiemetzl.com/origins-of-sars-cov-2/ Hacking Darwin (book): https://amzn.to/3lLqLsM PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:44) - Lab leak (1:06:18) - Gain-of-function research (1:15:49) - Anthony Fauci (1:25:31) - Francis Collins (1:30:13) - Joe Rogan, Brett Weinstein, and Sam Harris (2:00:10) - Xi Jinping (2:14:41) - Patient Zero (2:27:55) - WHO (2:51:45) - Government transparency (3:13:45) - Likelihood of a cover-up (3:15:34) - Future of reproduction (3:51:12) - Jon Stewart (3:56:31) - Joe Rogan and Sanjay Gupta (4:21:36) - Ultramarathons (4:31:38) - Chocolate (4:39:51) - One Shared World (4:54:54) - Hope for the future

    🔑 Key Takeaways

    • The origin of COVID-19 may have been an accidental lab incident at the Wuhan Institute of Virology, considering evidence supporting the lab leak hypothesis and the virus's history of adaptation from a backbone.
    • There is no clear evidence to support the theory that COVID-19 originated from an animal in the market or a farm. It is crucial to continue researching the virus's origins to prevent and control future pandemics.
    • Despite early speculation, the seafood market in Wuhan is not necessarily the source of the COVID-19 outbreak. The lack of transparency from China has made it difficult to fully understand the origins and extent of the pandemic.
    • The Wuhan Institute of Virology's deletion of a viral database just before the emergence of COVID-19 raises concerns about a possible cover-up. The missing database could have provided important insights into the origin and evolution of the virus.
    • Early cover-up by Chinese officials led to lack of data and transparency, preventing scientists from drawing conclusions and allowing conspiracy theories to spread. Highlighted issues with authoritarian regimes and their priorities.
    • Even when intuition comes from an unexpected source, it should not be ignored. Trusting one's intuition can lead to important discoveries and prevent potential dangers.
    • The Wuhan lab was working with dangerous coronaviruses in conditions that could lead to leaks. Collaborations and consideration of consequences are vital to combat pandemics that do not respect borders.
    • Understanding the origins of COVID-19 is still being investigated, and studying dangerous viruses to predict future pandemics has led to creating potentially dangerous viruses. International collaboration is crucial for combating pandemics.
    • In 2018, a proposal was made to genetically engineer bat coronaviruses with furin cleavage sites to make it easier for them to infect human cells. It is unknown if this research continued at the Wuhan Institute of Virology, and the lack of transparency raises concern.
    • The absence of clear information on COVID-19's origin raises concerns. The debate around gain of function research and Dr. Fauci's funding is ongoing while the virus's origins continue to impact the world.
    • More transparency and examination is needed for research conducted at places like the Wuhan Institute of Virology. The ethics of this type of research should be thoughtfully considered and full access to records and databases should be required before funding is provided.
    • Comprehensive investigation into the origins of COVID-19 is necessary, including transparency, honesty, vulnerability, and taking responsibility for mistakes made in the past by governments and leaders around the world.
    • Public health experts must balance uncertainty and clear guidelines. Honesty about known and unknown information is critical to maintaining trust and credibility. Transparency is essential in earning trust and avoiding false consensus.
    • While evidence suggests a lab incident origin of COVID-19, conclusive proof is lacking. Transparency is crucial in preventing future pandemics and holding those responsible accountable. Asking hard questions and avoiding cover-ups is essential.
    • Disagreeing with others is healthy and can lead to a deeper understanding of a topic. People should welcome criticism and aim for constructive conversations, even when they disagree, to avoid being stuck in echo chambers created by social media.
    • In order to understand the complexities of the world, it's important to engage in conversations with people of different backgrounds and use multiple lenses to approach situations. Demonizing a country or falling into binary thinking can hinder understanding.
    • Our actions have implications for others around the world. International cooperation and negotiation, along with addressing internal pathologies and lack of civil and political rights, are crucial in responding to a global crisis like COVID-19.
    • Investigating the origins of COVID-19 is important, but barriers such as fear and cultural understanding must be addressed. We must also recognize the beauty and complexity of Chinese culture, while still holding their government accountable for their actions.
    • China's government is determined to become the leading global power, but their methods such as the destruction of democracy, illegal seizure of territory, and censorship pose a threat to democracy and human rights worldwide. We must seek a positive relationship while holding them accountable.
    • Speaking out against the Chinese government can result in dire consequences such as disappearance and loss of everything. The government values control and stability over individual freedom, which hinders progress and development.
    • Empowering workers with access and voice fosters innovation and growth in authoritarian regimes. More conversation and information are preferable to censorship, and balancing power and freedom is essential for sustainable growth.
    • The origin of COVID-19 is still not clear, but some possible sources include a remote village, infected animals from Southern China, or a laboratory incident. However, no conclusive evidence has been found yet.
    • Investigating the origin of COVID-19 is crucial to fully understand how the virus originated. All information must be gathered to draw connections between viruses and pinpoint the precise cause of the outbreak.
    • A thorough and independent investigation is needed to determine the origins of COVID-19 in Wuhan. The WHO relies on member states for information and funding, which can limit its ability to act independently. The organization should have condemned China's initial misinformation about the virus.
    • China hid the true severity of the pandemic early on and prevented investigations. They also lied about human-to-human transmission and imprisoned those who asked tough questions. The joint study organized by China was compromised and limited to investigating the natural origins of the virus.
    • A "controlled study tour" ruled out a lab leak as "extremely unlikely" in the origins of COVID-19. However, WHO has called for a full investigation, highlighting the need for an independent, unbiased examination.
    • The WHO has responded to criticism by creating SAGA, a group of 26 experts investigating the origins of novel pathogens, but some critics are pushing for a more comprehensive investigation and more resources for independent WHO investigations.
    • While transparency is key, the Chinese government is hesitant to admit to a lab leak due to the potential consequences, such as demands for reparations and political fallout. The cover-up of Chernobyl serves as a cautionary tale.
    • It is important for countries to be transparent and accountable in handling pandemics to prevent loss of lives and stop the spread of the virus. Collaboration and investment in measures to prevent future outbreaks are crucial.
    • The building of BSL four labs in China highlights the importance of government transparency and accountability. Free speech is essential for holding the government accountable, as recognized by the founding fathers of the United States.
    • It is crucial to have a system of accountability in any government, and individuals with authority can play a critical role in asking tough questions. Lack of transparency can lead to significant harm and misconceptions.
    • Technology in reproduction is transforming rapidly, and we are capable of controlling the genetic code of our offspring. However, ethical and biological concerns need to be addressed before proceeding with the genetic engineering of humans.
    • Advancements in genetic testing and editing allow for the selection of embryos based on desired traits, height, IQ, and personality style. This personalized healthcare is based on an individual's unique genetic makeup.
    • Editing genes is becoming more predictable thanks to machine learning, but ethical concerns around genetic selection based on IQ measurements may create a divided society with classes of super intelligent people making decisions for everyone else.
    • IQ tests can measure various cognitive abilities, but using them as a basis for selection or discrimination can lead to equity issues. Society needs to consider the values promoted in procreation choices while being aware of potential dangers and impacts on humanity.
    • As we advance technologically, it's essential to have open discussions about our values and identity. The legacy of our ideas will be crucial in navigating a time of exponential technological change.
    • As humans gain the ability to manipulate genetic information, we must be cautious of our intentions and biases. Diversity, kindness, humor, and self-acceptance are essential to responsibly utilizing this technology for the betterment of humanity.
    • Humor can help scientists express ideas concisely and authentically, but those with large followings must also share accurate information and use their platforms responsibly. Effective communication and accuracy are crucial in science communication.
    • COVID-19 vaccines are a safe and effective tool to prevent severe infection and hospitalization. Despite anecdotal reports of adverse effects, statistical evidence supports their efficacy in reducing the spread of the virus. If you have any concerns about vaccination, seek medical advice.
    • Listen to concerns about the vaccine, engage in respectful conversation through steel manning arguments, approach with humility and active listening, emphasize the collective benefits for public health.
    • Getting vaccinated is a crucial part of controlling the spread of COVID-19 and protecting public health. While there may be some drawbacks and concerns surrounding the vaccination process, the benefits far outweigh any potential downsides.
    • Finding a balance between individual empowerment and collective needs is crucial, especially in times of crisis like the COVID-19 pandemic. Extreme sports can reveal hidden resources, while studying solutions through proper processes is necessary.
    • Challenge yourself to reach new heights and take on new challenges while being mindful of your body's limits. Start by registering for an ultra marathon, building up strength and mileage gradually, and discover the joy of exploring your full potential.
    • Through positive self-talk and perseverance, anyone can overcome obstacles and tap into their inner potential. So, never give up and embrace the possibilities within yourself.
    • By acknowledging and appreciating the people and processes involved in the creation of something as simple as chocolate, we can cultivate gratitude for the world around us and find greater meaning in everyday experiences.
    • To solve the challenges of our time, Jamie Metzl emphasizes preparing for pandemics, addressing climate change, and preventing nuclear warfare. This requires a global system that transcends national sovereignties, as highlighted in One Shared World's Declaration of Interdependence.
    • One Shared World brings together millions of people globally to demand that leaders prioritize the broader interests of humanity. Through partnerships and actionable plans, the movement demonstrates the power of people to effect meaningful change in the world.
    • Bringing people together to articulate change and create scalable movements is vital for achieving a better future. Young people can challenge the monetary system with cryptocurrencies and blockchain, and creating a sense of stakeholder ownership is crucial for positive change.
    • Invest in understanding yourself and prioritize continuous learning. Embrace mistakes and challenges, and cultivate self-love and recognition. With perseverance, better things may come in the future.

    📝 Podcast Summary

    The Lab Leak Hypothesis: Evidence and Probability

    Jamie Metzl, an author specialized in genetics and biotechnology, has been collecting extensive circumstantial evidence in support of the lab leak hypothesis that COVID-19 leaked from the Wuhan Institute of Virology. He believes that there is a higher probability of the pandemic originating from an accidental lab incident. He explains that a virus like SARS-CoV-2 has a history and does not come out of whole cloth. It morphs and adapts from a backbone, like the horseshoe bat virus, that may have jumped from an intermediate species to humans. While the natural origins hypothesis is plausible, there is no evidence to support it compared to the extensive evidence supporting the lab leak hypothesis.

    Theories on the Origins of COVID-19 and the Need for Continued Research

    The origins of the COVID-19 virus are still unclear, but some theories suggest it may have originated from an animal in the market or a farm. However, there is currently no evidence to support this theory, as viruses are constantly undergoing evolution before they can infect humans. While certain papers argue for a natural origin and suggest that the Hunan market was the epicenter, there is still no clear evidence to support this claim. It is crucial to continue analyzing and researching the origins of COVID-19 to better understand how to prevent and control future pandemics.

    The Controversy Around the Wuhan Seafood Market and COVID-19 Origins

    In this section, Jamie Metzl discusses the origins of COVID-19 and the controversy surrounding the seafood market in Wuhan, China. He explains that while the market likely played a role in amplifying the virus, it is not necessarily the source of the outbreak. Metzl also highlights the lack of transparency and information from the Chinese government, which has hindered efforts to understand the origins of the pandemic. The key takeaway is that it is difficult to use the seafood market as evidence for the origins of COVID-19, and there are still many unknowns about how the pandemic started due to a lack of information and transparency from the Chinese government.

    The Disappearance of a Viral Database and its Connection to COVID-19 Origin Theories

    The Wuhan Institute of Virology had a public database containing 22,000 viral samples that disappeared in September 2019. Coincidentally, this was just before the first reported cases of COVID-19 emerged. Chinese officials claimed that the database was taken down due to cyber-attacks, but this excuse is suspicious, considering the timing of the deletion. Some have even suggested that the virus could have already been spreading in September 2019, which raises further questions. The disappearance of the database has fueled speculation that there was a cover-up surrounding the origins of the virus. The database was intended to help understand viral evolution, so its disappearance is highly concerning.

    China's COVID-19 Response Failure

    The early response to the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China was marred by a cover-up by local officials who initially sought to suppress information and messages of concern from doctors and other individuals. The national government of China eventually got involved and chose to join in the cover-up rather than being transparent about the situation. The government's actions led to a lack of data and information, and the Chinese scientists were prevented from saying anything about the pandemic's origins. This resulted in responsible scientists outside of China not having enough information to draw conclusions, leading to a vacuum of credible information that conspiracy theories eventually filled. Overall, the COVID-19 outbreak in China highlighted the problematic nature of authoritarian regimes, which prioritize political survival over transparency and public health.

    The Wuhan Institute of Virology and the Importance of Trusting Intuition.

    The Wuhan Institute of Virology, where the theory of the COVID-19 virus being accidentally leaked from a lab originated, was built with the help of French contractors and overseers. However, the Chinese contractors took over, and the French had less and less control. The finished lab didn't meet French safety standards, and the French VP of the project refused to sign off, saying it was unsafe. While President Trump's calling for an investigation into the lab may have been delivered uncouthly, his intuition that the virus may have come from the lab was correct, according to Jamie Metzl. It's essential to trust intuition, even if it comes from an unexpected source.

    Concerns about Safety and Operations at Wuhan Virology Lab Raised Before Pandemic

    The Wuhan Institute of Virology, which was at the center of the COVID-19 pandemic, had safety and operational concerns raised about it even before its opening in 2018. These concerns were raised by French intelligence agencies and the US embassy in Beijing. The lab was believed to be working with dangerous bat coronaviruses in conditions that could lead to leaks. Additionally, partnerships and collaborations with experts in different parts of the world are important to understand and combat pandemics that do not respect borders. Peter Daszak of the EcoHealth Alliance, who was funding the Wuhan lab, believed he was doing important work, however, the consequences of such work should have been taken into account.

    The Origins of COVID-19 and the Need for International Collaboration

    The conversation around the origins of COVID-19 has been politically charged and controversial. One approach to understanding the pandemic has been to study dangerous viruses in order to predict future pandemics. However, this approach has led to creating an unlimited number of monsters and potentially dangerous viruses. People like Peter de Zack have advocated for international collaboration to combat pandemics, relying on relationships with China. However, his motivations have been called into question, as he was highly manipulative in the infamous February 2020 Lancet letter, calling those who believed in the lab leak theory conspiracy theorists. The truth about the origins of COVID-19 is still being investigated, and international collaboration is crucial for combating pandemics in the future.

    Potentially Dangerous Research on Bat Coronaviruses in China

    In 2018, a proposal was made to collect dangerous bat coronaviruses in Southern China and genetically engineer them with furin cleavage sites. These sites help the virus enter human cells through spike proteins. Although the US government did not fund this proposal, it is unclear if the Wuhan Institute of Virology continued with this research. The lack of transparency makes it an understandable possibility. Furthermore, it is clear that many Chinese scientists are learning techniques in the US and then replicating them in China, making it even more plausible. Despite this likelihood, some scientists, such as Peter Daszak, were dismissive of the lab incident origin theory, possibly due to concerns about maintaining positive relationships with colleagues in China.

    The Lack of Transparency Surrounding COVID-19 Origins

    The lack of transparency surrounding the origins of COVID-19 is concerning and goes against the debt of honesty and transparency owed by those who possess crucial information, especially when their careers are based on taxpayer funding. Despite efforts to understand the virus, there is still no solid evidence for the natural origin hypothesis, and circumstantial evidence points towards a lab origin. There has been much debate surrounding gain of function research and whether Anthony Fauci funded it at the Wuhan Institute of Virology, but it depends on the definition of gain of function and how narrowly it is interpreted. The origins of COVID-19 matter politically, scientifically, and in a human sense.

    The Politicized Debate about Gain of Function Research

    The discussion around gain of function research and its potential role in the origin of COVID-19 has been highly politicized. However, the key takeaway is that there needs to be more transparency and examination of the research being conducted at places like the Wuhan Institute of Virology. The US government should not be funding organizations where there is not full access to records and databases, and there should be a thoughtful conversation about the ethical implications of this type of research. The focus should not be on a gotcha moment, but rather on understanding the research being conducted and its potential risks.

    Investigating the Origins of COVID-19.

    Jamie Metzl is part of a group called the Paris group, consisting of two dozen experts from around the world. They have been meeting since last year to investigate the origins of COVID-19, as governments, including China and the United States, have not been transparent. Metzl believes that a comprehensive investigation is needed, not just into China, but also into ourselves, since mistakes were made on all sides. He also suggests that leaders need to be transparent, honest and vulnerable, express the full uncertainty of what they are operating under, present all possible actions and take responsibility for mistakes made in the past.

    The Importance of Transparency in the Early Days of the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Experts and institutions were not transparent enough in the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly regarding its origin. There were many questions raised, and the lack of transparency led to a false consensus. Public health experts have a difficult task of balancing uncertainty with the need for clear guidelines, and transparency is now more critical than ever. The pandemic has highlighted the importance of being honest about what is known and unknown and drawing conclusions based on available information. Trust cannot be earned solely on reputation, and transparency is essential to maintain credibility.

    Genetics Expert Discusses COVID-19 Origins and Importance of Transparency

    Jamie Metzl, a genetics expert and author, believes that while the evidence points strongly towards a lab incident origin of COVID-19, conclusive proof is still lacking. However, Metzl strongly condemns the Chinese government's cover-up and lack of transparency, which he believes led to unnecessary deaths and suffering worldwide. Metzl also acknowledges the importance of asking hard questions in conversations and interviews, something he admits he needs to work on, and applauds Joe Rogan for his skill in this area. Ultimately, Metzl believes that openness and transparency are crucial in preventing future pandemics and ensuring accountability for those responsible.

    Lex Fridman on Embracing Disagreement and Learning from Others.

    Lex Fridman, a prominent AI researcher, shares his approach to disagreement and learning from others. He disagrees with Joe Rogan, his good friend, more than they agree. However, he feels he can learn from everyone, but does not let anyone tell him what to think. Fridman empathizes with criticism and welcomes the opportunity to alter his understanding of a topic. He hopes for more love and empathy in conversations, especially among thought leaders like Bret Weinstein and Sam Harris, who have stopped talking in private due to disagreements. Fridman sees value in healthy conversations, even when people disagree, to arrive at the truth and avoid siloed information pockets created by social media.

    The Importance of Approaching Complex Situations with Openness and Multiple Lenses

    In order to create a better world, it's essential to engage with people of different backgrounds and have conversations to understand each other's perspectives. It's easy to fall into the trap of demonizing countries like China, but it's important to approach the situation with honesty and recognize the complexities of the situation. The director of the Wuhan Institute of Virology, Shi Zhengli, is a respected scientist who may be forced to lie by an authoritarian government. It's crucial to use multiple lenses, including science and geopolitics, to fully understand complex situations. It's important to avoid falling into binary thinking and to approach situations with an open mind.

    The Importance of Global Cooperation During a Pandemic

    The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of global cooperation, as all countries are stakeholders in one another's fates. While it may be tempting to focus on improving one's own community or country, it is crucial to recognize that our actions have implications for others around the world. International organizations, such as the World Health Organization, are working to negotiate a global pandemic treaty to improve crisis response. However, the Chinese government's internal pathologies and lack of civil and political rights have contributed to the spread of the virus, and interviewing Chinese officials or scientists may be difficult due to the government's gag order and discomfort with unknown questions.

    Lack of Investigation into Pandemic Origins and Fear of Whistleblowers

    Jamie Metzl expressed his shock at the lack of international investigation into the origins of the pandemic. He asked an important question during an event, which was covered in news media. He also mentioned that there is no whistleblower provision and people with relevant information are afraid to share it. Language barrier and lack of effort by journalists to understand the culture of the people they are interviewing is also a concern. Chinese culture has a rich history and is beautiful. Metzl is a strong critic of the Chinese government and speaks out against their actions.

    China's Authoritarian Tactics in Pursuit of Global Dominance

    China's government is ruthless and strategic in its aim to establish themselves as the leading country globally by the 100th anniversary of the modern Chinese state. However, their vision of what that entails may not be shareable for the rest of the world. The destruction of democracy in Hong Kong, illegal efforts to seize the South China Sea, and censorship of journalism are just a few examples of China's authoritarian tactics. While China's culture is fantastic and the country has a lot in common with the United States, if we only focus on the reasons for division and not the potential for a beautiful relationship, we risk disastrous outcomes.

    The Cost of Speaking Out in China

    The Chinese government's censorship is petty and authoritarian, and those who speak out risk losing everything, as seen in the examples of the disappearance of a tennis player and a Chinese movie star. While some hope for increased freedom of speech and press, the Chinese government cannot maintain its current form if this were to happen, as it would challenge the legitimacy of the communist party and expose their past actions, such as Mao's disastrous policies that resulted in the death of millions. Despite the benefits of individual freedom of speech for entrepreneurship and idea development, the Chinese government values maintaining control and stability over economic growth.

    The Importance of Balancing Power and Freedom for Sustainable Growth in Authoritarian Regimes.

    The conversation discusses balancing power and freedom in authoritarian regimes, using North Korea as an example. While the government attempted to establish economic zones, they lacked the necessary knowledge and market information to compete globally. The expert advises that empowering workers with voice and access fosters innovation and growth. The discussion also addresses the failure cases of freedom of speech, highlighting that more information and conversation is preferable to censorship. Overall, the key takeaway is that balancing power and freedom is essential for sustainable growth in authoritarian regimes, and empowering workers with access and voice is crucial for innovation and success.

    The Mystery Surrounding the Origin of COVID-19

    The origin of COVID-19 remains uncertain, but researchers have proposed several possibilities. The first person infected with the virus, known as patient zero, may have been asymptomatic or never presented themselves in a health facility. Some potential sources include a remote village, infected animals from Southern China, or a laboratory incident. It is suggested that the most probable cause is connected to the Wuhan Institute of Virology, where researchers may have been exposed to the virus while collecting viral samples or through waste disposal issues. However, the origin of the virus remains a mystery, and credible individuals continue to present alternative scenarios.

    The Importance of Investigating the Origin of COVID-19

    Jamie Metzl, a science and technology expert, emphasizes the importance of investigating the origin of the COVID-19 pandemic. He believes that if investigators had full access to lab notes and every virus being held at the Wuhan Institute of Virology and Wuhan CDC, there would be a greater likelihood of pinpointing the precise cause of the outbreak. While our ATG 13, a virus collected in China, is relatively similar to SARS COVID-2, there are still genetic differences that prevent it from being the "backbone" for the virus. Metzl argues that it's crucial to have access to all information available to us to draw connections between viruses and fully understand how COVID-19 originated.

    Investigating the Origins of COVID-19 in Wuhan and the Role of the WHO in the Pandemic

    The speaker emphasizes the need for a comprehensive international investigation in Wuhan to understand the origins of COVID-19. He believes that the Chinese government may be preventing investigations and has hidden relevant records and samples. He also briefly discusses the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the pandemic and its relationship with China. The WHO is an essential organization for addressing public health issues, but it is dependent on member states for information and funding, which affects its ability to act independently. The speaker suggests that the WHO made a mistake by not condemning China's lies about human-to-human transmission early on, but he also understands the challenging position of the organization in dealing with member states.

    The Chinese Coverup of the Pandemic

    During the early days of the pandemic, the Chinese government covered up the severity of the situation and prevented the world health organization from investigating for over three weeks. They also lied about human-to-human transmission, destroyed records, and imprisoned people who asked tough questions. China only shared the genetic sequence of the virus after sitting on it for two weeks against their will. The prime minister of Australia called for a full investigation, but China attacked him personally and imposed trade sanctions on Australia. The joint study organized by China was deeply flawed and compromised, with China delaying negotiations and having veto power over the international team's membership. The team was only allowed to investigate the natural origins of the virus, and one American member, who had a funding relationship with the Wuhan Institute of Virology, was involved.

    Criticisms of WHO-led COVID-19 Origins Study in China

    The WHO-led study on the origins of COVID-19 in China was criticized for being a controlled "study tour" rather than a proper investigation. The study ruled out a lab leak as "extremely unlikely" and suggested a "natural origin" or transmission through frozen food. However, this conclusion was based on a show of hands and a horse-trading deal with Chinese authorities. Later, the WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus called for a full investigation with access to raw data and a full audit of Wuhan labs. These events highlight the need for an independent, unbiased investigation into the origins of the pandemic.

    WHO Establishes SAGA for Investigating Pathogen Origins

    The WHO has established a new scientific advisory group, called SAGA, to investigate the origins of novel pathogens. This move comes after the world community accused the WHO of providing compromised and inaccurate reports. The advisory group comprises of 26 experts, but some critics are not satisfied with its composition. There are still concerns that the natural origins hypothesis is being favored over the lab leak theory, and advocacy groups are pushing for a more comprehensive investigation. It is also essential that the WHO be given more power and resources to carry out independent investigations, without compromising the sovereignty of any state.

    Why the Chinese Government is Reluctant to Discuss the Lab Leak Theory

    The key takeaway from this section is that in an ideal world, the Chinese government should be transparent by sharing raw data, allowing comprehensive investigations, and letting scientists speak publicly. However, the potential consequences of admitting to a lab leak and the subsequent cover-up are enormous, such as demands for reparations and the possibility of Xi Jinping being deposed. The cover-up of Chernobyl played a role in the end of communist power in the Soviet Union, and the Chinese are aware of the potential geopolitical implications of admitting to a lab leak. While lab leaks happen, and they shouldn't happen, the potential impact and consequences of admitting one are significant.

    Importance of Transparency and Accountability in Preventing Pandemics

    The key takeaway from this section is that transparency and accountability are crucial in preventing the damage caused by future pandemics. China's initial cover-up of the COVID-19 outbreak and refusal to cooperate with investigations hindered efforts to control the spread of the virus and contributed to the loss of countless lives. If China had been transparent and admitted responsibility from the start, it could have potentially saved lives and prevented the pandemic from reaching a global scale. Moving forward, it is important for all countries to prioritize transparency and collaboration in addressing pandemics and investing in measures to prevent future outbreaks.

    China's BSL Four Labs and the Importance of Government Transparency

    China is building BSL four labs in every province, which raises concerns about their intentions with advanced science and their commitment to defending national sovereignty, rather than strengthening the rules-based international order. The cover-up of the COVID-19 outbreak highlights the importance of transparency in government, regardless of the country. Free speech and a free press are important, but ultimately, it is the government's responsibility to be transparent and accountable to its citizens. The founding fathers of the United States recognized the government's potential to do the wrong thing, which is why free speech is essential for holding the government accountable.

    The Importance of Questioning Authority for Accountability

    The US government system is based on a voice of authority to balance power between the people and the government, which allows for questions to be asked and systems of accountability to form. Congressman Ron Paul is an example of someone who can use their authority to ask tough questions and challenge the government's actions. The pandemic's origin is currently a topic of debate, but the likelihood of a cover-up is high, which has caused significant harm. There have been restrictions on information and access to resources, revealing a lack of transparency. Sex has been used to mix genetic information for adaptation, but such discussions can lead to misinterpretation.

    Exploring the Future of Human Reproduction and the Winning Genetic Code

    The podcast conversation touches on the concept of genetic uniqueness and the sheer number of possible trajectories of lives that could have been created from the 500 billion plus sperm cells each male produces in their lifetime. The winning sperm is not necessarily the fastest, but rather the luckiest with the right timing. With the increasing availability of technology such as in vitro fertilization and pre-implantation genetic testing, there is a revolutionary transformation in human reproduction happening. The implications of the future of human reproduction are explored in the book "Hacking Darwin: Genetic Engineering and the Future of Humanity". The conversation delves into ethical and biological perspectives when contemplating future technology control over the winning genetic code of offspring.

    Embryo Selection through Genetic Testing and Editing

    As we learn more about genetics and our ability to sequence and analyze genomes increases, we will have the ability to select which embryos to implant based on a range of traits and predispositions, including height, IQ, and personality style. This is possible due to pre-implantation genetic testing, which allows for screening of deadly genetic mutations, and the upcoming technology of human genome editing. By using induced pluripotent stem cells, we can turn adult cells into stem cells and then into egg cells, greatly increasing our options for selecting the ideal embryo. This opens up a new era of personalized healthcare based on an individual's unique genetic makeup.

    The Complexities of Genetic Engineering and Gene Editing

    The field of genetic engineering and gene editing is incredibly complex, and the decision to change one gene needs to take into account the simultaneous effects that gene may have on the body. However, as machine learning improves, editing genes reliably becomes more predictable. There are ethical concerns around genetic selection based on measurements like IQ, which could lead to a divided society with classes of super intelligent people making decisions for everyone else. While IQ is not a perfect measure of intelligence, it does correlate with many factors like higher income and longer life expectancy.

    The Problems with Using IQ Tests for Selection and Discrimination

    IQ tests measure various cognitive abilities such as memorization and spatial awareness, and people who score high in one area tend to score high in others. However, using IQ as a basis for selection or discrimination can be problematic, especially when it comes to equity issues. Darwinian diversity is essential for survival but can't predict which traits will be rewarded in a given environment. For example, if society selected for high IQ, it could lead to individuals born in slums or refugee camps being chosen over legacy admissions to Harvard. Therefore, we need to consider what values we want to promote in our procreation choices while being aware of the potential dangers and impact on our humanity.

    The Importance of Engaging in Conversations about Ethics and Values in a Technological World

    Science is rapidly advancing, but it's important to remember that conversations about ethics and values are just as essential. As we move towards a world where natural selection is no longer the sole determinant of our genetic makeup, the idea of identity is likely to dissolve, and the legacy of our ideas will become more important than the details of our physical embodiment. It's crucial to engage not just experts and government officials, but the broader public in these conversations. We must be clear on who we are and what our values are, as this will be our primary navigational tool in a time of exponential technological change. Even as technology progresses, it's unlikely that humans will stop having sex, as there are many reasons beyond procreation that motivate people.

    Harnessing our Power to Read, Write, and Hack the Code of Life

    The key takeaway from this section is that humans now have the unique and increasing ability to read, write, and hack the code of life. However, while applying these powers, humans need to be careful not to make mistakes guided by their best intentions. It is easy to make selections based on social norms that feel like eternal truths, but we need to be mindful of diversity, including selecting for a kind heart. Humor and metaphor can be powerful tools to reach people and make complex ideas more understandable. Finally, humans should embrace the weird quirks and flaws that make us who we are, as those traits are what make us beautiful.

    The Power of Humor in Science Communication

    The value of comedy and humor in scientific communication is highlighted in this conversation between Lex Fridman and Jamie Metzl. They discuss how the ability to use humor can express what others are thinking in a concise and refreshing way. When scientists allow themselves to regularly say stupid things, have fun, and make fun of themselves, they give themselves the freedom to think, reason out, and be authentic. However, there is also a responsibility for those with large followings, like Joe Rogan, to share accurate information and not dismiss their platform's power. While personal opinions may differ, the importance of effective communication and the responsibility to share accurate information remains crucial.

    Safety and Efficacy of COVID-19 Vaccines

    The COVID-19 vaccines are considered safe and well tolerated. They work by getting the body to replicate a small part of the virus, rather than infecting it with the full virus. However, there is no guarantee of 100% safety. People who have already been infected with COVID-19 should be studied to determine if they need vaccination. In a debate between Sanjay Gupta and Joe Rogan, Sanjay used statistical evidence while Joe used anecdotal evidence to make his points. While there are people who have had problems with the vaccine, more people who have not been vaccinated have ended up in hospitals, according to statistics.

    Overcoming Hesitancy towards COVID-19 Vaccination through Productive Discussions

    There are multiple reasons why people are hesitant to get the COVID-19 vaccine, including distrust of the scientific establishment and historical mistreatment of certain populations. It is important to listen to these concerns and address them respectfully, while also emphasizing the collective benefits of vaccination for public health. Steel manning arguments, or attempting to understand and articulate the opposing viewpoint in the strongest possible way, can lead to more productive and respectful discussions. It is important to approach these conversations with humility and active listening, rather than dismissing opposing viewpoints without fully understanding them.

    Examining the Pros and Cons of Vaccination

    During a conversation between Joe Rogan and Sanjay Gupta, the goal was to bring the temperature down and have a real conversation. While the conversation was successful, some takeaways suggested that young and healthy people may not need vaccines. However, a reasonable person listening to the conversation would come away with the conclusion that all vaccines are a good thing, and the virus itself is much scarier. The vaccination process is not just a public health tool, but it can increase bureaucracy and control. While there could have been other solutions to tackle COVID, the vaccine's success in developing in 11 months and preventing deaths is a miracle.

    Balancing the Importance of Individualism and Collective Needs in Government Action

    The United States has a history of individualism and hesitancy to ideas of mandates, which can hinder progress and government action. However, it is important to find the right balance between individual empowerment and collective needs, such as in the case of the COVID-19 pandemic. We should be cautious of government overreach, but also aware of the limitations of individual actions and the need for common rules. Exploration of physical limits through extreme sports can teach us that there are often untapped resources within ourselves. It is also important to study potential solutions, such as the drug ivermectin, through a full and proper process.

    Pushing Yourself Beyond Perceived Limits

    The key takeaway from this section is to challenge our self-imposed limitations and expand our possibilities. Jamie Metzl suggests that we should push ourselves to reach new heights and take on new challenges while being mindful of not hurting ourselves or others. In terms of running, he recommends starting by registering for an ultra marathon and building up the strength and mileage in a steady way, while listening to our bodies and taking rest days. He also highlights the enjoyment of ultra marathons, especially those with supportive stops for food and breaks. Ultimately, the message is to push ourselves beyond our perceived limits and discover the joy of exploring our full potential.

    Jamie Metzl's Extreme Adventures and Chocolate Shamanism

    Jamie Metzl completed the Taiwanese 100 K trail run, which took 19 hours and involved running through torrential rivers, climbing cliffs, and enduring long stretches of running, all while carrying heavy gear. Metzl's mantra was "quitting isn't an option" and he relied on positive self-talk to keep going. As a lover of chocolate, Metzl became the official "chocolate shaman" of what was formerly known as Exponential Medicine. He also leads sacred cacao ceremonies, which he believes can help people tap into their inner potential and overcome obstacles. Metzl encourages people to get out of their own way and embrace the possibilities within themselves.

    Recognizing Sacredness in Our Daily Lives: The Power of Cacao Ceremonies

    Jamie Metzl is a chocolate shaman who conducts sacred cacao ceremonies. He believes that everything is sacred, but we need to attribute sacredness to it first. During his ceremonies, he reminds people of the people involved in making the cacao, from the person who planted the seed to the person who watered the plant. He emphasizes the importance of awareness and appreciation for the world around us, recognizing our connection to others. He believes that recognizing the sacredness of everything can make our lives feel more sacred, and that is the core of gratitude and appreciation. By doing this, we can celebrate life in general and appreciate the senses like taste.

    The Need for Global Interdependence

    Jamie Metzl, a leading futurist, emphasizes the need for global interdependence to solve the challenges of our time. He highlights the importance of preparing for pandemics, addressing climate change, and preventing nuclear warfare. Metzl believes that the current system of nation-states, established after the Peace of Westphalia, is not sufficient to solve these issues. He calls for an overlay of global systems that transcend national sovereignties. Metzl formed an organization called One Shared World to work towards achieving global interdependence. The organization has participants from 120 countries and has drafted a Declaration of Interdependence, available in 20 languages.

    One Shared World: Empowering a Global Community for Collective Action

    The One Shared World movement aims to create an empowered global community of people who demand that their leaders, at national and corporate levels, do a better job of balancing their interests with the broader interests of human civilization. Drawing on the input of millions of viewers, world leaders, and young people worldwide, the movement addresses fundamental problems affecting humanity, such as climate change, pandemics, and WMDs. Through partnerships with organizations like the Model UN, AGA Khan Foundation, and India Sanitation Coalition, the movement fosters discussions, debates, and consultations that lead to actionable plans and UN resolutions that address these issues. The movement shows that humans, especially young people, have the power, education, and connectivity to effect meaningful change in the world.

    Engaging People Beyond Power Structures

    The key takeaway from this section is that engaging people, especially those outside traditional power structures, is essential for driving the change required for a better future. However, it's not enough to just attend events or concerts and tweet about them. People need to come together and articulate the change they want, build popular movements that can scale and have a significant impact. Young people can challenge power structures by challenging the monetary system through cryptocurrencies and blockchain. Despite the dangers, there's a lot of hope and optimism for the future, and creating an infrastructure where people feel like stakeholders is crucial for driving positive change. The advice for young people is to believe in their power to change the world and to build the frameworks and structures needed for inspiring leaders to emerge.

    The Importance of Self-Discovery and Continuous Learning for a Fulfilling Life

    In order to lead a fulfilling life and make meaningful contributions, it's important to invest in understanding who you are and what you stand for. Developing a creative and curious mind that prioritizes continuous learning is also valuable. It's okay to make mistakes and take wrong paths, but having self-love and recognition can help lead to a path of growth and progress. Additionally, when faced with challenges or difficulties, remember that there is always a possibility to keep pushing forward and that better things may come in the future.

    Recent Episodes from Lex Fridman Podcast

    #429 – Paul Rosolie: Jungle, Apex Predators, Aliens, Uncontacted Tribes, and God

    #429 – Paul Rosolie: Jungle, Apex Predators, Aliens, Uncontacted Tribes, and God
    Paul Rosolie is a naturalist, explorer, author, and founder of Junglekeepers, dedicating his life to protecting the Amazon rainforest. Support his efforts at https://junglekeepers.org Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ShipStation: https://shipstation.com/lex and use code LEX to get 60-day free trial - Yahoo Finance: https://yahoofinance.com - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get $350 off - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/paul-rosolie-2-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Paul's Instagram: https://instagram.com/paulrosolie Junglekeepers: https://junglekeepers.org Paul's Website: https://paulrosolie.com Mother of God (book): https://amzn.to/3ww2ob1 PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (12:29) - Amazon jungle (14:47) - Bushmaster snakes (26:13) - Black caiman (44:33) - Rhinos (47:47) - Anacondas (1:18:04) - Mammals (1:30:10) - Piranhas (1:41:00) - Aliens (1:58:45) - Elephants (2:10:02) - Origin of life (2:23:21) - Explorers (2:36:38) - Ayahuasca (2:45:03) - Deep jungle expedition (2:59:09) - Jane Goodall (3:01:41) - Theodore Roosevelt (3:12:36) - Alone show (3:22:23) - Protecting the rainforest (3:38:36) - Snake makes appearance (3:46:47) - Uncontacted tribes (4:00:11) - Mortality (4:01:39) - Steve Irwin (4:09:18) - God
    Lex Fridman Podcast
    enMay 15, 2024

    #428 – Sean Carroll: General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Black Holes & Aliens

    #428 – Sean Carroll: General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Black Holes & Aliens
    Sean Carroll is a theoretical physicist, author, and host of Mindscape podcast. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - HiddenLayer: https://hiddenlayer.com/lex - Cloaked: https://cloaked.com/lex and use code LexPod to get 25% off - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/sean-carroll-3-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Sean's Website: https://preposterousuniverse.com Mindscape Podcast: https://www.preposterousuniverse.com/podcast/ Sean's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@seancarroll Sean's Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/seanmcarroll Sean's Twitter: https://twitter.com/seanmcarroll Sean's Instagram: https://instagram.com/seanmcarroll Sean's Papers: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=Lfifrv8AAAAJ Sean's Books: https://amzn.to/3W7yT9N PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (11:03) - General relativity (23:22) - Black holes (28:11) - Hawking radiation (32:19) - Aliens (41:15) - Holographic principle (1:05:38) - Dark energy (1:11:38) - Dark matter (1:20:34) - Quantum mechanics (1:41:56) - Simulation (1:44:18) - AGI (1:58:42) - Complexity (2:11:25) - Consciousness (2:20:32) - Naturalism (2:24:49) - Limits of science (2:29:34) - Mindscape podcast (2:39:29) - Einstein

    #427 – Neil Adams: Judo, Olympics, Winning, Losing, and the Champion Mindset

    #427 – Neil Adams: Judo, Olympics, Winning, Losing, and the Champion Mindset
    Neil Adams is a judo world champion, 2-time Olympic silver medalist, 5-time European champion, and often referred to as the Voice of Judo. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ZipRecruiter: https://ziprecruiter.com/lex - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/neil-adams-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Neil's Instagram: https://instagram.com/naefighting Neil's YouTube: https://youtube.com/NAEffectiveFighting Neil's TikTok: https://tiktok.com/@neiladamsmbe Neil's Facebook: https://facebook.com/NeilAdamsJudo Neil's X: https://x.com/NeilAdamsJudo Neil's Website: https://naeffectivefighting.com Neil's Podcast: https://naeffectivefighting.com/podcasts/the-dojo-collective-podcast A Life in Judo (book): https://amzn.to/4d3DtfB A Game of Throws (audiobook): https://amzn.to/4aA2WeJ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (09:13) - 1980 Olympics (26:35) - Judo explained (34:40) - Winning (52:54) - 1984 Olympics (1:01:55) - Lessons from losing (1:17:37) - Teddy Riner (1:37:12) - Training in Japan (1:52:51) - Jiu jitsu (2:03:59) - Training (2:27:18) - Advice for beginners

    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs

    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs
    Edward Gibson is a psycholinguistics professor at MIT and heads the MIT Language Lab. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Yahoo Finance: https://yahoofinance.com - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/edward-gibson-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Edward's X: https://x.com/LanguageMIT TedLab: https://tedlab.mit.edu/ Edward's Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=4FsWE64AAAAJ TedLab's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@Tedlab-MIT PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (10:53) - Human language (14:59) - Generalizations in language (20:46) - Dependency grammar (30:45) - Morphology (39:20) - Evolution of languages (42:40) - Noam Chomsky (1:26:46) - Thinking and language (1:40:16) - LLMs (1:53:14) - Center embedding (2:19:42) - Learning a new language (2:23:34) - Nature vs nurture (2:30:10) - Culture and language (2:44:38) - Universal language (2:49:01) - Language translation (2:52:16) - Animal communication

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones
    Andrew Callaghan is the host of Channel 5 on YouTube, where he does street interviews with fascinating humans at the edges of society, the so-called vagrants, vagabonds, runaways, outlaws, from QAnon adherents to Phish heads to O Block residents and much more. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ShipStation: https://shipstation.com/lex and use code LEX to get 60-day free trial - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/andrew-callaghan-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Channel 5 with Andrew Callaghan: https://www.youtube.com/channel5YouTube Andrew's Instagram: https://instagram.com/andreww.me Andrew's Website: https://andrew-callaghan.com/ Andrew's Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/channel5 This Place Rules: https://www.hbo.com/movies/this-place-rules Books Mentioned: On the Road: https://amzn.to/4aLPLHi Siddhartha: https://amzn.to/49rthKz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (08:53) - Walmart (10:24) - Early life (29:14) - Hitchhiking (40:49) - Couch surfing (49:50) - Quarter Confessions (1:07:33) - Burning Man (1:22:44) - Protests (1:28:17) - Jon Stewart (1:31:13) - Fame (1:44:31) - Jan 6 (1:48:15) - QAnon (1:54:00) - Alex Jones (2:10:52) - Politics (2:20:29) - Response to allegations (2:37:28) - Channel 5 (2:43:04) - Rap (2:44:51) - O Block (2:48:47) - Crip Mac (2:51:59) - Aliens

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame
    Bassem Youssef is an Egyptian-American comedian & satirist, referred to as the Jon Stewart of the Arab World. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/bassem-youssef-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Bassem's X: https://x.com/Byoussef Bassem's Instagram: https://instagram.com/bassem Bassem's Facebook: https://facebook.com/bassemyousseftv Bassem's Website: https://bassemyoussef.xyz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:30) - Oct 7 (36:59) - Two-state solution (52:37) - Holocaust (1:00:24) - 1948 (1:09:17) - Egypt (1:23:39) - Jon Stewart (1:25:51) - Going viral during the Arab Spring (1:49:55) - Arabic vs English (2:02:18) - Sam Harris and Jihad (2:07:25) - Religion (2:26:37) - TikTok (2:31:10) - Joe Rogan (2:33:07) - Joe Biden (2:37:33) - Putin (2:39:21) - War (2:44:17) - Hope

    #423 – Tulsi Gabbard: War, Politics, and the Military Industrial Complex

    #423 – Tulsi Gabbard: War, Politics, and the Military Industrial Complex
    Tulsi Gabbard is a politician, veteran, and author of For Love of Country. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Riverside: https://creators.riverside.fm/LEX and use code LEX to get 30% off - ExpressVPN: https://expressvpn.com/lexpod to get 3 months free - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour - Notion: https://notion.com/lex Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/tulsi-gabbard-transcript EPISODE LINKS: For Love of Country (book): https://amzn.to/3VLlofM Tulsi's X: https://x.com/tulsigabbard Tulsi's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@TulsiGabbard Tulsi's Podcast: https://youtube.com/@TheTulsiGabbardShow Tulsi's Instagram: https://instagram.com/tulsigabbard Tulsi's Facebook: https://facebook.com/TulsiGabbard Tulsi's Website: https://tulsigabbard.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:14) - War in Iraq (15:00) - Battle injuries and PTSD (22:10) - War on terrorism (30:51) - War in Gaza (34:52) - War in Ukraine (38:38) - Syria (46:20) - Warmongers (55:40) - Nuclear war (1:11:08) - TikTok ban (1:23:13) - Bernie Sanders (1:28:08) - Politics (1:46:59) - Personal attacks (1:49:07) - God

    #422 – Mark Cuban: Shark Tank, DEI & Wokeism Debate, Elon Musk, Politics & Drugs

    #422 – Mark Cuban: Shark Tank, DEI & Wokeism Debate, Elon Musk, Politics & Drugs
    Mark Cuban is a businessman, investor, star of TV series Shark Tank, long-time principal owner of Dallas Mavericks, and founder of Cost Plus Drugs. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Cloaked: https://cloaked.com/lex and use code LexPod to get 25% off - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/mark-cuban-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Mark's X: https://twitter.com/mcuban Mark's Instagram: https://instagram.com/mcuban Cost Plus Drugs: https://costplusdrugs.com Shark Tank: https://abc.com/shows/shark-tank Dallas Mavericks: https://www.mavs.com PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (11:10) - Entrepreneurship (26:03) - Shark Tank (36:29) - How Mark made first billion (1:02:39) - Dallas Mavericks (1:08:05) - DEI debate (1:43:58) - Trump vs Biden (1:46:20) - Immigration (1:55:53) - Drugs and Big Pharma (2:11:53) - AI (2:16:05) - Advice for young people

    #421 – Dana White: UFC, Fighting, Khabib, Conor, Tyson, Ali, Rogan, Elon & Zuck

    #421 – Dana White: UFC, Fighting, Khabib, Conor, Tyson, Ali, Rogan, Elon & Zuck
    Dana White is the CEO and president of the UFC. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/lex to get 20% off Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/dana-white-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Dana's X: https://x.com/danawhite Dana's Instagram: https://instagram.com/danawhite Dana's Facebook: https://facebook.com/danawhite UFC's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@UFC UFC's Website: https://ufc.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:31) - Mike Tyson and early days of fighting (17:10) - Jiu jitsu (23:14) - Origin of UFC (37:25) - Joe Rogan (43:31) - Lorenzo Fertitta (45:58) - Great fighters (49:55) - Khabib vs Conor (53:01) - Jon Jones (56:03) - Conor McGregor (1:01:05) - Trump (1:06:44) - Elon vs Zuck (1:08:04) - Mike Tyson vs Jake Paul (1:10:52) - Forrest Griffin vs Stephan Bonnar (1:18:06) - Gambling (1:33:08) - Mortality

    #420 – Annie Jacobsen: Nuclear War, CIA, KGB, Aliens, Area 51, Roswell & Secrecy

    #420 – Annie Jacobsen: Nuclear War, CIA, KGB, Aliens, Area 51, Roswell & Secrecy
    Annie Jacobsen is an investigative journalist and author of "Nuclear War: A Scenario" and many other books on war, weapons, government secrecy, and national security. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - HiddenLayer: https://hiddenlayer.com/lex - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/annie-jacobsen-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Nuclear War: A Scenario (book): https://amzn.to/3THZHfr Annie's Twitter: https://twitter.com/anniejacobsen Annie's Website: https://anniejacobsen.com/ Annie's Books: https://amzn.to/3TGWyMJ Annie's Books (audio): https://adbl.co/49ZnI7c PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:37) - Nuclear war (12:21) - Launch procedure (18:00) - Deterrence (21:34) - Tactical nukes (30:59) - Nuclear submarines (33:59) - Nuclear missiles (41:10) - Nuclear football (50:17) - Missile interceptor system (54:34) - North Korea (1:01:10) - Nuclear war scenarios (1:10:02) - Warmongers (1:14:31) - President's cognitive ability (1:20:43) - Refusing orders (1:28:41) - Russia and Putin (1:33:48) - Cyberattack (1:35:09) - Ground zero of nuclear war (1:39:48) - Surviving nuclear war (1:44:06) - Nuclear winter (1:54:29) - Alien civilizations (2:00:04) - Extrasensory perception (2:13:50) - Area 51 (2:17:48) - UFOs and aliens (2:28:15) - Roswell incident (2:34:55) - CIA assassinations (2:53:47) - Navalny (2:56:12) - KGB (3:02:48) - Hitler and the atomic bomb (3:06:52) - War and human nature (3:10:17) - Hope