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    #204 – Cumrun Vafa: String Theory

    String theory was discovered accidentally by a physicist trying to understand interactions observed in colliders. It proposes unification of quantum mechanics and gravity and includes an extra symmetry called supersymmetry.

    enJuly 26, 2021

    About this Episode

    Cumrun Vafa is a theoretical physicist at Harvard. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Headspace: https://headspace.com/lex to get free 1 month trial - The Jordan Harbinger Show: https://www.youtube.com/thejordanharbingershow - Squarespace: https://lexfridman.com/squarespace and use code LEX to get 10% off - Allform: https://allform.com/lex to get 20% off EPISODE LINKS: Cumrun's Twitter: https://twitter.com/cumrunv Cumrun's Website: https://www.cumrunvafa.org Puzzles to Unravel the Universe (book): https://amzn.to/3BFk5ms PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:08) - Difference between math and physics (09:51) - Evolution of quantum mechanics (13:09) - Can mathematics lead humanity off track (14:07) - Beauty in mathematics (19:27) - Philosophers using symmetry (25:20) - How can ancient geometry be used to understand reality (28:32) - Key ideas in the history of physics (31:26) - Einstein's special relativity (35:03) - Physicists building intuition (43:01) - Best work by Einstein (44:45) - Quantum mechanics (54:47) - Quantum gravity (57:02) - String theory (1:13:11) - 10th Dimension (1:19:48) - Skepticism regarding string theory (1:30:53) - Key figures in string theory (1:35:13) - String Theory's Nobel Prize (1:38:18) - Edward Witten (1:46:56) - String Theory Landscape & Swamplands (1:55:46) - Theories of everything (2:10:12) - Advice for young people (2:13:14) - Death

    🔑 Key Takeaways

    • String theory proposes that particles are made up of tiny strings of vibrating energy, and although it has fallen out of favor, it remains a candidate for a unifying theory of everything in physics. The connection of ideas and discord between them is valued in physics.
    • In quantum mechanics, the principle of least action states that particles take all possible paths through space and time, and the physical path is the one that minimizes the integral of the action. Beauty and symmetry are fundamental concepts in physics.
    • Despite incomplete or incorrect scientific laws, seeking beauty and simplicity in symmetrical patterns and connections is a philosophical intuition that will continue to endure over time. Just look to the lasting impact of the Greek philosophers' ideas about symmetry breaking.
    • Symmetry, once thought to be the reason for the Earth's stability, is now known to be a complex concept that can be broken spontaneously. Its use in explaining physical reality and understanding the properties of tiny spaces in string theory is crucial.
    • By using mathematically consistent designs, such as those that led to Maxwell's equations, we can unlock new physical phenomena and discover fundamental truths about the universe.
    • Our human intuition can often lead us astray when trying to understand complex physics concepts. By replacing our intuition with alternative perspectives and prolonged thinking, we can gain a better understanding of seemingly contradictory phenomena.
    • Physics and math are interdependent, and while intuition and visual understanding are crucial to progress in topology, complicated mathematical concepts are sometimes necessary for physics. Special relativity is Einstein's most significant breakthrough.
    • Quantum mechanics suggests that reality is uncertain and particle behavior is probabilistic. Physicists like Cumrun Vafa stress the importance of questioning current understanding to better comprehend the workings of nature.
    • Quantum mechanics has led to the discovery of antimatter, particle-wave duality, positron, quantum field theory, various forces and particles, string theory, and quantum gravity. It has transformed our understanding of the universe and its fundamental nature.
    • String theory suggests that particles are not the most basic entities of the universe. Instead, strings that vibrate and move around in space in infinite modes, can solve the puzzle of quantum gravity and help unlock the universe's mysteries.
    • String theory was discovered accidentally by a physicist trying to understand interactions observed in colliders. It proposes unification of quantum mechanics and gravity and includes an extra symmetry called supersymmetry.
    • Physicists originally imagined extra dimensions to reconcile the requirements of string theory, but later discovered their importance in understanding the number of particles in four-dimensional space and solving problems related to black holes.
    • Researchers count how strings wrap around extra dimensions to reveal the hidden properties of black holes. Understanding 10-dimensional space is aided by visualization of lower dimensions. Building intuition is crucial for comprehending complex concepts.
    • Embrace criticism in science and validate theories through experimentation. Even if lacking experimental evidence, theories that make predictions, such as string theory, are scientific concepts.
    • String theory aims to connect different parts of physics and has helped solve problems in particle physics models. While there is theoretical evidence to support it, more research is needed to fully comprehend its implications.
    • String theory suggests that the universe is made up of vibrating strings that wrap around a box-like structure in higher dimensions. This concept may help explain the difficulty in classifying manifolds of dimension bigger than four.
    • String theory was transformed by Edward Witten and his emphasis on unification. Collective efforts in science, from big breakthroughs to small contributions, push the field forward and deserve recognition.
    • Cumrun Vafa's conversation highlights the importance of harmonious thinking between physics and mathematics, as demonstrated by Edward Witten's approach. Intuitive thinking, like that of Feynman diagrams, can have long-lasting effects on modern mathematics. Recognizing this is important for anyone working in these fields.
    • Cumrun Vafa suggests that physics can provide a bigger perspective and a better understanding of mathematics. His physical intuition drives mathematics and produces bold statements, which have influenced modern mathematics. Vafa also discusses the string theory landscape and the swamp land.
    • Our universe is part of a finite subset of quantum field theories consistent with gravity. Patterns and rules like the weak gravity conjecture and studying black holes provide insight, but research is needed for more specific predictions.
    • Scientists are connecting particle physics and string theory to make predictions about gravity. While not precise yet, they hope to discover more about the connections between quantum gravity and our universe with further research.
    • As space is made smaller in string theory, it can become increasingly difficult to measure accurately. While physics aims to understand all forms of reality, the complexity of biology and consciousness may require new ideas in this field.
    • While quantum mechanics plays a crucial role in understanding chemistry and biology, there are still principles and laws that cannot be explained using it. Further progress in understanding consciousness will likely require new tools and discoveries.
    • Don't feel pressured to conform to societal expectations in your career choices. Pursue your passions and align your abilities with them. Embrace the finiteness of life to drive creativity and get your priorities in order.
    • Subtitle: The Finiteness of Life and the Value it Provides  Recognizing the finite nature of life can help us appreciate the beauty of the world around us, and the universal truths of physics which connect us to something beyond ourselves.

    📝 Podcast Summary

    The Unifying Theory of Everything: String Theory and Quantum Gravity

    String theory is a theory of quantum gravity that unifies quantum mechanics and general relativity, proposing that particles are made up of tiny strings of vibrating energy. Although it has fallen out of favor in the physics community, it remains a candidate for a theory of everything. Math and physics share similarities, but the major difference is that math does not care to describe reality while physics does. Physics values the connection of ideas and the puzzle of discord between them. The process of starting from one idea and ending up at a different starting place altogether has happened throughout history in science, such as with Newton's work on classical mechanics.

    The Principle of Least Action in Quantum Mechanics

    In quantum mechanics, the path a particle takes from one point to another is not a single straight line, but rather all possible paths through space and time. This is referred to as the principle of least action, where the physical path is the one that minimizes the integral of the action. The action refers to the kinetic term of the particle minus its potential, and each path will give a quantity that can be summed up to derive the probability of going from one point to another. While mathematics can sometimes lead us astray, beauty is a requirement for principles of physics and is a fundamental part of our conception of reality, incorporating elements such as symmetry and layers of reality.

    The Philosophy of Symmetry in Science

    Symmetry is a fundamental concept in our universe, and it is not entirely understood why humans are drawn to it. The laws of nature itself seems to have symmetrical patterns underneath them, and even objects that do not appear symmetrical have underlying symmetry when examined more deeply. Scientists are like amateur philosophers, constantly seeking the beauty and simplicity in patterns and connections. Although the details of scientific laws may be incomplete or even wrong, the philosophical intuitions and thought processes will carry on. The longevity and validity of the Greek philosophers' thoughts and ideas about symmetry breaking show how the philosophical take of science withstands the test of time.

    The Importance of Symmetry in Ancient and Modern Physics

    Symmetry has been a key concept in both ancient and modern physics. In ancient times, symmetry was thought to be the reason that the Earth didn't move and that the universe was centered around it. However, modern physics has shown that symmetry can be broken spontaneously and that being at the symmetric point may not be the preferred thing to do. Symmetry can be used to explain where things end up and why certain forces in nature exist. Geometry and symmetry have long been used to try to explain physical reality, and modern string theory also uses symmetries to explain the properties of tiny spaces that affect the behavior of forces in nature.

    The power of geometric design in physical reality

    You can design physical reality by creating space that geometrically gives you the desired result. For example, if you have two spheres touching each other and shrinking to zero size, it gives you strong forces, while having one sphere gives you weak forces. Mathematical consistency is important in physics and can lead to new physical phenomena. A key milestone in physics was the discovery of the laws of electromagnetic force, which led to Maxwell's equations. Einstein's theory of special relativity was motivated by the inconsistency in Maxwell's equations, suggesting that the speed of light is the same for everyone, regardless of their movement.

    Replacing Intuition with Alternative Perspectives in Understanding Physics.

    The idea that the speed of light is the same everywhere is the core of Einstein's theory of relativity, which challenges our intuition about time as absolute. Our intuition is often at fault in understanding physics, and replacing it with a different intuition can help us understand seemingly contradictory phenomena. This approach was used by Galileo to prove that heavier and lighter objects fall at the same rate. In modern physics, it can be difficult to replace intuition with alternative perspectives, but prolonged thinking and meditation on visualizing alternative worlds can help in understanding complex phenomena.

    The Symbiotic Relationship between Physics and Math

    Physics and math have a symbiotic relationship, reinforcing each other in their development. While topologists rely heavily on mathematics, they still require intuition and a visual understanding of geometry to make progress. Cumrun Vafa, a physicist, emphasizes the importance of intuition and understanding in his research. He also notes that complicated mathematical concepts are sometimes necessary to understand physics. The development of calculus by Newton and the use of geometry by Einstein in the context of physics are examples of the symbiotic relationship between math and physics. Vafa considers the special relativity theory to be the most significant breakthrough in Einstein's work.

    Reality According to Quantum Mechanics

    Quantum mechanics tells us that reality is fuzzy and probabilistic, with particles following all possible trajectories with varying probabilities. This becomes more pronounced at the microscopic scale, where phenomena like electron clouds become more visible. Cumrun Vafa believes that while quantum mechanics is the best approximation of reality we have currently, it may not necessarily be the end of the story. Physicists like him are encouraged to be skeptical and not dogmatic about our current understanding of the laws of nature. Dirac's equation, which tried to combine Einstein's relativity with quantum mechanics, resulted in the discovery of negative energy states, which Dirac explained as being occupied by particles through Pauli's exclusion principle.

    The Impact of Quantum Mechanics on Physics

    The discovery of the existence of antimatter and the concept of particle-wave duality are some of the biggest leaps made in physics due to quantum mechanics. The idea that particles have antiparticles came from the simple math employed by Dirac, which led to the discovery of the positron. The concept of fields being quantized and described wavy resulted in the development of quantum field theory, which contributed to the discovery of various forces and particles. The universe's idea of duality being fundamental is one of the essential aspects of string theory, which aims to connect and reconcile general relativity and quantum mechanics. The discovery of gravitons and their scattering off other particles is part of quantum gravity.

    The String Theory: Exploring the Fundamental Entities of the Universe

    String theory proposes that fundamental entities are not particles, but rather one-dimensional strings vibrating and moving around in space, with infinitely many modes depending on their oscillations. The lightest strings look like particles from far away, but zooming in reveals tiny loops with almost zero thickness, made purely of energy with a tension like a regular string. String theory solves the puzzle of quantum gravity, as the existence of these strings and their ability to oscillate and expand resolves the issue of infinities encountered in particle descriptions of gravity. Despite being unimaginably small, strings have the potential to unlock the secrets of the universe.

    The Origins and Concepts of String Theory

    String theory was not developed specifically to solve the problem of unifying gravity and quantum mechanics. It was born out of a physicist's attempt to understand the interactions observed in colliders by writing down an equation with a symmetry that he didn't understand. He later discovered that his equation described a process that had all the qualities of a vibrating string, which physicists were able to interpret as an explanation for the observed interactions. String theory has an extra symmetry called supersymmetry, which was discovered through string theory and is a symmetry between particles with identical properties but different spins. This makes it a theory of quantum gravity and a potential unifying theory.

    The History and Importance of Extra Dimensions in Physics

    Supersymmetry was first studied through string theory, which had remarkable properties and led to the study of supersymmetry in particle physics. While string theory initially required 10 dimensions, physicists reconciled this by imagining six extra tiny spatial dimensions. However, some remained skeptical, questioning why they should believe in what they couldn't see. Decades later, the extra dimensions of string theory were found to be useful in understanding the number of particles in four-dimensional space and solving the problem of black holes having entropy. Understanding the link between geometry and physics in macroscopic space made the extra dimensions an important tool in the study of physics.

    Counting Strings to Unveil the Microscopic Degrees of Freedom of a Black Hole

    In string theory, the microscopic degrees of freedom of a black hole are hidden in extra dimensions. By counting how strings can wrap around these extra dimensions, researchers were able to unveil the microscopic degrees of freedom. This was a key aspect in resolving the puzzle of where the degrees of freedom of a black hole were hidden. Although understanding 10-dimensional space may seem daunting, researchers can build intuition by visualizing the meeting place of two planes in high dimensional spaces by borrowing examples from lower dimensions. This example highlights the importance of building intuitions, without which understanding complex concepts becomes challenging.

    Understanding Reality through Lower Dimensional Slices and the Skepticism of String Theory

    In this conversation between Lex Fridman and Cumrun Vafa, they discuss the concept of understanding reality through lower dimensional slices, such as visualizing a sphere as an interval with circles attached at each point. They also explore the skepticism surrounding string theory, which has yet to be experimentally validated. While some criticize string theory for its lack of experimental evidence, Vafa notes that it still has predictions, setting it apart from non-scientific concepts. Overall, the conversation highlights the importance of embracing criticism in science and the need for experimental validation in theories.

    Understanding String Theory and its Implications

    String theory is a complex scientific concept that aims to connect different parts of physics together. While experimental evidence for string theory is limited due to technological constraints, there is theoretical evidence to support it. String theory has helped solve problems in particle physics models and has been able to predict the existence of gravity. Additionally, string theory has posed questions about why our universe is limited to three plus one dimensions, which is still being studied today. While there are further evidences and connections with the real world that lend support to string theory, more research is needed to fully understand its implications.

    The Concept of String Theory and Its Relation to Dimensionality

    String theory suggests that the universe is made up of a box, which in higher dimensions, allows strings to wrap around and vibrate. As the universe expands, the strings become very massive and cannot expand further, explaining why certain dimensions must be large while others remain small. This idea could be related to the D piece of math and the difficulty in classifying manifolds of dimension bigger than four. While there may not be a clear individual deserving of the Nobel prize for their work in string theory, there are numerous figures who have contributed significantly to the subject throughout its various epochs.

    The Evolution of String Theory and the Importance of Collective Efforts in Science

    String theory was pioneered in the early days by a small group of scientists. However, it was significantly changed in the mid-80s by Edward Witten, who brought a lot of attention to the community to focus on this effort as the correct theory of the unification of forces. This led to breakthroughs involving the properties of duality between particle physics and quantum gravity and the connections of holography. However, in science, the collective effort is more important than individual contributions. Therefore, recognition should be given not only to the significant figures in the field, but also to those who have done little contributions that don't make it to the headlines, but played significant roles in pushing the scientific community forward.

    The Power of Intuition in the Intersection of Physics and Mathematics

    In this conversation, physicist Cumrun Vafa talks about the impact his PhD advisor Edward Witten had on his approach to physics and mathematics. Vafa explains that he was initially troubled by the tension between the rigorous thinking in mathematics and the lack thereof in physics. However, Witten showed him a more harmonious approach to thinking about physics and mathematics, drawing Feynman diagrams and thinking about physics in a more intuitive way. Vafa learned from Witten the power of these ideas to impact deep thinking in modern mathematics, demonstrating the applicability of string theory to other areas of physics and mathematics. This highlights the importance of taking a long-term view and recognizing the efforts of those working in these fields.

    Physics and Mathematical Rigor

    Cumrun Vafa, an Iranian-American physicist and string theorist, discusses how physics can replace mathematical rigor with interconnections between ideas. Vafa talks about physics in inventing ways that can give a bigger perspective and a better understanding of mathematics. Vafa's physical intuition drives his mathematics and produces bold statements that produce elegant stories with insights. He has gained so much confidence that he conjectured that for every Columbia with one sign, there's the other one, and this symmetry was later confirmed by mathematicians, which affected modern mathematics. Vafa also talks about the string theory landscape and the swamp land, which are subsets of quantum field theories that are compatible with gravity in a quantum mechanical way.

    Understanding the Swampland: Finding Consistent Quantum Field Theories with Gravity

    The swampland refers to a set of quantum field theories that are inconsistent with gravity. While there are infinitely many quantum field theories possible, only a finite number of them are consistent with gravity. Our universe is part of this subset, which is humongous but not infinite. One way to determine which theories are consistent is to look for patterns and rules, such as the weak gravity conjecture. This conjecture states that in all good quantum field theories, gravity is always the weakest force. Studying black holes can also provide insight into the properties of consistent theories. While these principles provide some qualitative predictions, further research is needed to make more specific predictions about our universe.

    String Theory and the Search for the Theory of Gravity

    Researchers are beginning to make predictions that are connected to aspects of particle physics that were previously believed to be unrelated to gravity, based on principles from string theory. The conjecture that the mass of electrons should be less than one, but bigger than 10 to the minus 30 in our universe, explains why gravity is such a weak force. While we are still far from a precise, quantitative prediction, scientists hope to move in that direction and discover more about the connections between graph consistency of quantum gravity and aspects of our universe. Other theories, such as loop quantum gravity, may contain nuggets of truth that could contribute to a complete theory of gravity.

    The Challenges of Measuring Space in String Theory.

    In string theory, if a space is made smaller and smaller, it can seem as if the space is growing bigger due to a symmetrical transformation. This makes it difficult to measure the size of space accurately. While physicists acknowledge that string theory is not the theory of everything and still have a lot to learn about it, they believe that physics should encompass all forms of reality, including the emergence of life and consciousness. However, understanding the laws of physics does not necessarily lead to an understanding of the complex phenomena of biology and consciousness, which may require new ideas in string theory or other fields.

    Exploring the Limitations of Quantum Mechanics in Chemistry, Biology, and Consciousness

    Chemistry can be described by quantum mechanics but there are still rules and principles in chemistry that cannot be explained using it. These principles are currently being used and are working, but may require more powerful quantum computers to solve in the future. Similarly, biology is not entirely founded on chemistry but it can be explained by it. When it comes to consciousness, it may require a deeper understanding of physical laws and principles that we don't currently have the tools for. Consciousness and free will are currently in the realm of philosophy, but that may change as we develop new tools and discover new principles of nature. Whatever is discovered will be deeply connected to the principles and laws we already know, as physics does not compartmentalize different phenomena.

    Follow Your Interests and Live Life Without Regrets

    The key takeaway from this section is to follow your interests and let them take you where they may. Cumrun Vafa advises that people not be driven by societal expectations or ideas of what makes a good career, but instead pursue their passions and align their abilities with them. He believes that society will support those who follow their interests and that it's important to live your life without regrets. Vafa also discusses mortality, noting that he doesn't focus on it too much and finds comfort in the symmetry of nature. Ultimately, embracing the finiteness of life can drive creativity and help people get their priorities in order.

    The Finiteness of Life and the Value it Provides Key Takeaway: Recognizing the finite nature of life can help us appreciate the beauty of the world around us, and the universal truths of physics which connect us to something beyond ourselves.

    The finiteness of life is what gives it value and helps us appreciate things. Mortality might be a blessing in disguise as it drives us to do things and gives us motivation. The process of being a part of reality and connecting with the immortality of the laws and reality beyond us is what gives a sense of immortality. Recognizing our smallness and the short time we have on this earth helps us appreciate the beauty of the mortal and the universal truths of physics. While the thought of dying quickly may be tragic, it is possible that physics may one day help us understand the beauty of the laws of physics and the transience of life.

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    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs

    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs
    Edward Gibson is a psycholinguistics professor at MIT and heads the MIT Language Lab. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Yahoo Finance: https://yahoofinance.com - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/edward-gibson-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Edward's X: https://x.com/LanguageMIT TedLab: https://tedlab.mit.edu/ Edward's Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=4FsWE64AAAAJ TedLab's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@Tedlab-MIT PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (10:53) - Human language (14:59) - Generalizations in language (20:46) - Dependency grammar (30:45) - Morphology (39:20) - Evolution of languages (42:40) - Noam Chomsky (1:26:46) - Thinking and language (1:40:16) - LLMs (1:53:14) - Center embedding (2:19:42) - Learning a new language (2:23:34) - Nature vs nurture (2:30:10) - Culture and language (2:44:38) - Universal language (2:49:01) - Language translation (2:52:16) - Animal communication

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones
    Andrew Callaghan is the host of Channel 5 on YouTube, where he does street interviews with fascinating humans at the edges of society, the so-called vagrants, vagabonds, runaways, outlaws, from QAnon adherents to Phish heads to O Block residents and much more. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ShipStation: https://shipstation.com/lex and use code LEX to get 60-day free trial - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/andrew-callaghan-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Channel 5 with Andrew Callaghan: https://www.youtube.com/channel5YouTube Andrew's Instagram: https://instagram.com/andreww.me Andrew's Website: https://andrew-callaghan.com/ Andrew's Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/channel5 This Place Rules: https://www.hbo.com/movies/this-place-rules Books Mentioned: On the Road: https://amzn.to/4aLPLHi Siddhartha: https://amzn.to/49rthKz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (08:53) - Walmart (10:24) - Early life (29:14) - Hitchhiking (40:49) - Couch surfing (49:50) - Quarter Confessions (1:07:33) - Burning Man (1:22:44) - Protests (1:28:17) - Jon Stewart (1:31:13) - Fame (1:44:31) - Jan 6 (1:48:15) - QAnon (1:54:00) - Alex Jones (2:10:52) - Politics (2:20:29) - Response to allegations (2:37:28) - Channel 5 (2:43:04) - Rap (2:44:51) - O Block (2:48:47) - Crip Mac (2:51:59) - Aliens

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame
    Bassem Youssef is an Egyptian-American comedian & satirist, referred to as the Jon Stewart of the Arab World. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/bassem-youssef-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Bassem's X: https://x.com/Byoussef Bassem's Instagram: https://instagram.com/bassem Bassem's Facebook: https://facebook.com/bassemyousseftv Bassem's Website: https://bassemyoussef.xyz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:30) - Oct 7 (36:59) - Two-state solution (52:37) - Holocaust (1:00:24) - 1948 (1:09:17) - Egypt (1:23:39) - Jon Stewart (1:25:51) - Going viral during the Arab Spring (1:49:55) - Arabic vs English (2:02:18) - Sam Harris and Jihad (2:07:25) - Religion (2:26:37) - TikTok (2:31:10) - Joe Rogan (2:33:07) - Joe Biden (2:37:33) - Putin (2:39:21) - War (2:44:17) - Hope

    #423 – Tulsi Gabbard: War, Politics, and the Military Industrial Complex

    #423 – Tulsi Gabbard: War, Politics, and the Military Industrial Complex
    Tulsi Gabbard is a politician, veteran, and author of For Love of Country. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Riverside: https://creators.riverside.fm/LEX and use code LEX to get 30% off - ExpressVPN: https://expressvpn.com/lexpod to get 3 months free - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour - Notion: https://notion.com/lex Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/tulsi-gabbard-transcript EPISODE LINKS: For Love of Country (book): https://amzn.to/3VLlofM Tulsi's X: https://x.com/tulsigabbard Tulsi's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@TulsiGabbard Tulsi's Podcast: https://youtube.com/@TheTulsiGabbardShow Tulsi's Instagram: https://instagram.com/tulsigabbard Tulsi's Facebook: https://facebook.com/TulsiGabbard Tulsi's Website: https://tulsigabbard.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:14) - War in Iraq (15:00) - Battle injuries and PTSD (22:10) - War on terrorism (30:51) - War in Gaza (34:52) - War in Ukraine (38:38) - Syria (46:20) - Warmongers (55:40) - Nuclear war (1:11:08) - TikTok ban (1:23:13) - Bernie Sanders (1:28:08) - Politics (1:46:59) - Personal attacks (1:49:07) - God

    #422 – Mark Cuban: Shark Tank, DEI & Wokeism Debate, Elon Musk, Politics & Drugs

    #422 – Mark Cuban: Shark Tank, DEI & Wokeism Debate, Elon Musk, Politics & Drugs
    Mark Cuban is a businessman, investor, star of TV series Shark Tank, long-time principal owner of Dallas Mavericks, and founder of Cost Plus Drugs. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Cloaked: https://cloaked.com/lex and use code LexPod to get 25% off - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/mark-cuban-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Mark's X: https://twitter.com/mcuban Mark's Instagram: https://instagram.com/mcuban Cost Plus Drugs: https://costplusdrugs.com Shark Tank: https://abc.com/shows/shark-tank Dallas Mavericks: https://www.mavs.com PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (11:10) - Entrepreneurship (26:03) - Shark Tank (36:29) - How Mark made first billion (1:02:39) - Dallas Mavericks (1:08:05) - DEI debate (1:43:58) - Trump vs Biden (1:46:20) - Immigration (1:55:53) - Drugs and Big Pharma (2:11:53) - AI (2:16:05) - Advice for young people

    #421 – Dana White: UFC, Fighting, Khabib, Conor, Tyson, Ali, Rogan, Elon & Zuck

    #421 – Dana White: UFC, Fighting, Khabib, Conor, Tyson, Ali, Rogan, Elon & Zuck
    Dana White is the CEO and president of the UFC. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/lex to get 20% off Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/dana-white-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Dana's X: https://x.com/danawhite Dana's Instagram: https://instagram.com/danawhite Dana's Facebook: https://facebook.com/danawhite UFC's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@UFC UFC's Website: https://ufc.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:31) - Mike Tyson and early days of fighting (17:10) - Jiu jitsu (23:14) - Origin of UFC (37:25) - Joe Rogan (43:31) - Lorenzo Fertitta (45:58) - Great fighters (49:55) - Khabib vs Conor (53:01) - Jon Jones (56:03) - Conor McGregor (1:01:05) - Trump (1:06:44) - Elon vs Zuck (1:08:04) - Mike Tyson vs Jake Paul (1:10:52) - Forrest Griffin vs Stephan Bonnar (1:18:06) - Gambling (1:33:08) - Mortality

    #420 – Annie Jacobsen: Nuclear War, CIA, KGB, Aliens, Area 51, Roswell & Secrecy

    #420 – Annie Jacobsen: Nuclear War, CIA, KGB, Aliens, Area 51, Roswell & Secrecy
    Annie Jacobsen is an investigative journalist and author of "Nuclear War: A Scenario" and many other books on war, weapons, government secrecy, and national security. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - HiddenLayer: https://hiddenlayer.com/lex - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/annie-jacobsen-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Nuclear War: A Scenario (book): https://amzn.to/3THZHfr Annie's Twitter: https://twitter.com/anniejacobsen Annie's Website: https://anniejacobsen.com/ Annie's Books: https://amzn.to/3TGWyMJ Annie's Books (audio): https://adbl.co/49ZnI7c PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:37) - Nuclear war (12:21) - Launch procedure (18:00) - Deterrence (21:34) - Tactical nukes (30:59) - Nuclear submarines (33:59) - Nuclear missiles (41:10) - Nuclear football (50:17) - Missile interceptor system (54:34) - North Korea (1:01:10) - Nuclear war scenarios (1:10:02) - Warmongers (1:14:31) - President's cognitive ability (1:20:43) - Refusing orders (1:28:41) - Russia and Putin (1:33:48) - Cyberattack (1:35:09) - Ground zero of nuclear war (1:39:48) - Surviving nuclear war (1:44:06) - Nuclear winter (1:54:29) - Alien civilizations (2:00:04) - Extrasensory perception (2:13:50) - Area 51 (2:17:48) - UFOs and aliens (2:28:15) - Roswell incident (2:34:55) - CIA assassinations (2:53:47) - Navalny (2:56:12) - KGB (3:02:48) - Hitler and the atomic bomb (3:06:52) - War and human nature (3:10:17) - Hope