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    #342 – Todd Howard: Skyrim, Elder Scrolls 6, Fallout, and Starfield

    Todd Howard was inspired to create a video game based on his experience witnessing a SpaceX launch, which emphasized the engineering and scale of space exploration.

    enNovember 29, 2022

    About this Episode

    Todd Howard is a legendary video game designer at Bethesda Game Studios. He led the development of the Elder Scrolls series and the Fallout series, and an upcoming game Starfield. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get free trial - Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/lex to get 20% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack EPISODE LINKS: Bethesda: https://bethesda.net Bethesda Game Studios: https://bethesdagamestudios.com Creation Club: https://creationclub.bethesda.net PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (05:53) - Simulation (07:49) - NPCs (16:40) - Daggerfall and Arena (24:53) - Bethesda (33:18) - Video game graphics (39:37) - The essence of a video game (44:25) - Redguard (49:25) - Creating open worlds (57:04) - Superintelligent NPCs (1:01:58) - Starfield (1:21:40) - The Elder Scrolls 6 (1:41:01) - Fallout (1:48:09) - Character creation (1:53:11) - Quests & items (2:06:57) - Xbox (2:12:22) - Greatest game of all time (2:22:38) - Day in the life (2:30:32) - Advice for young people (2:34:00) - Fallout TV show (2:38:32) - Indiana Jones game (2:44:44) - Meaning of life

    🔑 Key Takeaways

    • Video game development is a complex and creative process that involves creating open worlds with unexpected escape routes, NPCs that react to the player, and AI that manages everyone in the game.
    • To create an immersive game, characters have independent cycles and different levels of detail are used for those closer or further away from the player. The goal is to make the virtual world as believable as possible and make the player feel as if they are at the center of it.
    • Todd Howard found his passion for game development from experiencing the possibilities of video games at a young age.
    • Hard work and dedication to one's craft can lead to great success.
    • The gaming world offers a variety of experiences and entertainment, ranging from open world role-playing games to sports titles, that bring joy and happiness.
    • Developers must carefully balance the time spent on creating realistic graphics and storytelling, while also utilizing techniques such as instant objects, global illumination and frame rate optimization to create a world that runs smoothly and looks beautiful. Additionally, they must consider the weather, sound and movement of the environment to allow players to explore and experience the world in a meaningful way.
    • Creating an immersive world requires finding the right balance between realism and fantasy which can be done by starting with something grounded in reality and adding fantastical elements as you develop.
    • Failure can be used as a learning experience to move forward and create something even better.
    • Creating open world games is a complex process requiring programming, design, physics, motion, light rendering, interactivity, AI and combat systems to create a realistic and immersive experience. NPCs must be able to interact with the environment in unexpected ways to create an engaging gaming experience.
    • Voice actors are essential to create dynamic NPCs (non-player characters) that can interact with players in an unpredictable and realistic way, allowing players to connect with characters in a way that feels real.
    • Starfield allows players to explore space, experience a new genre of game, and build meaningful relationships that can be cherished for a lifetime.
    • Technology allows us to simulate an exploration and building experience on a new planet with the help of fractally goop. Levelings are used to differentiate each planet and resources are provided for the players to explore.
    • Todd Howard was inspired to create a video game based on his experience witnessing a SpaceX launch, which emphasized the engineering and scale of space exploration.
    • Through the work of Todd Howard and other science fiction creators, we can explore the immense possibilities of the universe and be inspired to become a multi-planetary species.
    • Crafting a game that can be enjoyed for years requires careful planning and thoughtful development to create a world people can explore, create and imagine in.
    • Modding video games can be a rewarding and potentially lucrative hobby or career, but it requires dedication and practice to get it right. With the right tools and help from the gaming community, modding can be a rewarding experience.
    • Creating a video game requires an interdisciplinary team of professionals to work together to ensure all the elements of the game flow together to create a cohesive experience.
    • Developing an engaging combat system requires a lot of work, expertise, experimentation, iteration, and a combination of science, art, and timing.
    • Fallout is a unique post-apocalyptic game series that combines a dark tone with movie-style humour. It was created with the intention of creating a fresh experience and has been very successful in doing so.
    • Fallout 3 allowed players to create a character with a detailed backstory and to make changes to their character during the game to better fit their playstyle and the choices they made, resulting in a unique experience.
    • A compelling quest should include storytelling, twist and surprise, open-ended choices, level design with clutter and landmarks to make the world immersive, and interesting decision points.
    • Game design requires a lot of trial and error to create the right environment and balance for players to make informed choices. Creating games with a strong sense of community is also an important part of the experience.
    • Mobile game development requires an understanding of the target audience and specific design techniques that account for the smaller screen size. Setting deadlines helps to stay organized, but other factors can cause delays.
    • It is important to take the extra time and effort to make sure a game is optimized for different hardware when launching on a new platform.
    • Video gaming provides an immersive experience for people of all ages, with physical, PC and mobile options available for playing iconic and revolutionary games.
    • Video Games are an interactive and immersive experience that can be enjoyed by anyone. They offer unique stories, worlds, and characters to explore and can provide fun and exciting experiences.
    • Joining the level design team can be incredibly rewarding and Todd Howard encourages anyone interested to apply.
    • Video games can bring immense joy to people, and game-makers can have a positive impact on millions of people. It is important for young people to find something they are passionate about so that it never feels like a job.
    • Hard work and dedication will be rewarded if you stay passionate and committed to your goals. Don't give up even when you face obstacles, look for solutions and don't do it for the money, do it because you love it.
    • Passion and effort are necessary to achieve greatness, as seen by the success of the movie Raiders of the Lost Ark and the upcoming Indiana Jones game.
    • Embrace curiosity, exploration, and love when creating something new, and find ways to make the journey enjoyable and prioritize the shared experience.
    • Take time to create meaningful memories and experiences with your family and friends while gaming, as they will last a lifetime.

    📝 Podcast Summary

    Exploring the Complexities of Video Game Development

    Video game development is a complex and creative process.Todd Howard, one of the most celebrated and impactful game designers, discusses the intricate details of game design.He explains that they want the game to be open and allow players to experiment and explore the game world.Howard also reveals that they leave unexpected "doorways" for players to escape the game and a hint of how to escape if people are stuck inside a video game.One has to try everything and push the boundaries of the game world to discover these hidden escape routes.He also delves into the process of creating NPCs, saying that the most successful characters are those that react to the player.Finally, Howard explains that the AI in the game is like a people manager, always running in the background and thinking about everyone in the world.

    Creating an Immersive Virtual World

    In a virtual world like the one built by Todd Howard, every character is living their own life, with their own worries and experiences.The world keeps running and evolving even when the player is not present, like an amusement park.To ensure this, characters have independent cycles and different levels of detail are used for those closer or further away from the player.This creates an immersive game with its own history and emergent behavior.The goal of the game is to make this virtual world as believable as possible and make the player feel as if they are at the center of it, just like in real life.

    Experiencing the Possibilities of Video Games

    At a young age, Todd Howard was captivated by video games.From playing Space Invaders and Pacman in the arcades to programming in the TRS 80, he was fascinated by the possibilities of creating video games.He taught himself how to make his own games, with a focus on graphics, story, dialogue and the feeling it gave him.He was enthralled by the idea of creating a world in which he could experience things he couldn't in the real world.This experience fuelled his passion for game development, which has since gone on to create some of the most beloved gaming franchises of all time.

    A Tale of Passion, Dedication and Success

    Todd was a very passionate young man, always looking for ways to push the boundaries of what was possible on the Apple computer.He was part of a group of students who were ahead of the school in terms of computing and programming.With friends to compete against, Todd was constantly looking for ways to impress them by creating games with interesting graphics.Little did he know that one day he would be considered one of the greatest game designers of all time.He was rejected for a corporate finance job and instead decided to pursue his dreams of making video games.Soon after, he knocked on the door of Bethesda Softs and the rest is history.Todd's hard work and dedication to his craft paid off, enabling him to create some of the greatest video games of all time.

    Exploring the Variety of Experiences Offered by the Gaming World

    A great example of how different forms of entertainment can bring joy and happiness is the gaming world.There are two different experiences offered: Open Worlds and sports.Just like you may watch Lord of The Rings one day and then switch over to a game show or football match the next day, gaming offers the same level of flexibility and experience.Bethesda Softworks was a great example of this, offering both sports titles and open world role-playing games.The CD-ROM version made it easier to have unlimited data and more content.Games like Arena and Der Falls were incredible, allowing gamers to escape and explore a world that was unlike anything else.All in all, the gaming world offers a variety of experiences, each with its own unique type of entertainment and enjoyment.

    Crafting a Virtual World with Skill and Thought

    Creating a virtual world is like a painting.It requires a lot of skill and thought to be able to capture the beauty of nature, the feelings of awe and the sense of exploration.To do this, developers have to carefully balance the time spent on creating realistic graphics and storytelling.They need to use techniques such as instant objects, global illumination and frame rate optimization to create a world that runs smoothly while also looking beautiful.Additionally, they need to consider the weather, sound and movement of the environment to allow players to explore and experience the world in a meaningful way.All of these components are essential to build a realistic and immersive virtual world.

    Finding the Balance Between Realism and Fantasy

    Creating a realistic experience with a touch of fantasy is key to creating an immersive world.To make it feel welcoming, you need to find the balance between realism and fantasy - from the technology level to the inhabitants.You can start with something grounded in reality and add fantastical elements as you develop.With Skyrim, the dragons were created to look like beasts that could exist in that world, and their introduction was gradual.Finding the right balance between reality and fantasy is essential for creating a successful, immersive world.

    Achieving Success Through Failure

    In this case, Todd Howard had a passion for making creative games, which led him to make Red Guard.Despite his best efforts and the critical acclaim of the game, it was a commercial failure.Todd was left with a sense of guilt and doubt about his skills, but he overcame these negative feelings by acknowledging his own talent and continuing to make innovative games.He learned that even though failure is inevitable, it can be used as a learning experience to move forward and create something even better.

    Navigating the Complexities of Open World Game Development

    Creating open world games is a complex process.It involves programming, design, physics, motion, light rendering, interactivity, AI and combat systems.These systems must be designed to be robust enough to allow for a long playing time and interactivity with the environment.To create a realistic and immersive experience the NPCs must be able to interact with the environment in ways that are unexpected and surprising.This includes picking up weapons, something that comes to life when an NPC reaches for a weapon that was left behind by the player.To prevent NPCs from taking all the players' treasure, some items must be locked away.The development of AI for NPCs is an ongoing process, allowing for further and further reactivity to the player and the understanding of their roles in the world.

    Realistic Relationships Through Voice Actors in Video Games

    Video games are becoming increasingly complex, with developers using technology like neural networks and natural language processing to create dynamic NPCs (non-player characters) that can interact with players in an unpredictable and realistic way.Voice actors are essential to this, as they bring life and emotion to the characters and create meaningful relationships with players.Developers are also making relationships more complicated, with NPCs reacting to players in a range of ways, from fleeting anger to long-term love.All of this contributes to an exciting and immersive gaming experience, where players can connect with characters in a way that feels real.

    Exploring Space and Building Lasting Memories with Starfield

    Video games can be a great way for people to express themselves, to feel accomplished, and to build meaningful relationships.Even though the time spent in games may be fleeting, it can still be an important part of a person's life.With modern console achievements, it is possible to look back and reflect on all the time spent in each game.Starfield is a game that will allow players to explore space and experience a different type of game than the usual RPG, while still honing the skills they have built up over time.It is a brave move, allowing players to explore a variety of star systems and planets, creating memories that can be cherished for a lifetime.

    Exploring and Building a Unique and Immersive Planet

    Exploring and building a new planet can be a thrilling and lonely experience.Technology has allowed us to simulate this experience, with the help of fractally goop.We can create realistic landscapes and tiles of land, while also making sure that each planet is unique and has its own resources.This allows the players to explore, build and feel a sense of desolation and loneliness.We can also use levelings to differentiate each planet, and also make sure that each planet is unique and has resources for the players to explore.This allows for a unique and immersive experience for the players.

    Exploring the Human Ingenuity of Space Exploration Through a Video Game

    In the game, space travel is considered dangerous, but this is more of a tone and doesn't result in death.As it is a game, there are environmental aspects to the planets and robots are used for utility.The tone is deeply human and not necessarily a realistic simulation of the future.Todd Howard was inspired by his visit to SpaceX and the human ingenuity involved in space exploration, which he was able to witness firsthand when he saw a SpaceX launch from Delaware.This experience of awe and marvel at the engineering and scale of space exploration is something Todd has woven into the game.

    Exploring the Possibilities of the Universe Through Science Fiction and Video Games

    The power of science fiction and video games can be seen through the work of Todd Howard.His goal is to create worlds that are as realistic and immersive as possible.Through this, he hopes to not only entertain, but also to inspire and motivate people to explore the possibilities of the universe.His work could even potentially help us become a multi-planetary species.By providing a glimpse into the future, science fiction can fuel people's imaginations and show them what is possible.

    Crafting a Timeless Game Experience

    Creating a game that can be played and enjoyed for decades is a challenge.It requires a lot of thought and hard work to design a world that people can explore, create and imagine in.With games like Skyrim, this challenge has been met with success.The game has been enjoyed for over a decade, and with its modding capabilities, players have been able to customize and extend the game experience.This success is an example of how the right design can create a game that can be appreciated for years to come.Through careful planning and thoughtful development, the right game can become a part of people’s lives, providing them with entertainment and a way to explore and create in a new world.

    Unlocking the Potential of Modding Video Games

    Modding video games is an increasingly popular hobby that can be turned into a career.With the right tools, like the Creation Kit available on Steam, players can make changes to their game, no matter how small.From changing the color of the weather to creating new Quest lines and even AI bots, there is a lot that can be accomplished.However, modding can be time consuming, and it takes a lot of practice and dedication to get it right.Although there is a learning curve, with the help of the gaming community, modding can be a rewarding experience and even a lucrative career.

    Crafting Immersive Video Games

    Creating a video game is an intricate process.It starts with conversations between the team members on what the game should be like, what kind of world it should be set in, and what the tone should be.Concept art and music are developed early on to help build the atmosphere.Prototypes are created, and then a larger chunk of the game is built to create a vertical slice.Once the team is at full production, a lot of work goes into ensuring that the different elements of the game flow together.Finally, the last few months are focused on polishing the levels, features and dialogue to create a cohesive experience.

    Crafting a Fun and Engaging Combat System

    Developing an engaging combat system requires a lot of work and expertise.Animations have to be fine tuned to make it feel smooth and responsive, while enemies need to be "dumbed down" to make the game fun to play.Crafting and other activities such as cooking and alchemy can give depth to the game experience and help keep the balance between combat and other activities.All of these require a lot of experimentation and iteration to get right.Ultimately, it is a combination of science, art, and timing to create an engaging game.

    Exploring a Post-Apocalyptic World Through the Success of Fallout

    Fallout is a post-apocalyptic game series that was created to explore a world of nuclear energy gone wrong.It is unique in its tone, weaving the darkness of a post-apocalyptic world with a movie-style humour.It is rewarding to see how the game found success, and the developers worked hard to make sure it was different from Fallout 3 and Oblivion.The game was created with the intention of creating a fresh experience and it is remarkable to see how it has been so successful.

    A Unique Character Experience in Fallout 3

    Fallout 3 was a game with a strong emphasis on character development.Players were encouraged to create a character with a detailed backstory, who they would take through the game.This character creation process was designed to give players a sense of ownership over the world and their character, and to make them feel more connected to their experience.Players could also make changes to their character during the game to better fit their playstyle and the choices they made.This allowed players to have a unique experience and to truly inhabit their character's role in the game.

    Designing an Interesting Beginning Journey for the Player

    Building a character system in a game requires designing an interesting beginning journey for the player.This could include a visual character generation, starting skills and some guardrails for the player to follow.To create a compelling quest, a good mix of storytelling, twist and surprise, and open-ended choices can be included.Level design, with clutter and landmarks, can be used to make the world immersive and offer interesting decision points, while not overwhelming the player.

    Perfecting the Art of Game Design

    Learning how to create the right environment and balance of items, maps, and treasure in a game is an art.It requires a lot of trial and error, with the goal of ensuring players feel like they're making informed choices.Games like Destiny and Diablo have perfected this art, making it a fun and rewarding experience.The drop rate for rare items is an even more nuanced art and game developers like Todd Howard are still learning and trying to get better at it.Creating games with a strong sense of community is also a key part of the experience, which is why games like Elder Scrolls have been so successful.

    Crafting an Addictive Mobile Gaming Experience

    Making games for mobile requires an understanding of how players get into the game, how to design for short play sessions, and how to craft an interesting and addictive experience.Different approaches to design are necessary to account for the smaller screen size and the younger demographic that primarily plays mobile games.Setting deadlines helps to keep the development process on track and honest, but often other factors like the popularity of a game can cause delays.

    Taking the Extra Time to Ensure an Incredible Experience for Xbox Players

    Joining the Xbox family was a big change for Bethesda.But Todd found the team and culture to be just as welcoming as he had hoped.They focused on creating an incredible experience for Xbox players and worked hard to ensure the game was ready for launch.The risk of announcing too early and having to delay was something Todd had experience with before.He knew the right thing to do in this situation was to take the extra time to make sure Starfield was ready for Xbox players.This meant making sure the game was optimized for the different hardware, like the controller interface.Todd was grateful for the support from Xbox and was excited to create something special for their players.

    Exploring the Immersive World of Video Gaming

    Video gaming can be enjoyed in a variety of ways.From the physicality of leaning back on a sofa with a controller to playing on a PC, the way we experience games is changing.One of the most iconic games of all time is Tetris, but some might argue that the Elder Scrolls series or the game ‘Skyrim’ has made the biggest leaps in the gaming world.Things like tangible boxes, artwork and virtual worlds with deeper stories have inspired many gamers, creating lasting impact.Whether it’s playing on a console, PC or mobile, video games offer an immersive experience for people of all ages.

    Exploring the Immersive Worlds of Video Games

    Video games are an interactive and immersive experience.They can be enjoyed by anyone, with the most simple example being Tetris.Mobile games have figured out some of its magic, and it's been around a long time.So have games like Civilization, Pacman, Super Mario and more.Zelda Breath of the Wild is a favorite, with its open world and lack of constraints.Grand Theft Auto and Red Dead Redemption also have an interesting take on the open world, with gritty humor and strong tone.There are many more games out there, with NCAA Football being a role playing favorite.Video games are an amazing way to explore different worlds and have fun.

    Working Together to Create the Perfect Video Game

    Creating the perfect video game requires a creative and dedicated team of people.Designers, engineers, artists, voice-overs and level designers all play a crucial role in bringing a game to life.As project director, Todd Howard is responsible for ensuring that everyone works together to create the best possible gaming experience.He focuses on problem solving and making sure that all the pieces fit together.Todd and his team brainstorm together to come up with new ideas and solve any issues that arise.It's a lot of work, but it is also incredibly rewarding when Todd and his team finish a project and see the result of their hard work.With that, Todd encourages anyone interested in joining the level design team to always apply.

    Finding Joy Through Video Games

    Video games can bring people immense amounts of joy, and those involved in designing and creating the games have a large part to play in that.Even with small decisions and creations, game-makers can have a positive impact on millions of people.With video games, people can experience feelings of accomplishment and pride, as well as a sense of power and confidence.For young people, games can provide an outlet for these feelings that can be hard to find in real life.Advice for young people is to find something they are passionate about so that it never feels like a job.

    Persevere and Stay Resilient to Achieve Your Goals

    The key learning from this section is to never underestimate yourself and to always persevere when you are passionate about something.Don't do it for money, do it because you love it.It won't be a smooth journey, you will face bumps along the way but if you stay resilient and passionate, you will be able to overcome those obstacles.Hard work and dedication will always be rewarded, and even when it's hard and it's failing, you should look for the problem to solve and try to find solutions.People will appreciate your hard work and effort when you are passionate and committed.

    Passion and Effort Drive Greatness

    Being passionate and putting in effort is essential for achieving greatness.The difference between creating a game and a tv show lies in storytelling.It's more character-driven and you have to find the right actors to portray them.Raiders of the Lost Ark is an example of a perfect movie, its opening is the best of all time.Even after 10 years, Todd Howard still wanted to create an Indiana Jones game.With the help of Machine Games, the game is a love letter to the famous protagonist and will be an action adventure experience.It shows that with passion and enough effort, anything is possible.

    Appreciating the Journey of Creation

    The process of creating something new is an incredibly rewarding experience.It is a journey of learning and exploration, full of highs and lows, successes and failures.Through it all, it is important to remember to enjoy the development process and to appreciate the hard work that goes into it.It can be difficult at times, but it is important to find ways to make the journey enjoyable and to prioritize the shared experience.The meaning of life is to be curious, to explore, and to love.To enjoy the world around us and to be open to the experiences it has to offer.This is how we find fulfillment.

    The Power of Gaming, Family, and Friendships

    This conversation between Todd Howard and Lex Fridman shows the importance of family and friends when it comes to gaming.It also shows how a game like Skyrim can bring people together and create meaningful conversations.Todd's story of sharing this game with his son is a reminder of how powerful gaming can be in bringing people together, while also teaching valuable lessons.It also serves as a reminder that we should take our time when it comes to raising children.We should create memories and experiences that will last a lifetime.Everyone can take something away from this conversation, and it serves as a great lesson in the power of gaming, family, and friendships.

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    #427 – Neil Adams: Judo, Olympics, Winning, Losing, and the Champion Mindset

    #427 – Neil Adams: Judo, Olympics, Winning, Losing, and the Champion Mindset
    Neil Adams is a judo world champion, 2-time Olympic silver medalist, 5-time European champion, and often referred to as the Voice of Judo. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ZipRecruiter: https://ziprecruiter.com/lex - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/neil-adams-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Neil's Instagram: https://instagram.com/naefighting Neil's YouTube: https://youtube.com/NAEffectiveFighting Neil's TikTok: https://tiktok.com/@neiladamsmbe Neil's Facebook: https://facebook.com/NeilAdamsJudo Neil's X: https://x.com/NeilAdamsJudo Neil's Website: https://naeffectivefighting.com Neil's Podcast: https://naeffectivefighting.com/podcasts/the-dojo-collective-podcast A Life in Judo (book): https://amzn.to/4d3DtfB A Game of Throws (audiobook): https://amzn.to/4aA2WeJ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (09:13) - 1980 Olympics (26:35) - Judo explained (34:40) - Winning (52:54) - 1984 Olympics (1:01:55) - Lessons from losing (1:17:37) - Teddy Riner (1:37:12) - Training in Japan (1:52:51) - Jiu jitsu (2:03:59) - Training (2:27:18) - Advice for beginners

    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs

    #426 – Edward Gibson: Human Language, Psycholinguistics, Syntax, Grammar & LLMs
    Edward Gibson is a psycholinguistics professor at MIT and heads the MIT Language Lab. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Yahoo Finance: https://yahoofinance.com - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/edward-gibson-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Edward's X: https://x.com/LanguageMIT TedLab: https://tedlab.mit.edu/ Edward's Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=4FsWE64AAAAJ TedLab's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@Tedlab-MIT PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (10:53) - Human language (14:59) - Generalizations in language (20:46) - Dependency grammar (30:45) - Morphology (39:20) - Evolution of languages (42:40) - Noam Chomsky (1:26:46) - Thinking and language (1:40:16) - LLMs (1:53:14) - Center embedding (2:19:42) - Learning a new language (2:23:34) - Nature vs nurture (2:30:10) - Culture and language (2:44:38) - Universal language (2:49:01) - Language translation (2:52:16) - Animal communication

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones

    #425 – Andrew Callaghan: Channel 5, Gonzo, QAnon, O-Block, Politics & Alex Jones
    Andrew Callaghan is the host of Channel 5 on YouTube, where he does street interviews with fascinating humans at the edges of society, the so-called vagrants, vagabonds, runaways, outlaws, from QAnon adherents to Phish heads to O Block residents and much more. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - ShipStation: https://shipstation.com/lex and use code LEX to get 60-day free trial - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lexpod to get 15% off - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/andrew-callaghan-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Channel 5 with Andrew Callaghan: https://www.youtube.com/channel5YouTube Andrew's Instagram: https://instagram.com/andreww.me Andrew's Website: https://andrew-callaghan.com/ Andrew's Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/channel5 This Place Rules: https://www.hbo.com/movies/this-place-rules Books Mentioned: On the Road: https://amzn.to/4aLPLHi Siddhartha: https://amzn.to/49rthKz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (08:53) - Walmart (10:24) - Early life (29:14) - Hitchhiking (40:49) - Couch surfing (49:50) - Quarter Confessions (1:07:33) - Burning Man (1:22:44) - Protests (1:28:17) - Jon Stewart (1:31:13) - Fame (1:44:31) - Jan 6 (1:48:15) - QAnon (1:54:00) - Alex Jones (2:10:52) - Politics (2:20:29) - Response to allegations (2:37:28) - Channel 5 (2:43:04) - Rap (2:44:51) - O Block (2:48:47) - Crip Mac (2:51:59) - Aliens

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame

    #424 – Bassem Youssef: Israel-Palestine, Gaza, Hamas, Middle East, Satire & Fame
    Bassem Youssef is an Egyptian-American comedian & satirist, referred to as the Jon Stewart of the Arab World. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/bassem-youssef-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Bassem's X: https://x.com/Byoussef Bassem's Instagram: https://instagram.com/bassem Bassem's Facebook: https://facebook.com/bassemyousseftv Bassem's Website: https://bassemyoussef.xyz PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:30) - Oct 7 (36:59) - Two-state solution (52:37) - Holocaust (1:00:24) - 1948 (1:09:17) - Egypt (1:23:39) - Jon Stewart (1:25:51) - Going viral during the Arab Spring (1:49:55) - Arabic vs English (2:02:18) - Sam Harris and Jihad (2:07:25) - Religion (2:26:37) - TikTok (2:31:10) - Joe Rogan (2:33:07) - Joe Biden (2:37:33) - Putin (2:39:21) - War (2:44:17) - Hope

    #423 – Tulsi Gabbard: War, Politics, and the Military Industrial Complex

    #423 – Tulsi Gabbard: War, Politics, and the Military Industrial Complex
    Tulsi Gabbard is a politician, veteran, and author of For Love of Country. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Riverside: https://creators.riverside.fm/LEX and use code LEX to get 30% off - ExpressVPN: https://expressvpn.com/lexpod to get 3 months free - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour - Notion: https://notion.com/lex Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/tulsi-gabbard-transcript EPISODE LINKS: For Love of Country (book): https://amzn.to/3VLlofM Tulsi's X: https://x.com/tulsigabbard Tulsi's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@TulsiGabbard Tulsi's Podcast: https://youtube.com/@TheTulsiGabbardShow Tulsi's Instagram: https://instagram.com/tulsigabbard Tulsi's Facebook: https://facebook.com/TulsiGabbard Tulsi's Website: https://tulsigabbard.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:14) - War in Iraq (15:00) - Battle injuries and PTSD (22:10) - War on terrorism (30:51) - War in Gaza (34:52) - War in Ukraine (38:38) - Syria (46:20) - Warmongers (55:40) - Nuclear war (1:11:08) - TikTok ban (1:23:13) - Bernie Sanders (1:28:08) - Politics (1:46:59) - Personal attacks (1:49:07) - God

    #422 – Mark Cuban: Shark Tank, DEI & Wokeism Debate, Elon Musk, Politics & Drugs

    #422 – Mark Cuban: Shark Tank, DEI & Wokeism Debate, Elon Musk, Politics & Drugs
    Mark Cuban is a businessman, investor, star of TV series Shark Tank, long-time principal owner of Dallas Mavericks, and founder of Cost Plus Drugs. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - Listening: https://listening.com/lex and use code LEX to get one month free - Cloaked: https://cloaked.com/lex and use code LexPod to get 25% off - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/lex to get special savings - Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get $1 per month trial Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/mark-cuban-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Mark's X: https://twitter.com/mcuban Mark's Instagram: https://instagram.com/mcuban Cost Plus Drugs: https://costplusdrugs.com Shark Tank: https://abc.com/shows/shark-tank Dallas Mavericks: https://www.mavs.com PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (11:10) - Entrepreneurship (26:03) - Shark Tank (36:29) - How Mark made first billion (1:02:39) - Dallas Mavericks (1:08:05) - DEI debate (1:43:58) - Trump vs Biden (1:46:20) - Immigration (1:55:53) - Drugs and Big Pharma (2:11:53) - AI (2:16:05) - Advice for young people

    #421 – Dana White: UFC, Fighting, Khabib, Conor, Tyson, Ali, Rogan, Elon & Zuck

    #421 – Dana White: UFC, Fighting, Khabib, Conor, Tyson, Ali, Rogan, Elon & Zuck
    Dana White is the CEO and president of the UFC. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack - Notion: https://notion.com/lex - AG1: https://drinkag1.com/lex to get 1 month supply of fish oil - InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/lex to get 20% off Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/dana-white-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Dana's X: https://x.com/danawhite Dana's Instagram: https://instagram.com/danawhite Dana's Facebook: https://facebook.com/danawhite UFC's YouTube: https://youtube.com/@UFC UFC's Website: https://ufc.com/ PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (06:31) - Mike Tyson and early days of fighting (17:10) - Jiu jitsu (23:14) - Origin of UFC (37:25) - Joe Rogan (43:31) - Lorenzo Fertitta (45:58) - Great fighters (49:55) - Khabib vs Conor (53:01) - Jon Jones (56:03) - Conor McGregor (1:01:05) - Trump (1:06:44) - Elon vs Zuck (1:08:04) - Mike Tyson vs Jake Paul (1:10:52) - Forrest Griffin vs Stephan Bonnar (1:18:06) - Gambling (1:33:08) - Mortality

    #420 – Annie Jacobsen: Nuclear War, CIA, KGB, Aliens, Area 51, Roswell & Secrecy

    #420 – Annie Jacobsen: Nuclear War, CIA, KGB, Aliens, Area 51, Roswell & Secrecy
    Annie Jacobsen is an investigative journalist and author of "Nuclear War: A Scenario" and many other books on war, weapons, government secrecy, and national security. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors: - HiddenLayer: https://hiddenlayer.com/lex - BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off - Policygenius: https://policygenius.com/lex - NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour Transcript: https://lexfridman.com/annie-jacobsen-transcript EPISODE LINKS: Nuclear War: A Scenario (book): https://amzn.to/3THZHfr Annie's Twitter: https://twitter.com/anniejacobsen Annie's Website: https://anniejacobsen.com/ Annie's Books: https://amzn.to/3TGWyMJ Annie's Books (audio): https://adbl.co/49ZnI7c PODCAST INFO: Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8 RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/ YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips SUPPORT & CONNECT: - Check out the sponsors above, it's the best way to support this podcast - Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman - Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman - Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman OUTLINE: Here's the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time. (00:00) - Introduction (07:37) - Nuclear war (12:21) - Launch procedure (18:00) - Deterrence (21:34) - Tactical nukes (30:59) - Nuclear submarines (33:59) - Nuclear missiles (41:10) - Nuclear football (50:17) - Missile interceptor system (54:34) - North Korea (1:01:10) - Nuclear war scenarios (1:10:02) - Warmongers (1:14:31) - President's cognitive ability (1:20:43) - Refusing orders (1:28:41) - Russia and Putin (1:33:48) - Cyberattack (1:35:09) - Ground zero of nuclear war (1:39:48) - Surviving nuclear war (1:44:06) - Nuclear winter (1:54:29) - Alien civilizations (2:00:04) - Extrasensory perception (2:13:50) - Area 51 (2:17:48) - UFOs and aliens (2:28:15) - Roswell incident (2:34:55) - CIA assassinations (2:53:47) - Navalny (2:56:12) - KGB (3:02:48) - Hitler and the atomic bomb (3:06:52) - War and human nature (3:10:17) - Hope