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    Understanding & Conquering Depression

    enAugust 23, 2021

    Podcast Summary

    • The importance of balancing pleasure and pain in mood disorders.Pursuing pleasure can lead to more pain, but entering states of non-pursuit can reset the pleasure pain balance. Caution should be taken with dopamine increases, and behavioral tools can help impact mood disorders.

      The pleasure pain balance plays an important role in mood disorders. Pursuit of pleasure is not a bad thing, but the more we pursue pleasure, the more pain we experience. To remain happy and pursue pleasure in a healthy way, we need to enter into states where we are not in pursuit of pleasure and reset the pleasure pain balance. Large increases in dopamine should be approached with caution and not pursued repeatedly over time. Understanding the biological underpinnings of one mood disorder can give insight into other mood disorders. Behavioral tools like exercise, meditation, breath work, prescription drugs, supplements, and novel compounds can impact mood disorders.

    • Proper Diagnosis and Treatment of DepressionUnderstand the relationship between dopamine and mood disorders to manage depression. Address mechanisms and tools for prevention and effective treatment. Take depression seriously as a major cause of disability.

      Though depression is a common issue with a significant impact on an individual's physical and mental well-being, it should be diagnosed only by a qualified healthcare professional. It is crucial to seek professional help for proper diagnosis to avoid self-diagnosis and getting the right treatment, whether they are behavioral drug, supplementation, diet, or exercise. Andrew Huberman emphasizes the relationship between dopamine pleasure and pain in addiction and depression. Any discussion on mood disorders needs to get into mechanisms to frame the discussion on tools to keep depression at bay and deal with it properly. Depression is a common ailment impacting about 5% of the population, and it is essential to take it seriously as it is the number four cause of disability.

    • Criteria for Clinical Depression and How it Differs from SadnessClinical depression has specific symptoms such as anhedonia, guilt, delusional anti self-confabulation, and vegetative symptoms. It is important to recognize and differentiate it from normal feelings of sadness or disappointment.

      Clinical depression has specific criteria, including anhedonia, guilt, delusional anti self-confabulation, and vegetative symptoms. Anhedonia refers to a general lack of ability to enjoy things, and guilt is characterized by feeling bad about oneself or things they've done in the past. Delusional anti self-confabulation is when the self, the person describing them, seems sick or not well, and they start confabulating according to a self-deprecating view that does not match up with reality. Vegetative symptoms are symptoms that occur without any thinking, doing, or confabulation. It is essential to understand that clinical depression is different from being sad or disappointed about specific events.

    • Understanding the Impact of Depression on the BodyDepression disrupts the body's nervous system and hormonal functions, leading to physical symptoms such as exhaustion, disrupted sleep, and decreased appetite. A shift in cortisol levels is also observed. Understanding the biological impact of depression is crucial for finding effective treatments.

      Major depression disrupts the autonomic or vegetative nervous system, which can lead to vegetative symptoms like exhaustion, disrupted sleep patterns, and decreased appetite. Hormones associated with appetite, hunger, and fullness are also disrupted. There is a signature pattern of depression involving cortisol, a stress hormone, which normally peaks in the early part of the day, but shifts to late in the day in depressive states. Depression is a complex condition that affects multiple levels, including conscious level, emotions, and physiological functioning. Understanding the underlying biology of depression is essential for developing effective treatments.

    • The Evolution of Antidepressants and Their Side EffectsThe discovery of various antidepressant drugs showed that depression has a biological basis and led to more targeted therapies. However, the side effects of earlier drugs caused discomfort, paving the way for newer drugs like SSRIs with fewer side effects.

      The discovery of drugs like tricyclic antidepressants and Mao inhibitors that relieve symptoms of depression showcased the biological basis of depression and paved the way for the discovery of pleasure pathways and dopamine disruption in depression. However, these drugs carried many side effects affecting blood pressure, libido, appetite, and digestion leading to discomfort and choosing not to take the medication. Further, SSRI drugs discovered in the 1980s work differently from the earlier drugs and prevent serotonin clearance from the synapse to enhance its effect. Overall, understanding the biological basis of depression and how drugs impact different systems of the brain and the body has paved the way for more targeted therapies with fewer side effects.

    • Understanding the role of SSRIs in treating depression through neuroplasticitySSRIs can increase serotonin efficacy, change neural circuit function, and trigger new neuron production, but their effects vary among individuals. Proper prescription can minimize side effects and improve outcomes.

      SSRIs increase the efficacy of serotonin in the brain to relieve symptoms of depression through neuroplasticity by changing the way neural circuits function. They affect the chemical systems related to psychomotor defects, anhedonia, and grief caused by depression. While they have side effects and don't work for everyone, they have saved and improved the lives of many. However, the effects of SSRIs vary on different individuals and sometimes vary over time. Studies show that the drugs can trigger the production of new neurons and reopen critical periods of plasticity, especially in the hippocampus region that impacts memory. It's necessary to prescribe drugs that suit individual needs and minimize their side effects.

    • Understanding the Chemistry of DepressionPhysical and emotional pain, neurotransmitters, hormones, and external factors can cause depression. Understanding these systems, like substance P and thyroid hormones, can aid in treating depression.

      Depression is a complex mood disorder with various systems that can cause it. Pain, both physical and emotional, is a crucial aspect to understand and is linked to depression. Substance P and its inhibitors can be used to treat depression, along with understanding the neuro epinephrine and dopamine systems in the brain. Hormones like thyroid play a significant role in depression, and some people with depression have low thyroid hormone, leading to low energy and metabolism in the brain and body. Certain situations or conditions like childbirth can cause depression and are hormonally related. It's crucial to understand these systems to get a better understanding of the underlying chemistry of depression.

    • Hormones and Stress: Their Impact on Depression and the Importance of Controlling the Stress SystemHormonal changes during menstruation, menopause, and stress increase the risk of depression. Genetic predisposition to depression is overcome by managing stress. People carrying gene HTT LPR are susceptible to depression and should control the stress system.

      Shifts in hormone levels during menstrual cycle, menopause, and long-term stressful episodes can increase the risk of major depression. Learning to control the stress system is key to offset depression, especially for those with a genetic predisposition to depression. Heritability plays a strong role in depression, but it does not preordain or determine one to be depressed. Carrying a certain gene, HTT LPR, can greatly shift one's susceptibility to depression under conditions of stress, requiring fewer bouts of stress to lapse into major depression. Therefore, it is important to take control of the stress system and learn ways to manage stress in the short, medium, and long-term. Talk to a doctor and get a blood panel that includes measures of thyroid hormone and cortisol hormone to stay on the lookout for symptoms.

    • Understanding Chemicals and Behavioral Tools to Overcome Stress and DepressionLearning about the mechanisms behind tools that affect the levels of specific chemicals and implementing behavioral tools, such as cold showers and exercise, can help manage stress and prevent depressive episodes. For major depression, prescription drugs and supplementation may be necessary.

      Learning how to mitigate stress is important to prevent depressive episodes. Understanding the mechanism behind tools that adjust the levels of specific chemicals, such as serotonin and dopamine, can provide flexibility and power in working with your system. Behavioral tools, like cold showers and exercise, can help relieve some of the symptoms of depression, but for people experiencing major depression, motivation to take action may be difficult. Prescription drugs and supplementation may be necessary in these cases. Understanding the accessibility of circuits for happiness, pleasure, exercise, and stress relief can provide a path to a healthy mind and body.

    • The Role of EPA in Reducing Inflammation and Alleviating Depression SymptomsBoosting EPA intake may be an effective way to manage depression symptoms, as it can lower the necessary dose of antidepressants and alleviate inflammation. Even individuals without depression may benefit from increasing EPA intake.

      Excessive inflammation can lead to or worsen depression. To reduce inflammation and relieve some or all of the symptoms of major depression, one approach is to increase the intake of EPA or essential fatty acids. Studies have shown that increasing the intake of EPA can lower the effective dose of prescription antidepressants and match the relief from depressive symptoms provided by such antidepressants. The threshold level for EPA intake is about 1000 milligrams, and it is essential to look at whether the supplement contains more than that. Increasing the intake of EPA may help control depression for everyone, regardless of whether they suffer from it or not.

    • Combating Depression: The Synergy between EPA Intake and ExerciseIncreasing EPA intake and regular exercise can help promote healthy mood by limiting inflammation and promoting the conversion of tryptophan into serotonin, providing an alternative approach to depression management.

      Increasing EPA intake and regular exercise can help combat depression by limiting the inflammatory pathway that diverts tryptophan into a neurotoxic pathway and augmenting the conversion of tryptophan into serotonin. Hitting a certain threshold level of EPA intake, whether by supplementation or through food sources, can limit inflammation. Exercise can sequester tryptophan, preventing it from becoming a neurotoxin and promoting the conversion into serotonin. These mechanisms all converge on a common pathway serotonin, giving peace of mind that behavioral and nutritional approaches can help maintain healthy mood.

    • The Connection between EPA, Creatine, Exercise and DepressionEPA supplements, creatine supplements and exercise can positively impact depression symptoms. Low dose supplementation of EPA and creatine may be useful, while regular exercise in zone two range may limit depressive symptoms. Consult a doctor before starting any supplement program.

      EPA and exercise work on the same biochemical pathways as antidepressants, and can impinge on depressive symptoms. Creatine supplementation not only improves physical performance but is being studied for its potential to improve symptoms of major depression. Low dose supplementation of EPA and creatine may have positive effects on mood and should be discussed with a doctor. Regular exercise in the 'zone two' range may also limit depressive symptoms in all individuals. Understanding these biochemical pathways can be additional motivation to prioritize exercise and consider natural supplements for mental health.

    • Creatine Supplementation and Its Potential for Depression TreatmentCreatine may help improve mood and treat depression by increasing phosphocreatine activity. It can also lower the required SSRI dose or enhance its effectiveness. Dosages of 3-10 grams per day are reasonable, but consult a healthcare provider first.

      Creatine supplementation may improve mood and even treat depression by increasing activity of the phosphocreatine system in the forebrain. Studies have shown that creatine can lower the required dose of SSRI that's needed to treat depression or improve the effectiveness of a given dose of SSRI. Most studies used dosages that are reasonable for most people, anywhere from three grams to five grams, sometimes up to as many 10 grams per day. Creatine supplementation may lead to plasticity changes in neural circuits that underlie the shift from negative mood and affect to positive mood. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before supplementing with creatine.

    • The Potential of Ketamine and PCP for Depression TreatmentKetamine and PCP, drugs of abuse, have shown promise in treating depression by targeting the NMTA receptor. Although experimental, they create dissociative states that help clinicians treat depression. The drugs' exact mechanisms of action remain unclear, but we know they alter neural circuitry.

      Ketamine and PCP, known drugs of abuse, have shown promising results for the treatment of depression through their effect on the NMTA receptor, which is related to neuroplasticity. These dissociative states created by the drugs give a feeling of separateness from emotions and perceptions which clinicians are leveraging for the treatment of depression. Although these drugs are still very much experimental, they are approved by prescription for treatment of depression in some contexts. The drugs operate through very cryptic means and we don't understand all the pathways in the brain that relate to motivation and mood. Neuroscientists learn that activation of the NMTA receptor leads to changes in neural circuitry in various ways.

    • Exploring Emerging Therapeutic Treatments for DepressionDrugs like ketamine and PCP can increase neuroplasticity in the prefrontal cortex to alleviate symptoms of depression by separating individuals from negative states and rewiring the brain. It's important to explore these treatments to find new ways to treat depression.

      Drugs like ketamine and PCP used in a therapeutic context may be increasing neuroplasticity and changing neural circuits in the forebrain to relieve depressive symptoms by creasing spines on neurons in the prefrontal cortex. This highlights the importance of layer five activity in the cortex for rewiring the brain to alleviate symptoms of depression. These drugs allow people to separate from the state of not caring or being uninterested and unwilling to do anything, which is an essential path to treatment. The negative effects of depression such as guilt, grief, anhedonia, and anti-self-confabulation can be converted into self-harm and suicide. Therefore, it is crucial to explore these emerging treatments like ketamine and PCP to find new ways to treat depression.

    • Exploring Psychedelic Therapy for Depression ReliefPsychedelic therapies like ketamine, PCP, and psilocybin are being clinically explored for depression relief by rewiring neural circuits instead of just altering core biological functions. Siliciden dosage is determined by an individual's body weight.

      Emotions are not who we are, but they are a part of us. Depression can lead to self-harm and suicidal thoughts. Ketamine and PCP help in relieving negative experiences and rewiring neural circuitry. Psilocybin is actively being explored for its capacity to rewire neural circuits and alleviate depression by increasing serotonin transmission and acting on serotonin receptors. Psilocybin-assisted therapy has shown positive therapeutic outcomes in treating major depressive disorder. These therapies focus on rewiring circuitry instead of just changing core biological functions. These clinical trials are being conducted by scientists and psychiatrists, leading to peer-reviewed data. An individual's body weight determines the administered dosage of siliciden.

    • Psilocybin Treatment as Potential Therapy for Major DepressionPsilocybin treatment has shown significant improvement in relieving depressive symptoms and activating the serotonin system, leading to a rewiring of associations between emotional events, new opportunities, and optimism in the future.

      Psilocybin treatment shows significant improvement in mood, affect, and relief from depressive symptoms in 50-70% of subjects. The treatment can become a potential therapy for major depression. The subjective experience during siliciden journeys does not affect the relief from symptoms. The activation of the serotonin system and five HT, one F receptor in layer five is rewiring associations between emotional events in ways that allow people to see new opportunity and optimism in the future. The common themes of siliciden administration and experience lead to relief from depressive symptoms despite a diversity of experience while on the drug. The study is controlled with medical monitoring devices and highly trained guides who direct people through the experience.

    • Psilocybin, Diets and Legislative Shifts: New Approaches to Treating DepressionClinical studies show that high dosage psilocybin treatment provides relief from depressive symptoms, while diets rich in carbohydrates and tryptophan can act as self-medicating versions of depression treatment. New research on the carnivore diet and the use of MDMA and psilocybin suggest new approaches to treating depression. Legislative shifts around psychedelics may also be on the horizon.

      Clinical studies on psilocybin suggest that two dose treatments done in a highly controlled setting can provide relief from depressive symptoms. Microdosing doesn't seem to be as impactful as high amplitude sessions. Psilocybin helps with rewiring of circuitry and distancing oneself from negative moods. Major depression involves serotonin, dopamine, and nor epinephrin. Ingestion of carbohydrates and tryptophan-rich meats are the self-medicating versions of depression treatments. While a vegan diet may not improve symptoms of depression, the ketogenic diet has been explored for its ability to maintain euthymia in bipolar patients. Further research is needed on diets like the carnivore diet. Psilocybin and MDMA are undergoing trials for treating trauma and depression. Legislative shifts around psychedelics could happen soon.

    • Ketogenic Diet's Potential Medical Relevance in Treating Epilepsy and DepressionThe diet increases GABA transmission and modulates the GABA-glutamate balance, potentially making it effective in treating major depressive disorders. However, medical advice should be sought before starting or relying solely on the diet for treatment.

      The ketogenic diet has shown medical relevance in treating epilepsy by increasing GABA transmission and reducing seizures. It also has potential for treating major depressive disorders, particularly in cases where classical antidepressants have not been effective. The diet lowers carbohydrates to the point where ketones are metabolized, increasing GABA and modulating the GABA-glutamate balance, which is vital for maintaining healthy levels of brain activity. The diet may also improve the ability for drugs that impact the serotonin, dopamine, or norepinephrine systems to work effectively at lower dosages. It's important to talk to a psychiatrist about the potential benefits of the ketogenic diet for major depressive disorder and to not overly seek out pleasure, which can lead to depression.

    • Boosting Mental Health through Natural MethodsSmall changes like taking cold showers, exercising regularly, increasing EPA intake, and consuming fermented foods can positively impact mental health by balancing neurotransmitters and supporting gut health.

      To avoid anhedonia and depression, it's important to not overwhelm pleasure centers through activities or substances, and to mind extreme highs and lows. A 30-day complete detox could help reset the system. Pursuing noradrenaline-inducing activities like cold showers, exercise, and breathing can support mental health, especially in offsetting major depressive disorder. EPA (essential fatty acids) intake of above 1000mg can also help improve mood. Ingesting fermented foods can help keep gut microbiome tuned up, keeping inflammation at bay and supporting mental health. Check with your doctor before making changes, but remember that engaging in healthy activities and consuming beneficial nutrients can have real neurochemical benefits for mood.

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    I'm honored to share Episode 2 of the first season of Perform with Dr. Andy Galpin. Dr. Andy Galpin is a tenured full professor at California State University, Fullerton, where he co-directs the Center for Sport Performance and leads the Biochemistry and Molecular Exercise Physiology Laboratory. Andy is both a friend and a colleague, and I'm delighted to have assisted in the creation of this podcast. I'm certain you'll both enjoy and learn from it. Season 1 features 10 episodes, airing every Wednesday for 10 weeks. Dr. Galpin will cover everything from building strength, the importance of strength for long-term health, the science of breathing, the benefits of sleep extension, genetic testing for personalized training, and nutrition for injury recovery. While we have Episode 2 of Perform with Dr. Andy Galpin here, please be sure to subscribe and follow Perform with Dr. Andy Galpin on your preferred platform. Show notes for this episode can be found at performpodcast.com. Timestamps 00:00:00 Introduction from Dr. Andrew Huberman 00:01:06 Skeletal Muscle 00:04:06 Sponsors: Absolute Rest & Momentous 00:07:20 Quantity & Quality; Organ System; Health & Performance 00:12:58 Plasticity, “Look Good, Feel Good, Play Good”; Muscle Types 00:15:46 What is Muscle?, Muscle Fibers, Tendon 00:21:37 Muscle Fiber Number, Hyperplasia, Anabolic Steroids, Age 00:24:03 Myonuclei & Adaptability 00:26:27 Muscle Fiber Types, Variable Muscle Functions 00:32:24 Fiber Type & Lifestyle Factors 00:34:54 Sponsors: David Protein & AG1 00:37:37 Age & Muscle Loss, Slow vs. Fast-Twitch Fibers; Motor Units 00:46:36 Muscle Size vs. Muscle Strength, Quantity vs. Quality 00:50:56 Investigate: Muscle Quantity, Fat-Free Mass Index (FFMI) 00:56:21 FFMI, Elite Athletes, Muscle Mass 01:00:59 Muscle Asymmetry; Too Much Muscle Possible? 01:03:49 Interpret: Muscle Mass, FFMI Calculations & Percentiles 01:09:28 Tool: Intervene - Increase Muscle Mass, 72-Hour Rule 01:15:27 Sponsors: Maui Nui & Renaissance Periodization 01:17:51 Investigate: Muscle Quality & 4 Movement Principles 01:23:34 Muscle Quality & 3 Performance Principles  01:26:42 Interpret: Muscle Speed, Age 01:32:45 Muscle Power, Vertical Jump, Broad Jump 01:36:17 Muscle Strength, Powerlifting Elite, Bench Press, Leg Press, Grip Strength 01:44:05 Increasing Strength, Improve Health & Longevity 01:46:44 Tool: Intervene - Improve Muscle Quality, 4 Training Principles, 3-to-5 Rule 01:53:56 Zero-Cost Support, YouTube, Spotify & Apple Subscribe & Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Social Media 01:56:10 Conclusion from Dr. Andrew Huberman Disclaimer
    Huberman Lab
    enJune 19, 2024

    Dr. Zachary Knight: The Science of Hunger & Medications to Combat Obesity

    Dr. Zachary Knight: The Science of Hunger & Medications to Combat Obesity
    In this episode, my guest is Dr. Zachary Knight, Ph.D., a professor of physiology at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), and Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) investigator. We discuss how the brain controls our sense of hunger, satiety, and thirst. He explains how dopamine levels impact our cravings and eating behavior (amount, food choices, etc) and how we develop and can change our food preferences and adjust how much we need to eat to feel satisfied. We discuss factors that have led to the recent rise in obesity, such as interactions between our genes and the environment and the role of processed foods and food combinations. We also discuss the new class of medications developed for the treatment of obesity and diabetes, including the GLP-1 agonists semaglutide (Ozempic, Wegovy) and tirzepatide (Mounjaro). We discuss how these medications work to promote weight loss, the source of their side effects, and the newer compounds soon to overcome some of those side effects, such as muscle loss. Dr. Knight provides an exceptionally clear explanation for our sense of hunger, thirst, and food cravings that translates to practical knowledge to help listeners better understand their relationship to food, food choices, and meal size to improve their diet and overall health. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman  BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Timestamps 00:00:00 Dr. Zachary Knight 00:02:38 Sponsors: BetterHelp, Helix Sleep & Waking Up 00:07:07 Hunger & Timescales 00:11:28 Body Fat, Leptin, Hunger 00:17:51 Leptin Resistance & Obesity 00:20:52 Hunger, Food Foraging & Feeding Behaviors, AgRP Neurons 00:30:26 Sponsor: AG1 00:32:15 Body Weight & Obesity, Genes & POMC Neurons 00:39:54 Obesity, Genetics & Environmental Factors 00:46:05 Whole Foods, Ultra-Processed Foods & Palatability 00:49:32 Increasing Whole Food Consumption, Sensory Specific Satiety & Learning 00:58:55 Calories vs. Macronutrients, Protein & Salt 01:02:23 Sponsor: LMNT 01:03:58 Challenges of Weight Loss: Hunger & Energy Expenditure 01:09:50 GLP-1 Drug Development, Semaglutide, Ozempic, Wegovy 01:19:03 GLP-1 Drugs: Muscle Loss, Appetite Reduction, Nausea 01:23:24 Pharmacologic & Physiologic Effects; GLP-1 Drugs, Additional Positive Effects 01:30:14 GLP-1-Plus Development, Tirzepatide, Mounjaro, AMG 133 01:34:49 Alpha-MSH & Pharmacology 01:40:41 Dopamine, Eating & Context 01:46:01 Dopamine & Learning, Water Content & Food 01:53:23 Salt, Water & Thirst 02:03:27 Hunger vs. Thirst 02:05:46 Dieting, Nutrition & Mindset 02:09:39 Tools: Improving Diet & Limiting Food Intake 02:14:15 Anti-Obesity Drug Development 02:17:03 Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Follow & Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
    Huberman Lab
    enJune 17, 2024

    Perform with Dr. Andy Galpin: How & Why to Strengthen Your Heart & Cardiovascular Fitness

    Perform with Dr. Andy Galpin: How & Why to Strengthen Your Heart & Cardiovascular Fitness
    I'm honored to share the first episode of the new podcast, Perform with Dr. Andy Galpin. Dr. Andy Galpin is a tenured full professor at California State University, Fullerton, where he co-directs the Center for Sport Performance and leads the Biochemistry and Molecular Exercise Physiology Laboratory. Andy is both a friend and a colleague, and I’m delighted to have assisted in the creation of this podcast. I'm certain you'll both enjoy and learn from it. Season 1 features 10 episodes, airing every Wednesday for 10 weeks. Dr. Galpin will cover everything from building strength, the importance of strength for long-term health, the science of breathing, the benefits of sleep extension, genetic testing for personalized training, and nutrition for injury recovery. While we have Episode 1 of Perform with Dr. Andy Galpin here, please be sure to subscribe and follow Perform with Dr. Andy Galpin on your preferred platform. Show notes for this episode can be found at performpodcast.com. Timestamps 00:00:00 Introduction from Dr. Andrew Huberman 00:01:07 Heart 00:03:55 Sponsors: Vitality Blueprint & Rhone 00:07:27 Muscle Types 00:09:54 VO2 max, Health & Mortality 00:15:49 Overall Health, Cardiorespiratory Fitness & All-Cause Mortality 00:25:23 Sponsor: AG1 00:26:54 Disease, Health & Mortality 00:30:02 Cardiac Muscle & Heart 00:38:29 Cardiac Muscle vs. Skeletal Muscle, Cardiac Advantages 00:43:53 Pacemakers & Heart Rate, Vagus Nerve 00:50:35 Why Doesn’t the Heart Get Sore? 00:54:32 Heart & Exercise, Stroke Volume, Ejection Fraction, Cardiac Output 00:59:21 Heart Rate Variability 01:02:41 Sponsors: Momentous & LMNT 01:06:54 Why Do You Breathe?: Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide & Respiratory Rate 01:13:37 Respiratory Rate & Stress 01:15:08 Tool: The “Three I’s”, Investigate: Heart Rate, Respiratory Rate, VO2 Max 01:19:53 Tool: Interpretation, Resting Heart Rate & Ranges 01:23:16 Tool: Interpretation: VO2 Max & Ranges 01:30:45 Athletes & Highest VO2 Max Scores 01:35:53 Elite Athletes & Context for VO2 Max Scores 01:41:42 Tool: Intervention, VO2 Max, Varying Exercise Intensities, SAID Principle 01:48:20 Tool: Varying Exercise Intensity; Intervals & Continuous Training; Frequency 01:58:18 Zero-Cost Support, YouTube, Spotify & Apple Subscribe & Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Social Media 01:59:55 Conclusion from Dr. Andrew Huberman Disclaimer
    Huberman Lab
    enJune 12, 2024

    Dr. Jonathan Haidt: How Smartphones & Social Media Impact Mental Health & the Realistic Solutions

    Dr. Jonathan Haidt: How Smartphones & Social Media Impact Mental Health & the Realistic Solutions
    In this episode, my guest is Dr. Jonathan Haidt, Ph.D., professor of social psychology at New York University and bestselling author on how technology and culture impact the psychology and health of kids, teens, and adults. We discuss the dramatic rise of suicide, depression, and anxiety as a result of replacing a play-based childhood with smartphones, social media, and video games. He explains how a screen-filled childhood leads to challenges in psychological development that negatively impact learning, resilience, identity, cooperation, and conflict resolution — all of which are crucial skills for future adult relationships and career success. We also discuss how phones and social media impact boys and girls differently and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of how smartphones alter basic brain plasticity and function.  Dr. Haidt explains his four recommendations for healthier smartphone use in kids, and we discuss how to restore childhood independence and play in the current generation.  This is an important topic for everyone, young or old, parents and teachers, students and families, to be aware of in order to understand the potential mental health toll of smartphone use and to apply tools to foster skill-building and reestablish healthy norms for our kids. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman  Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman Joovv: https://joovv.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Timestamps 00:00:00 Dr. Jonathan Haidt 00:02:01 Sponsors: Helix Sleep, AeroPress & Joovv 00:06:23 Great Rewiring of Childhood: Technology, Smartphones & Social Media 00:12:48 Mental Health Trends: Boys, Girls & Smartphones 00:16:26 Smartphone Usage, Play-Based to Phone-Based Childhood 00:20:40 The Tragedy of Losing Play-Based Childhood 00:28:13 Sponsor: AG1 00:30:02 Girls vs. Boys, Interests & Trapping Kids 00:37:31 “Effectance,” Systems & Relationships, Animals 00:41:47 Boys Sexual Development, Dopamine Reinforcement & Pornography 00:49:19 Boys, Courtship, Chivalry & Technology; Gen Z Development 00:55:24 Play & Low-Stakes Mistakes, Video Games & Social Media, Conflict Resolution 00:59:48 Sponsor: LMNT 01:01:23 Social Media, Trolls, Performance 01:06:47 Dynamic Subordination, Hierarchy, Boys 01:10:15 Girls & Perfectionism, Social Media & Performance 01:14:00 Phone-Based Childhood & Brain Development, Critical Periods 01:21:15 Puberty & Sensitive Periods, Culture & Identity 01:23:55 Brain Development & Puberty; Identity; Social Media, Learning & Reward 01:33:37 Tool: 4 Recommendations for Smartphone Use in Kids 01:41:48 Changing Childhood Norms, Policies & Legislature 01:49:13 Summer Camp, Team Sports, Religion, Music 01:54:36 Boredom, Addiction & Smartphones; Tool: “Awe Walks” 02:03:14 Casino Analogy & Ceding Childhood; Social Media Content 02:09:33 Adult Behavior; Tool: Meals & Phones 02:11:45 Regaining Childhood Independence; Tool: Family Groups & Phones 02:16:09 Screens & Future Optimism, Collective Action, KOSA Bill 02:24:52 Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
    Huberman Lab
    enJune 10, 2024

    LIVE EVENT Q&A: Dr. Andrew Huberman at the Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre

    LIVE EVENT Q&A: Dr. Andrew Huberman at the Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre
    Recently I had the pleasure of hosting a live event in Brisbane, Australia. This event was part of a lecture series called The Brain Body Contract. My favorite part of the evening was the question and answer period, where I had the opportunity to answer questions from the attendees of each event. Included here is the Q&A from our event at the Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre. Sign up to get notified about future events: https://www.hubermanlab.com/events Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman Resources Mentioned Huberman Lab Non-Sleep Deep Rest Protocols Huberman Lab Guest Series with Dr. Matt Walker Huberman Lab Guest Series with Dr. Paul Conti Huberman Lab Guest Series with Dr. Andy Galpin Dr. Becky Kennedy: Protocols for Excellent Parenting & Improving Relationships of All Kinds Perform with Dr. Andy Galpin Timestamps 00:00 Introduction 00:31 Sponsors: AG1 & Eight Sleep 03:48 Nicotine Discussion 07:42 ADHD Management: Tools & Medications 12:43 Sleep Deprivation & Recovery 18:54 Understanding & Addressing Burnout 22:12 Daily Nutrition & Eating Habits 24:40 Understanding Food & Neural Pathways 26:21 The Benefits of Elimination Diets 27:21 Intermittent Fasting & Personal Diet Choices 28:23 Top Health & Fitness Recommendations 30:50 The Value of Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) 33:08 Testosterone Replacement Therapy Insights 38:02 Breathing Techniques for Stress & Focus 41:46 Morning Sunlight & Circadian Rhythms 43:18 Parenting Tips for a Healthy Start 49:03 Final Thoughts & Gratitude Disclaimer
    Huberman Lab
    enJune 07, 2024

    Dr. Mary Claire Haver: How to Navigate Menopause & Perimenopause for Maximum Health & Vitality

    Dr. Mary Claire Haver: How to Navigate Menopause & Perimenopause for Maximum Health & Vitality
    In this episode, my guest is Dr. Mary Claire Haver, M.D., a board-certified OB/GYN and an expert on women’s health and menopause. We discuss the biology and symptoms of perimenopause and menopause and their effects on body composition, cardiometabolic health, mental health, and longevity. She explains the lifestyle factors, including nutrition, resistance training, sleep, and supplements, that can better prepare women for and improve symptoms of both perimenopause and menopause. We also discuss hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and whether HRT impacts the incidence of breast cancer or can affect cardiovascular health. We also discuss contraception, cellulite, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and how to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. This episode is rich in actionable information related to what is known about menopause and perimenopause and the stages before, allowing women of all ages to best navigate these life stages. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman  AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman  Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman  BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman  InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Timestamps 00:00:00 Dr. Mary Claire Haver 00:02:04 Sponsors: AeroPress, Eight Sleep & BetterHelp 00:06:26 Menopause, Age of Onset 00:09:50 Perimenopause, Hormones & “Zone of Chaos” 00:14:42 Perimenopause, Estrogen & Mental Health 00:20:04 Perimenopause Symptoms; Tool: Lifestyle Factors & Ovarian Health 00:25:26 Early Menopause, Premature Ovarian Failure; Estrogen Therapy 00:29:42 Sponsor: AG1 00:31:31 Contraception, Transdermal, IUDs; Menopause Onset, Freezing Eggs 00:38:18 Women’s Health: Misconceptions & Research 00:45:01 Tool: Diet, Preparing for Peri-/Menopause; Visceral Fat 00:48:31 Tools: Body Composition, Muscle & Menopause, Protein Intake 00:51:42 Menopause: Genetics, Symptoms; Tools: Waist-to-Hip Ratio; Gut Microbiome 00:58:22 Galveston vs. Mediterranean Diet, Fasting, Tool: Building Muscle 01:05:18 Sponsor: InsideTracker 01:06:29 Hot Flashes; Estrogen Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT), Breast Cancer Risk & Cognition 01:15:36 Estrogen HRT, Cardiovascular Disease, Blood Clotting; “Meno-posse” 01:24:00 Estrogen & Testosterone: Starting HRT & Ranges 01:30:36 Other Hormones, Thyroid & DHEA; Local Treatment, Urinary Symptoms 01:37:57 OB/GYN Medical Education & Menopause 01:41:30 Supplements, Fiber, Tools: Osteoporosis “Prevention Pack” 01:46:53 Collagen, Cellulite, Bone Density 01:51:42 HRT, Vertigo, Tinnitus, Dry Eye; Conditions Precluding HRT  01:55:27 Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) & Treatment; GLP-1, Addictive Behaviors 02:01:55 Post-menopause & HRT, Sustained HRT Usage 02:04:58 Mental Health, Perimenopause vs. Menopause; Sleep Disruptions, Alcohol 02:09:09 Male Support; Rekindle Libido 02:12:46 HRT Rash Side-Effect; Acupuncture; Visceral Fat 02:16:24 Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Sponsors, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
    Huberman Lab
    enJune 03, 2024

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