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    ADHD & How Anyone Can Improve Their Focus

    enSeptember 13, 2021

    Podcast Summary

    • Overcoming ADHD with Brain-Boosting Tools and TechniquesADHD can be managed through a combination of behavioral and drug-based tools, diet, and emerging brain-machine interface techniques. Relaxation and mindfulness practices can also help improve focus levels, while stress and smartphone usage can contribute to ADHD-like symptoms. Seek professional diagnosis before assuming ADHD and seeking corresponding treatment.

      Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be a challenging neurodevelopmental disorder, but anyone can improve attention and focus levels with some behavioral tools, drug-based tools, diet & supplementation, and emerging brain-machine interface techniques. Genetic components link specific neural circuits in the brain which causes ADHD, but it has nothing to do with intelligence. While ADHD is different from normal focus levels, anyone can learn to relax while focusing, which improves learning and creativity. Be mindful not to diagnose yourself or someone else as having ADHD; it should only be diagnosed by a qualified professional. Finally, smartphone usage and stress can lead to adult ADHD-like symptoms, which may also need specific treatment.

    • The Connection Between ADHD, Technology, and Time PerceptionProper diagnosis and treatment can help resolve half of ADHD cases in children. Adults may develop ADHD due to modern lifestyles. ADHD individuals struggle with attention, impulse control, and time perception, but can focus if interested. Impulse control is a separate challenge requiring sensory awareness.

      The renaming of ADD to ADHD has led to better diagnosis and detection of ADHD. Current estimates show that approximately one in 10 children have ADHD, and half of those will resolve with proper treatment. Increased levels of ADHD in adults may be due to the way we interact with technology and manage our lives. People with ADHD struggle with attention and impulse control, but they are not unable to focus, especially when they are interested in the task at hand. ADHD individuals also often have challenges with time perception. In the scientific literature and discussions about ADHD, attention, focus, and concentration are essentially the same thing, while impulse control is something separate which requires pushing out or putting the blinders on to sensory events in the environment.

    • ADHD and Time Perception: Implications for Organization and MemoryPeople with ADHD have difficulties with time perception, spatial organization, and working memory, leading to challenges with attention, focus, and staying on task. Treatments for ADHD and age-related cognitive decline can overlap.

      People with ADHD have challenges with time perception and spatial organization. They can perceive time well if a deadline is given, but tend to lose track of time if they are not concerned. They use the pile system to organize things but struggle with finding them later. ADHD also affects their working memory, making it difficult to keep specific information online. Deficits in working memory are also seen in age-related cognitive decline. Many treatments, supplements, and tools for ADHD are similar to those that work for age-related cognitive decline. ADHD is characterized by challenges with attention, focus, impulse control, and staying on task.

    • How ADHD brains handle focusDopamine plays a crucial role in attention and focus, allowing for increased motivation and concentration on exciting tasks. Understanding this can help manage attention difficulties for both ADHD and non-ADHD individuals.

      People with ADHD have a hard time with mundane tasks but can obtain heightened levels of focus for things that are exciting to them. This is due to dopamine, a neuromodulator that creates a heightened state of focus and motivation, which tends to contract our visual world and narrow our auditory focus. Dopamine tends to enhance two main types of circuits: the default mode network and the task networks. Additionally, it's important to understand that focus abilities vary among individuals, even for those without ADHD, and having dopamine release can allow a person to direct their attention to particular things in their environment. Understanding the neurochemical and neural circuit identity of attention can help in better managing focus and attention.

    • Understanding the coordination of brain networks in ADHD.Dopamine plays a crucial role in regulating brain networks responsible for impulse control in ADHD. Proper treatment involves understanding this, and examining past treatments and recreational drugs pursued by sufferers.

      The default mode network and the task networks are two sets of brain areas that normally interact in people without ADHD in kind of seesaw fashion, with the task networks suppressing impulses in tasks. However, in people with ADHD, these networks are actually more coordinated, and that is what's abnormal. Dopamine acts as a conductor, allowing these networks to work together in normal circumstances but fails to do so in people with ADHD. For people with ADHD, the information is getting out, but the information that's getting out is wrong. Treatment for ADHD involves understanding how dopamine regulates these circuits, and looking at some of the current and previous treatments for ADHD as well as recreational drugs that people with ADHD tend to pursue can provide insight into how to treat it.

    • The Connection Between ADHD and Dopamine Levels in the BrainADHD is caused by low dopamine levels in the brain, leading to unfocused thoughts and behaviors. Individuals with the disorder may resort to stimulants and sugary foods to self-medicate and improve focus, but treating with dopaminergic compounds can be effective. Children with ADHD may have limited options for dopamine-inducing treatments compared to adults.

      ADHD is caused by low levels of dopamine in specific brain circuits, which leads to unnecessary firing of neurons unrelated to the task at hand. Individuals with ADHD tend to use recreational drugs or indulge in dopamine-inducing stimulants like coffee and sugary foods to self-medicate and improve focus. Stimulants like cocaine and amphetamines increase levels of dopamine in the brain, which explains why individuals with ADHD often find focus while taking these drugs. Treating ADHD with dopaminergic compounds can improve focus and decision-making. However, while adults have access to these drugs, young children don't and often resort to sugary foods and drinks as dopamine-inducing stimulants.

    • Understanding the Science behind ADHD Medications Key Takeaway: ADHD medications are stimulants that increase dopamine levels in the brain. Pharmacokinetics affect alertness and sleepiness. They are safe under medical supervision. Decision to use should be made with a doctor's help.Subtitle: Understanding the Science behind ADHD Medications  ADHD medications are stimulants that increase dopamine levels in the brain. Pharmacokinetics affect alertness and sleepiness. They are safe under medical supervision. Decision to use should be made with a doctor's help.

      Drugs like Ritalin, Adderall, and Modafinil are commonly used to treat ADHD as well as narcolepsy and are all stimulants that increase dopamine levels in specific networks within the brain. While they have similar effects, there are differences in their pharmacokinetics, meaning the rate at which they enter and last in the system, which can impact how alert or sleepy someone feels. These drugs are similar to some illegal street drugs in their chemical makeup and effects, but at appropriate dosages and under a medical professional's supervision, they can be beneficial for many people with ADHD. Whether or not to use these drugs is a personal decision that should be made with the guidance of a licensed physician.

    • Stimulants for Focus and LearningWhile stimulants like Ritalin and Adderall can help with focus and learning, they come with risks and should only be used under medical supervision. Other tricks, like deluding oneself into finding something interesting, can also boost focus.

      Many people are taking Ritalin, Adderall, and Modafinil even without a clinical diagnosis of ADHD in order to study, work, and function in daily life. While there is a black market for these drugs, caffeine and nicotine have also been used for ages to increase focus and energy. Taking stimulants is not a new idea, but taking them as a child diagnosed with ADHD allows for the development of focus and learning how to focus, even when uninterested. Tricks such as deluding oneself into thinking something is interesting can also selectively engage the desire to know circuit, leading to better focus and retention of information. However, it is important to note that these drugs can be detrimental to some individuals and should be used with caution under medical supervision.

    • Early treatment and medication for ADHDProper medication dosage and early treatment can help children with ADHD learn to focus and function better. Waiting until puberty is not recommended due to neuroplasticity. Elimination diets may help, but consulting a physician is crucial for deciding on medication.

      Early treatment with medication can allow kids with ADHD to learn how to focus and achieve appropriate levels of functioning in their task-related circuits. However, medication dosage should be the lowest possible and modulated as the child grows. Waiting until puberty may help the child gain control of their behavior naturally, but childhood neuroplasticity is the highest and neuroplasticity decreases after age 25. Elimination diets have been purported to improve ADHD symptoms, but medication should not be the only solution. A qualified physician's opinion is important when deciding to give children Ritalin, Adderall or any stimulant. The child's long-term and short-term consequences and their clinical needs should be considered.

    • Diet and ADHD: The Controversy over Elimination Diets and Allergenic FoodsEliminating simple sugars can improve ADHD symptoms, but identifying all allergenic foods is controversial. Some researchers caution that avoiding nuts may trigger allergies. Treating ADHD with diet is challenging due to a tendency to pursue sugary and dopamine-increasing foods.

      Eliminating certain foods to which children have allergies can significantly improve their symptoms of ADHD according to a well-designed randomized controlled trial that involved 100 children. The elimination of simple sugars has a dramatic and positive effect as observed by many pediatric neurologists. However, the so-called elimination diets that identify all the allergenic foods are still controversial, and there is another emerging camp in the peer-reviewed scientific literature that shows avoiding certain foods, especially nuts, may trigger allergies. It is essential to explore the role of diet and nutrition in treating ADHD, considering the challenges it poses while designing a study because individuals with ADHD tend to pursue sugary foods and dopamine-increasing foods, trying to treat their lack of focus and impulsivity.

    • The Connection Between Diet and ADHD SymptomsAvoid high sugar and simple sugar foods, explore food allergies, and consider omega-3 fatty acids to reduce ADHD symptoms for both children and adults. Nutrition can modulate ADHD symptoms and even eliminate the need for medication.

      Children with ADHD should avoid high sugar and simple sugar foods and explore whether they have existing allergies to foods they consume. Diet can significantly reduce ADHD symptoms, allowing some children to not take medication at all or eventually wean themselves off it as young adults. Adults with ADHD or mild attention deficit issues can function well on lower doses of medication and sometimes even eliminate it entirely with omega-3 fatty acids that include a gram or more of EPA per day. Omega-3 fatty acids play a modulatory role in attention and mood circuits, making dopamine more available and likely to bind to various receptors present on neurons. Any discussion about nutrition must include the framework of modulating or mediating a process.

    • Managing ADHD with Medication, Behavioral Alternatives, and Understanding Attentional BlinksManaging ADHD includes avoiding detrimental foods, exploring alternative treatments, and understanding attentional blinks to enhance long-term focus and attention. Altered Traits offers research data on the topic.

      ADHD can be managed through medication and behavioral alternatives. The consumption of wrong foods and sugary foods is detrimental to managing ADHD. Understanding the difference between modulating and mediating processes is vital for managing ADHD. Alternative treatments for enhancing focus and attention should be explored. Altered Traits by Daniel Goleman and Richard Davidson highlights research data on focus and attention. Attentional blinks occur when searching for a visual target, and in that moment of celebration, however mild, attention blinks shut off for a second. Understanding attentional blinks is necessary to enhance focus and attention in theory forever.

    • Overcoming Attentional Blinks for Improved FocusPracticing open monitoring and dilating your gaze can help improve focus and limit attentional blinks, whether you have ADHD or not. Meditation can also be a helpful tool for training your ability to recognize multiple targets and avoid distraction.

      People with ADHD tend to have more attentional blinks than those who don't. When you focus too much on something, you tend to miss other things. To increase focus, it's essential to practice open monitoring and dilate your gaze. This allows you to access panoramic vision and attend to multiple targets, including both the R and Z letters in a string of numbers. Learning to dilate your gaze consciously can be trained and practiced by anyone, with or without ADHD. Practices such as meditation can also improve your ability to limit attentional blinks. By implementing open monitoring, you can develop your ability to attend and recognize multiple targets, improving your ability to focus and avoid distraction.

    • The Power of Mindfulness Meditation in Boosting Attention and Perception of TimeA 17-minute meditation practice can rewire the brain to better attend and focus. Engaging in panoramic vision, open monitoring, and mindful blinking can also improve perception of time and cognitive function.

      A 17-minute practice of sitting quietly and paying attention to your internal state through interoceptive registering can forever rewire your brain to attend better and possibly offset some age-related cognitive decline. The effects are significant and long-lasting even after one session. Engaging in panoramic vision, open monitoring, and reducing the amount of visual information coming in also have powerful effects on attentional circuitry. Blinking can affect perception of time, and studies have found that right after blinks, the perception of time resets. Therefore, taking a 17-minute meditation break and being mindful of blinking can be a simple yet powerful tool to improve focus and perception of time.

    • Blinking, Dopamine, and Attention in ADHDVisual focus and control of blinks can enhance attention in individuals with ADHD. Physical movements and fidgeter toys can also aid in improving mental focus. Understanding this link can lead to improved treatment options.

      Blinking controls time perception and attention, and dopamine levels can alter sense of time. Individuals with ADHD have lower dopamine levels, leading to underestimation of time intervals. However, training involving visual focus and control of blinks can greatly enhance focus and attention. A short period of focusing on a visual target and controlling blinks can improve attention in school children. Physical movements before the training can help eliminate the desire to move and enhance the ability to sit still. Fidgeter toys or repetitive physical activity can also help engage physical energy and improve mental focus. Understanding the link between blinking, dopamine, and attention can lead to better treatment options for individuals with ADHD.

    • Engaging premotor circuits and regulating blinking for better focus and attention.By engaging subtle movements and regulating blinking, such as through increased dopamine or cannabis use, individuals can improve their focus, attention, and precision in public speaking and other tasks.

      Engaging premotor circuits by subtle movements like tapping foot or bouncing knee can shuttle some of the activity from those circuits to elsewhere in the body, leading to better focus and precision, for instance during public speaking. Blinking regulates the amount of information going into the nervous system and how widely or specifically attention is grabbed. Increased dopamine tends to make us blink less and attend more, but some other chemicals like serotonin and components of cannabinoid and opioid system can create the alert but mellow feel and decrease spontaneous eyeblink rates in chronic cannabis users; many people with ADHD use or abuse cannabis for this reason.

    • Marijuana, ADHD and Alternative Approaches to Boost Neurotransmitters.While marijuana may increase focus, it can also impair memory. Non-prescription methods that increase dopamine, acetylcholine and serotonin levels show promise. Classic ADHD drugs enhance dopamine and norepinephrine, but dosage varies with age and severity.

      Marijuana seems to increase focus, but it also has well-known effects in depleting memory. People with ADHD are aware of what's going on inside them just as much as anyone else and are not oblivious to how they feel. Non-prescription approaches to increasing the levels of dopamine, acetylcholine and serotonin in the brain using various supplement type compounds are showing remarkable efficacy in peer-reviewed studies. Classic drugs used to treat ADHD work by increasing levels of dopamine and norepinephrine. The dosages vary according to the severity of the condition for a given person and the person's age.

    • The Pros and Cons of ADHD MedicationsADHD medications like Ritalin and Adderall have side effects similar to drugs of abuse, while caffeine has relatively fewer side effects. A combination of drug schedules and behavioral training exercises may help achieve sustained attention without the need for long-term chemical intervention.

      Prescription drugs like Ritalin and Adderall, often referred to as 'smart drugs' or nootropics, are being used to treat ADHD. However, they carry several side effects and their distinction from drugs of abuse like cocaine and amphetamines is very fine. These drugs can cause heart problems, affect sexual health, and lead to addiction and abuse. Caffeine, another drug that affects attention, has relatively fewer side effects. Drug schedules are being explored to determine the optimal use of these drugs, in combination with behavioral training exercises, for enhancing focus. Tapering off these drugs after using them to train the brain circuits may help in achieving sustained attentional capacity without the need for chemical intervention.

    • Understanding the Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Phosphatidyl Steering, Modafinil, Armodafinil, and Ginkgo Bilboa in Treating ADHDConsuming 300mg of DHA is important for improving attention and focus. Phosphatidyl steering can also help. Modafinil and armodafinil are gaining popularity for staying awake, while Ginkgo Bilboa may have marginal benefits but can cause headaches.

      Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids, especially DHA, can positively affect attention and focus. A threshold level of 300 milligrams of DHA is important. Phosphatidyl steering can be an important augment for improving the symptoms of ADHD, at 200 milligrams per day. Modafinil and armodafinil are gaining popularity for treatment of ADHD, narcolepsy, and for staying awake long periods of time. These drugs differ from Ritalin and Adderall as they weakly stimulate dopamine re-uptake. Modafinil acts on the orexin system to regulate sleepiness, arousal, and focus, and is used to treat narcolepsy. Ginkgo Bilboa has minor effects in improving symptoms of ADHD but can cause headaches for some people.

    • Cognitive enhancing compounds and increasing acetylcholine transmission.Alpha GPC and L-tyrosine may improve focus and attention by increasing acetylcholine transmission, but it is important to consult with a doctor and start with a lower dose to avoid side effects.

      Modafinil and armodafinil are cognitive enhancing compounds, but their effects vary from person to person. Acetylcholine is a key neurotransmitter involved in focus and cognition, and compounds like alpha GPC and L-tyrosine can increase its transmission, improving focus and attention. However, the correct dosage can be tricky to determine and varies from person to person. Andrew Huberman, who is a hypersensitive to medication, suggests starting with a lower dose to avoid side effects. It is important to consult with a doctor before taking any of these compounds to ensure its safety margins are appropriate.

    • The Pitfalls and Promises of Dopamine-Boosting Supplements for Cognitive Enhancement.While some compounds like T L tyrosine, PEA, and new pepped may boost cognitive function, people with mood disorders should be cautious. Consult a doctor before taking any supplements or drugs, and consider maintaining a healthy culinary magic system.

      Supplements that increase dopamine levels should be approached with caution, particularly for those with psychiatric or mood disorders. There are various compounds being explored, including T L tyrasine, PEA, and new pepped, which tap into the acetylcholine system for cognitive enhancement. New pepped has shown promise in treating mild cognitive disorders and brain diseases due to vascular or traumatic origin. There is also a comprehensive review article available that outlines the effects and drawbacks of various drugs and supplements for ADHD treatment and cognitive enhancement. However, it is important to consult a doctor before taking any of these compounds, especially if you have ADHD. Keeping the culinary magic system functioning properly can help offset cognitive decline and concussion-related challenges in maintaining focus.

    • TMS and its implications on focus in ADHD patients and the effects of smartphones and social media on attentional control.TMS offers a non-invasive way to teach the brain to learn and has vast implications in treating neurologic and psychiatric conditions. However, smartphones and social media can cause deficits in attentional control due to the rapid turnover of context, posing a challenge to focus.

      Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive tool that uses magnetic stimulation to direct activity in particular brain regions with some degree of precision. TMS has vast implications in treating neurologic and psychiatric conditions and is being used to stimulate the prefrontal cortex for ADHD patients, for increasing focus in both children and adults. In comparison to drugs, TMS is a non-invasive way of teaching the brain to learn, and clinical trials compare TMS to drug treatments. However, smartphones and social media can cause deficits in attentional control. The small size of the screen and fast context switches create a near infinite number of attentional windows, making it difficult for the brain to leave that rapid turnover of context.

    • Limiting Smartphone Use for Better FocusTo maintain focus and avoid attentional deficits, limit smartphone use to 60 minutes per day for adolescents and 2 hours per day for adults. Success in life is proportional to our ability to focus, so rest is important, but limiting phone use is key.

      Limiting smartphone use to 60 minutes per day or less for adolescents and 2 hours per day or less for adults is among the best ways to maintain focus. Constant context switching diminishes our capacity to do meaningful work, and cell phones are eroding our attentional capacities, inducing a sort of ADHD. Success in life, in every endeavor, is always proportional to the amount of focus we can bring. Rest is important, but maintaining our ability to focus by limiting smartphone use is key. Studies have shown that to avoid a decrease in attentional capacity, adolescents need to use their smartphone for less than 60 minutes per day. Two hours per day is the upper limit for adults before experiencing attentional deficits.

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    In this episode, my guest is Dr. Gabrielle Lyon, D.O., a board-certified physician who did her clinical and research training at Washington University in geriatrics and nutrition. She is also an expert in how diet and exercise impact muscle and whole-body health and longevity. Dr. Lyon is a bestselling author and public educator. We discuss how healthy skeletal muscle promotes longevity, brain health, disease prevention, ideal body composition, and the health of other organs and bodily systems. She makes specific nutritional recommendations for optimal health: what to eat, how much to eat, the timing of meals, the essential need for adequate quality protein (including animal and plant-based options), supplementation, and how our dietary requirements change with age. She explains why specific types of resistance training are essential to build and maintain muscle and overall metabolic health. She also describes how to include resistance training as part of your exercise regimen — regardless of age or sex.  She also provides specific mindset tools to encourage sustained adherence to healthy eating and exercise practices. Women and men of all ages will benefit from Dr. Lyon’s practical, evidence-based protocols to improve muscle and whole-body appearance, function, and health. Access the full show notes, including referenced articles, books, people mentioned, and additional resources at hubermanlab.com. Andrew's New Book Protocols: An Operating Manual for the Human Body: https://protocolsbook.com Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Maui Nui Venison: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman  Levels: https://levels.link/huberman  Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Timestamps 00:00:00 Protocols Book; Dr. Gabrielle Lyon 00:03:23 Sponsors: Maui Nui, Levels & Helix Sleep 00:07:40 Skeletal Muscle & Longevity 00:11:25 “Under-muscled”, Leucine & Muscle Health 00:15:55 Muscle Health 00:19:45 Tool: Carbohydrate Consumption & Activity, Glycogen 00:25:14 Tools: Nutrition for Healthy Skeletal Muscle, First Meal 00:31:57 Sponsor: AG1 00:33:46 Quality Protein, Animal & Plant-Based Proteins 00:37:36 Dietary Protein Recommendations, Meal Threshold 00:41:19 Muscle Health & Aging 00:46:02 Supplements & Creatine; Dietary Protein 00:50:07 Tool: Dietary Protein Recommendation; Gout & Cancer Risk 00:52:43 Effects of Dietary Protein & Exercise on Body Composition 01:03:06 Thermic Effects, Protein  01:05:02 Sponsor: InsideTracker 01:06:14 Protein & Satiety, Insulin & Glucose 01:12:04 Tool: Older Adults, Resistance Training & Dietary Protein 01:17:48 Dietary Protein, mTOR & Cancer Risk 01:21:36 Muscle Span & Aging, Sedentary Behaviors 01:24:00 Mixed Meals, Protein Quality, Fiber 01:29:21 Inactivity & Insulin Resistance, Inflammation 01:38:43 Exercise & Myokines, Brain Health & BDNF 01:44:11 Tool: Resistance Training Protocols, Hypertrophy, “High Ground” 01:52:51 High Ground Exercises; Tendon Strength; Training Duration, Blue Zones 01:58:19 Movement, Exercise & Older Adults 02:04:25 Tool: Protein Timing & Resistance Training; VO2 Max, Aging, Blood Work 02:11:13 Supplements: Creatine, Urolithin A, Whey Protein, Fish Oil, Collagen 02:20:18 Fasting, Older Adults; Tool: Meal Timing 02:25:18 Animal Proteins & Dairy; Organ Meats, Vegan; Magnesium, Zinc 02:30:59 Medications & Muscle Health 02:32:49 Obesity & GLP-1 Analogs, Ozempic, Mounjaro, Skeletal Muscle 02:40:48 Benefits of Skeletal Muscle & Aging 02:42:16 Tools: Nutrition & Resistance Training for Muscle Health 02:45:44 Mindset Tools: Standards vs. Goals; Vulnerability Points 02:52:00 Mindset Tools: Neutrality; Health & Worth 03:01:14 Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Follow & Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter, Protocols Book Disclaimer
    Huberman Lab
    enJune 24, 2024

    Perform with Dr. Andy Galpin: Why Muscle Matters & How to Build It

    Perform with Dr. Andy Galpin: Why Muscle Matters & How to Build It
    I'm honored to share Episode 2 of the first season of Perform with Dr. Andy Galpin. Dr. Andy Galpin is a tenured full professor at California State University, Fullerton, where he co-directs the Center for Sport Performance and leads the Biochemistry and Molecular Exercise Physiology Laboratory. Andy is both a friend and a colleague, and I'm delighted to have assisted in the creation of this podcast. I'm certain you'll both enjoy and learn from it. Season 1 features 10 episodes, airing every Wednesday for 10 weeks. Dr. Galpin will cover everything from building strength, the importance of strength for long-term health, the science of breathing, the benefits of sleep extension, genetic testing for personalized training, and nutrition for injury recovery. While we have Episode 2 of Perform with Dr. Andy Galpin here, please be sure to subscribe and follow Perform with Dr. Andy Galpin on your preferred platform. Show notes for this episode can be found at performpodcast.com. Timestamps 00:00:00 Introduction from Dr. Andrew Huberman 00:01:06 Skeletal Muscle 00:04:06 Sponsors: Absolute Rest & Momentous 00:07:20 Quantity & Quality; Organ System; Health & Performance 00:12:58 Plasticity, “Look Good, Feel Good, Play Good”; Muscle Types 00:15:46 What is Muscle?, Muscle Fibers, Tendon 00:21:37 Muscle Fiber Number, Hyperplasia, Anabolic Steroids, Age 00:24:03 Myonuclei & Adaptability 00:26:27 Muscle Fiber Types, Variable Muscle Functions 00:32:24 Fiber Type & Lifestyle Factors 00:34:54 Sponsors: David Protein & AG1 00:37:37 Age & Muscle Loss, Slow vs. Fast-Twitch Fibers; Motor Units 00:46:36 Muscle Size vs. Muscle Strength, Quantity vs. Quality 00:50:56 Investigate: Muscle Quantity, Fat-Free Mass Index (FFMI) 00:56:21 FFMI, Elite Athletes, Muscle Mass 01:00:59 Muscle Asymmetry; Too Much Muscle Possible? 01:03:49 Interpret: Muscle Mass, FFMI Calculations & Percentiles 01:09:28 Tool: Intervene - Increase Muscle Mass, 72-Hour Rule 01:15:27 Sponsors: Maui Nui & Renaissance Periodization 01:17:51 Investigate: Muscle Quality & 4 Movement Principles 01:23:34 Muscle Quality & 3 Performance Principles  01:26:42 Interpret: Muscle Speed, Age 01:32:45 Muscle Power, Vertical Jump, Broad Jump 01:36:17 Muscle Strength, Powerlifting Elite, Bench Press, Leg Press, Grip Strength 01:44:05 Increasing Strength, Improve Health & Longevity 01:46:44 Tool: Intervene - Improve Muscle Quality, 4 Training Principles, 3-to-5 Rule 01:53:56 Zero-Cost Support, YouTube, Spotify & Apple Subscribe & Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Social Media 01:56:10 Conclusion from Dr. Andrew Huberman Disclaimer
    Huberman Lab
    enJune 19, 2024

    Dr. Zachary Knight: The Science of Hunger & Medications to Combat Obesity

    Dr. Zachary Knight: The Science of Hunger & Medications to Combat Obesity
    In this episode, my guest is Dr. Zachary Knight, Ph.D., a professor of physiology at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), and Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) investigator. We discuss how the brain controls our sense of hunger, satiety, and thirst. He explains how dopamine levels impact our cravings and eating behavior (amount, food choices, etc) and how we develop and can change our food preferences and adjust how much we need to eat to feel satisfied. We discuss factors that have led to the recent rise in obesity, such as interactions between our genes and the environment and the role of processed foods and food combinations. We also discuss the new class of medications developed for the treatment of obesity and diabetes, including the GLP-1 agonists semaglutide (Ozempic, Wegovy) and tirzepatide (Mounjaro). We discuss how these medications work to promote weight loss, the source of their side effects, and the newer compounds soon to overcome some of those side effects, such as muscle loss. Dr. Knight provides an exceptionally clear explanation for our sense of hunger, thirst, and food cravings that translates to practical knowledge to help listeners better understand their relationship to food, food choices, and meal size to improve their diet and overall health. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman  BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Timestamps 00:00:00 Dr. Zachary Knight 00:02:38 Sponsors: BetterHelp, Helix Sleep & Waking Up 00:07:07 Hunger & Timescales 00:11:28 Body Fat, Leptin, Hunger 00:17:51 Leptin Resistance & Obesity 00:20:52 Hunger, Food Foraging & Feeding Behaviors, AgRP Neurons 00:30:26 Sponsor: AG1 00:32:15 Body Weight & Obesity, Genes & POMC Neurons 00:39:54 Obesity, Genetics & Environmental Factors 00:46:05 Whole Foods, Ultra-Processed Foods & Palatability 00:49:32 Increasing Whole Food Consumption, Sensory Specific Satiety & Learning 00:58:55 Calories vs. Macronutrients, Protein & Salt 01:02:23 Sponsor: LMNT 01:03:58 Challenges of Weight Loss: Hunger & Energy Expenditure 01:09:50 GLP-1 Drug Development, Semaglutide, Ozempic, Wegovy 01:19:03 GLP-1 Drugs: Muscle Loss, Appetite Reduction, Nausea 01:23:24 Pharmacologic & Physiologic Effects; GLP-1 Drugs, Additional Positive Effects 01:30:14 GLP-1-Plus Development, Tirzepatide, Mounjaro, AMG 133 01:34:49 Alpha-MSH & Pharmacology 01:40:41 Dopamine, Eating & Context 01:46:01 Dopamine & Learning, Water Content & Food 01:53:23 Salt, Water & Thirst 02:03:27 Hunger vs. Thirst 02:05:46 Dieting, Nutrition & Mindset 02:09:39 Tools: Improving Diet & Limiting Food Intake 02:14:15 Anti-Obesity Drug Development 02:17:03 Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Follow & Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
    Huberman Lab
    enJune 17, 2024

    Perform with Dr. Andy Galpin: How & Why to Strengthen Your Heart & Cardiovascular Fitness

    Perform with Dr. Andy Galpin: How & Why to Strengthen Your Heart & Cardiovascular Fitness
    I'm honored to share the first episode of the new podcast, Perform with Dr. Andy Galpin. Dr. Andy Galpin is a tenured full professor at California State University, Fullerton, where he co-directs the Center for Sport Performance and leads the Biochemistry and Molecular Exercise Physiology Laboratory. Andy is both a friend and a colleague, and I’m delighted to have assisted in the creation of this podcast. I'm certain you'll both enjoy and learn from it. Season 1 features 10 episodes, airing every Wednesday for 10 weeks. Dr. Galpin will cover everything from building strength, the importance of strength for long-term health, the science of breathing, the benefits of sleep extension, genetic testing for personalized training, and nutrition for injury recovery. While we have Episode 1 of Perform with Dr. Andy Galpin here, please be sure to subscribe and follow Perform with Dr. Andy Galpin on your preferred platform. Show notes for this episode can be found at performpodcast.com. Timestamps 00:00:00 Introduction from Dr. Andrew Huberman 00:01:07 Heart 00:03:55 Sponsors: Vitality Blueprint & Rhone 00:07:27 Muscle Types 00:09:54 VO2 max, Health & Mortality 00:15:49 Overall Health, Cardiorespiratory Fitness & All-Cause Mortality 00:25:23 Sponsor: AG1 00:26:54 Disease, Health & Mortality 00:30:02 Cardiac Muscle & Heart 00:38:29 Cardiac Muscle vs. Skeletal Muscle, Cardiac Advantages 00:43:53 Pacemakers & Heart Rate, Vagus Nerve 00:50:35 Why Doesn’t the Heart Get Sore? 00:54:32 Heart & Exercise, Stroke Volume, Ejection Fraction, Cardiac Output 00:59:21 Heart Rate Variability 01:02:41 Sponsors: Momentous & LMNT 01:06:54 Why Do You Breathe?: Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide & Respiratory Rate 01:13:37 Respiratory Rate & Stress 01:15:08 Tool: The “Three I’s”, Investigate: Heart Rate, Respiratory Rate, VO2 Max 01:19:53 Tool: Interpretation, Resting Heart Rate & Ranges 01:23:16 Tool: Interpretation: VO2 Max & Ranges 01:30:45 Athletes & Highest VO2 Max Scores 01:35:53 Elite Athletes & Context for VO2 Max Scores 01:41:42 Tool: Intervention, VO2 Max, Varying Exercise Intensities, SAID Principle 01:48:20 Tool: Varying Exercise Intensity; Intervals & Continuous Training; Frequency 01:58:18 Zero-Cost Support, YouTube, Spotify & Apple Subscribe & Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Social Media 01:59:55 Conclusion from Dr. Andrew Huberman Disclaimer
    Huberman Lab
    enJune 12, 2024

    Dr. Jonathan Haidt: How Smartphones & Social Media Impact Mental Health & the Realistic Solutions

    Dr. Jonathan Haidt: How Smartphones & Social Media Impact Mental Health & the Realistic Solutions
    In this episode, my guest is Dr. Jonathan Haidt, Ph.D., professor of social psychology at New York University and bestselling author on how technology and culture impact the psychology and health of kids, teens, and adults. We discuss the dramatic rise of suicide, depression, and anxiety as a result of replacing a play-based childhood with smartphones, social media, and video games. He explains how a screen-filled childhood leads to challenges in psychological development that negatively impact learning, resilience, identity, cooperation, and conflict resolution — all of which are crucial skills for future adult relationships and career success. We also discuss how phones and social media impact boys and girls differently and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of how smartphones alter basic brain plasticity and function.  Dr. Haidt explains his four recommendations for healthier smartphone use in kids, and we discuss how to restore childhood independence and play in the current generation.  This is an important topic for everyone, young or old, parents and teachers, students and families, to be aware of in order to understand the potential mental health toll of smartphone use and to apply tools to foster skill-building and reestablish healthy norms for our kids. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman  Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman Joovv: https://joovv.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Timestamps 00:00:00 Dr. Jonathan Haidt 00:02:01 Sponsors: Helix Sleep, AeroPress & Joovv 00:06:23 Great Rewiring of Childhood: Technology, Smartphones & Social Media 00:12:48 Mental Health Trends: Boys, Girls & Smartphones 00:16:26 Smartphone Usage, Play-Based to Phone-Based Childhood 00:20:40 The Tragedy of Losing Play-Based Childhood 00:28:13 Sponsor: AG1 00:30:02 Girls vs. Boys, Interests & Trapping Kids 00:37:31 “Effectance,” Systems & Relationships, Animals 00:41:47 Boys Sexual Development, Dopamine Reinforcement & Pornography 00:49:19 Boys, Courtship, Chivalry & Technology; Gen Z Development 00:55:24 Play & Low-Stakes Mistakes, Video Games & Social Media, Conflict Resolution 00:59:48 Sponsor: LMNT 01:01:23 Social Media, Trolls, Performance 01:06:47 Dynamic Subordination, Hierarchy, Boys 01:10:15 Girls & Perfectionism, Social Media & Performance 01:14:00 Phone-Based Childhood & Brain Development, Critical Periods 01:21:15 Puberty & Sensitive Periods, Culture & Identity 01:23:55 Brain Development & Puberty; Identity; Social Media, Learning & Reward 01:33:37 Tool: 4 Recommendations for Smartphone Use in Kids 01:41:48 Changing Childhood Norms, Policies & Legislature 01:49:13 Summer Camp, Team Sports, Religion, Music 01:54:36 Boredom, Addiction & Smartphones; Tool: “Awe Walks” 02:03:14 Casino Analogy & Ceding Childhood; Social Media Content 02:09:33 Adult Behavior; Tool: Meals & Phones 02:11:45 Regaining Childhood Independence; Tool: Family Groups & Phones 02:16:09 Screens & Future Optimism, Collective Action, KOSA Bill 02:24:52 Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
    Huberman Lab
    enJune 10, 2024

    LIVE EVENT Q&A: Dr. Andrew Huberman at the Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre

    LIVE EVENT Q&A: Dr. Andrew Huberman at the Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre
    Recently I had the pleasure of hosting a live event in Brisbane, Australia. This event was part of a lecture series called The Brain Body Contract. My favorite part of the evening was the question and answer period, where I had the opportunity to answer questions from the attendees of each event. Included here is the Q&A from our event at the Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre. Sign up to get notified about future events: https://www.hubermanlab.com/events Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman Resources Mentioned Huberman Lab Non-Sleep Deep Rest Protocols Huberman Lab Guest Series with Dr. Matt Walker Huberman Lab Guest Series with Dr. Paul Conti Huberman Lab Guest Series with Dr. Andy Galpin Dr. Becky Kennedy: Protocols for Excellent Parenting & Improving Relationships of All Kinds Perform with Dr. Andy Galpin Timestamps 00:00 Introduction 00:31 Sponsors: AG1 & Eight Sleep 03:48 Nicotine Discussion 07:42 ADHD Management: Tools & Medications 12:43 Sleep Deprivation & Recovery 18:54 Understanding & Addressing Burnout 22:12 Daily Nutrition & Eating Habits 24:40 Understanding Food & Neural Pathways 26:21 The Benefits of Elimination Diets 27:21 Intermittent Fasting & Personal Diet Choices 28:23 Top Health & Fitness Recommendations 30:50 The Value of Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) 33:08 Testosterone Replacement Therapy Insights 38:02 Breathing Techniques for Stress & Focus 41:46 Morning Sunlight & Circadian Rhythms 43:18 Parenting Tips for a Healthy Start 49:03 Final Thoughts & Gratitude Disclaimer
    Huberman Lab
    enJune 07, 2024

    Dr. Mary Claire Haver: How to Navigate Menopause & Perimenopause for Maximum Health & Vitality

    Dr. Mary Claire Haver: How to Navigate Menopause & Perimenopause for Maximum Health & Vitality
    In this episode, my guest is Dr. Mary Claire Haver, M.D., a board-certified OB/GYN and an expert on women’s health and menopause. We discuss the biology and symptoms of perimenopause and menopause and their effects on body composition, cardiometabolic health, mental health, and longevity. She explains the lifestyle factors, including nutrition, resistance training, sleep, and supplements, that can better prepare women for and improve symptoms of both perimenopause and menopause. We also discuss hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and whether HRT impacts the incidence of breast cancer or can affect cardiovascular health. We also discuss contraception, cellulite, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and how to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. This episode is rich in actionable information related to what is known about menopause and perimenopause and the stages before, allowing women of all ages to best navigate these life stages. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman  AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman  Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman  BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman  InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Timestamps 00:00:00 Dr. Mary Claire Haver 00:02:04 Sponsors: AeroPress, Eight Sleep & BetterHelp 00:06:26 Menopause, Age of Onset 00:09:50 Perimenopause, Hormones & “Zone of Chaos” 00:14:42 Perimenopause, Estrogen & Mental Health 00:20:04 Perimenopause Symptoms; Tool: Lifestyle Factors & Ovarian Health 00:25:26 Early Menopause, Premature Ovarian Failure; Estrogen Therapy 00:29:42 Sponsor: AG1 00:31:31 Contraception, Transdermal, IUDs; Menopause Onset, Freezing Eggs 00:38:18 Women’s Health: Misconceptions & Research 00:45:01 Tool: Diet, Preparing for Peri-/Menopause; Visceral Fat 00:48:31 Tools: Body Composition, Muscle & Menopause, Protein Intake 00:51:42 Menopause: Genetics, Symptoms; Tools: Waist-to-Hip Ratio; Gut Microbiome 00:58:22 Galveston vs. Mediterranean Diet, Fasting, Tool: Building Muscle 01:05:18 Sponsor: InsideTracker 01:06:29 Hot Flashes; Estrogen Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT), Breast Cancer Risk & Cognition 01:15:36 Estrogen HRT, Cardiovascular Disease, Blood Clotting; “Meno-posse” 01:24:00 Estrogen & Testosterone: Starting HRT & Ranges 01:30:36 Other Hormones, Thyroid & DHEA; Local Treatment, Urinary Symptoms 01:37:57 OB/GYN Medical Education & Menopause 01:41:30 Supplements, Fiber, Tools: Osteoporosis “Prevention Pack” 01:46:53 Collagen, Cellulite, Bone Density 01:51:42 HRT, Vertigo, Tinnitus, Dry Eye; Conditions Precluding HRT  01:55:27 Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) & Treatment; GLP-1, Addictive Behaviors 02:01:55 Post-menopause & HRT, Sustained HRT Usage 02:04:58 Mental Health, Perimenopause vs. Menopause; Sleep Disruptions, Alcohol 02:09:09 Male Support; Rekindle Libido 02:12:46 HRT Rash Side-Effect; Acupuncture; Visceral Fat 02:16:24 Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Sponsors, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
    Huberman Lab
    enJune 03, 2024

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    Coaching Group Grad is Paying it Forward
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    107 | Attention Engagement and Completion with Cameron Gott

    107 | Attention Engagement and Completion with Cameron Gott
    ADHD reWired Episode 107 Title:  Awareness Engagement Completion with Cameron Gott Guest: Cameron Gott   Cameron Gott is the co-developer and senior trainer of the ™ program. An ADHD coach, Cameron works with professionals who want to match action with intention and take their game to the next level. Besides coaching adults with ADHD, Cam mentors ADHD coaches-in-training and writes about a variety of ADHD work topics at his  . He is the chief architect of The AEC Model utilized in our advanced ADHD coach training course.  With a background in education, Cam took his first coaching training in 1998 and subsequently received training and certification through the demanding program at The Coaches Training Institute™.   Cameron’s Story After being Diagnosed with ADHD Cameron discovered that articulating ADHD is a critical step in ADHD Awareness Half of the people in the world do not think about thinking Cameron was diagnosed with ADHD at the age of 28 while working as a teacher at a Quaker School Cameron was a “Gentle Giant” when he was a student and did not cause problems and was therefore overlooked as being a person who needed help Cameron realized he was ADHD during a presentation at a retreat he was hosting in his own home Cameron goes speaks about what the Quakers believe, how they live and what his job at school entailed. He further discusses the difficulties is ADHD presented him. One of the biggest challenges ADHD presents for Cameron is writing. Cameron struggled in College and took calculus 7 times. Worried his ADHD would prevent him from graduating he hired a coach, without whom he never thought he would graduate. Cameron struggled as an ADHD coach in the beginning   AEC Awareness Engagement Completion AEC is a theory developed by Cameron and Denslow Brown aka In order to complete a task, you have to engage a task “The problem is not usually the engine, it’s the gearbox” ADHD people spend too much time revving our engines while in neutral. Cameron helps his ADHD clients to discover the tasks they need to do and the ones they can simply shed. People are either too far into awareness and do not achieve completion or they are trying so hard to complete a task that they simply are not aware.       How to reach Cameron Gott Website – Website - Facebook - Twitter - GooglePlus - LinkedIn -       Other information: Connect with people virtually using Eric's favorite video conferencing and connectivity platform, Zoom, by visiting – the basic service is totally free. Visit for a free audio-book download and to see a slide show of some great suggestions. If you do pick a free audio book, leave a comment on that page telling us what you chose. If you want to hear your question or comment on a future episode, go to or and look for the comment form, or click on the yellow button for either "Be a Guest" or "Record your question". Are you looking for a coach? You can schedule a free 20-minute consultation with Eric. Go to and click the blue "Schedule an Appointment" button. Third Monday of every month at 6:45 PM Grayslake, Illinois (CHADD does not endorse this podcast)   Sign up for to stay in touch.   ----------     Go to erictivers.com/70 for the full show notes and links mentioned in this episode. Go to or call 224‒993‒9450 to let Eric know if you're interested in joining the next ADHD reWired Coaching and Accountability group. Connect with people virtually using Eric's favorite video conferencing and connectivity platform, Zoom, by visiting – the basic service is totally free. For a free audio-book download from our sponsor Audible.com, please visit

    119 | The Voice of Your Dreams

    119 | The Voice of Your Dreams
    119 | The Voice of Your Dreams   We are proud to have Aaron Anastasi in the ADHD reWired virtual studios. Aaron is an entrepreneur who claims to have stumbled through life falling into a few successes. Aaron is a writer, and actor, and a film maker. He has never officially been diagnosed. He sees many similarities with his brother who is diagnosed ADHD, and sees many of the same struggles. Aaron actually began working with a coach after a major disappointment when his record deal fell through. He decided he had failed so much that some of it must be his own doing. He wanted to change, and be successful. He notes that his coach once said to him, “Who do you have to be to get the results you want?”   Eric and Aaron discuss in depth, The Fearful Voices. These are the voices that say things like, You cant do it, You will fail, etc.. and the dangers of listening to them. Aaron mentions, “Sometimes the voice in our limitations is louder than the voice in our dreams” Aaron was also kind enough to discuss some secrets from his book. One of which, is “The Commitment Compartment”. The place where all the things we are going to do are kept. This was a fantastic show and it was just a lot of fun listening to Aaron who is such a normal guy who was and is achieving extraordinary things.   More About Aaron Aaron Anastasi is a Southern California native who graduated with a master’s degree from Princeton Theological Seminary, where he studied philosophy, Psychology, and theology.   He’s also a serial entrepreneur with online businesses such as Superior Songwriting Method, Signing Success, and the internationally recognized, Superior Singing Method, an online singing lesson program that grosses seven-figures annually.   Aaron has the #1 singing/life lesson channel on YouTube and has over 11.5 million organic views and over 130 thousand subscribers total on his three channels.   Having a love for adventure, he was a pro snowboarder in Vail, Colorado, scaled Glacier Lake Mountains in Bolivia, and cut pathways through the jungles of Contagem, Brazil.   Along with being a Los Angeles based actor and filmmaker, Aaron is also a prominent success coach for clients in industry-leading roles, ranging from film directors to marine biologists to TEDx speakers. His new book, The Voice of Your Dreams, was released in April 2016, and reached Amazon's top 100 best sellers within the first week of release. Get Aaron's book here. Get you copy of “Chasing Kites” at Contact Eric Tivers through his website at